Primary Education in India and Assam: AHSEC Class 11 Education

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Get summaries, questions, answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF and guide of Class 11 (first year) Education textbook, chapter 7 Primary Education in India and Assam, which is part of the syllabus of students studying under AHSEC/ASSEB (Assam Board). These solutions, however, should only be treated as references and can be modified/changed. 

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Primary education is a crucial stage in the educational structure of India and Assam, forming the foundation for the development of mass literacy, which is essential for economic growth, modernization, and the functioning of democratic institutions. India’s education history is rich, with ancient and modern periods each contributing uniquely to its development.

In ancient India, education was imparted through indigenous institutions such as Gurukulas, Pathsalas, Tols, Satras, Maktabs, and Madrasas. Gurukulas were residential schools where students lived with their teachers (Gurus) and learned a variety of subjects, including the Vedas, history, and mathematics. Pathsalas and Tols were centers of Hindu education, focusing on classical languages and religious teachings. Satras, established by Vaishnava saint Sankardeva in Assam, served social and educational needs. Maktabs and Madrasas catered to Muslim children, offering instruction in Islamic teachings and general education.

The arrival of Christian missionaries in the 15th century marked a significant shift. They established schools to educate the indigenous population and convert them to Christianity. Missionaries like the Danish missionaries in Madras and the Serampore Trio in Bengal made notable contributions. In Assam, the American Baptist Mission Society, led by Nathan Brown and Oliver Cutter, and the Welsh Missionary Society established numerous schools and played a pivotal role in promoting education.

During British rule, several legislative measures and commissions aimed to improve education. The Charter Act of 1813 was a landmark, allowing missionaries to spread education and laying the foundation for a state education system. Macaulay’s Minute in 1835 promoted English education, leading to the Anglicist-Classicist controversy. Wood’s Despatch of 1854 was another significant milestone, advocating for the establishment of a network of schools and universities.

The Hunter Commission of 1882 recommended encouraging indigenous schools and integrating them into the official education system. It also suggested financial support for these schools and the training of teachers. Lord Curzon’s Educational Policy in 1904 aimed to improve the quality of education, and Gopal Krishna Gokhale’s Bill of 1910-11, although unsuccessful, highlighted the need for compulsory primary education.

The Assam Primary Education Act of 1926 extended compulsory education to all children aged six to eleven in Assam. It required local authorities to introduce compulsory education schemes and provided for government funding to support these initiatives.

Post-independence, India focused on universalizing primary education. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution mandates free and compulsory education for children up to 14 years. Various programs like the Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) were launched to achieve this goal. SSA, in particular, aims to provide quality education to all children aged 6-14 by 2010, with a focus on bridging social, regional, and gender gaps.

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Textbook questions and answers

1. What were the objectives of Ancient Education System in India? 

Answer: The objectives of the Ancient Education System in India were to develop:

  • Spiritual development
  • Character building
  • Preservation of culture and tradition
  • Vocational skills
  • Formation of ideal citizens
  • Preparation for life in society
  • Intellectual growth
  • Development of personality.

2. Discuss briefly about the following : (a) Gurukula (b) Pathsala (c) Tols (d) Satra (e) Maktab (f) Madrasah or Madrassa (g) Serampore Trio 

Answer: (a) Gurukula: During the Vedic period, students resided with their Guru (teacher) in a Gurukula, receiving holistic education encompassing Vedas, Puranas, grammar, mathematics, and more. The Guru played a central role, imparting knowledge through verbal instruction and nurturing students’ overall development.

(b) Pathsala: Pathsalas served as centers of religious education, primarily for Hindu children. Pundits (scholars) taught classical languages, mainly Sanskrit, with a focus on religious texts and scriptures.

(c) Tols: Similar to Pathsalas, Tols specialised in Sanskrit education. These institutions, often supported by grants and donations, provided free education, emphasising traditional knowledge and scriptures.

(d) Satra: Unique to Assam, Satras are socio-religious institutions established by the Vaishnava saint Sankardeva. They played a vital role in promoting Assamese art, culture, and spiritual growth.

(e) Maktab: Maktabs served as primary schools for Muslim children, usually attached to mosques. The emphasis was on teaching the Arabic alphabet, religious prayers, and Islamic values.

(f) Madrasah or Madrassa: Madrasahs provided higher Islamic education, covering subjects like Arabic grammar, literature, logic, philosophy, and religious law. They served as centers of advanced Islamic learning.

(g) Serampore Trio: Comprising Baptist missionaries William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and William Ward, the Serampore Trio actively promoted Christianity and education in Bengal. They established schools, translated the Bible, and contributed significantly to the development of education in the region.

3. ‘Monitorial system’ or ‘Bell system’ 

Answer: The “Monitorial System,” or “Bell System,” was a method of education used to address teacher shortages, particularly in missionary schools. It involved using senior or more knowledgeable students as “monitors” to help teach younger students. Essentially, one teacher would train a group of older students on the lesson material, who would then relay that information to groups of younger pupils.

Dr. Andrew Bell, the superintendent of an orphanage in Madras, is credited with formalizing this system, hence the name “Bell System.” This approach aimed to maximize limited teaching resources and reach a larger number of students. It was seen as a cost-effective way to expand access to education during a time when trained teachers were scarce.

4. Write briefly about the ‘contributions of early missionaries in Assam’. 

Answer: Early missionaries in Assam, arriving after the Yandaboo Treaty of 1826, made significant contributions:

  • Education: Established numerous schools, including those in remote areas, promoting literacy and basic education.
  • Language and Literature: Played a crucial role in reviving the Assamese language, establishing printing presses, translating the Bible into Assamese, and creating the first Assamese-English dictionary and grammar book.
  • Social Reform: Worked towards improving healthcare, introducing new agricultural techniques, and advocating for the rights of indigenous communities.
  • Cultural Preservation: Contributed to documenting and preserving Assamese culture and traditions through their writings and interactions with local communities.

5. Write briefly : (a) The Charter Act of 1813 (b) Hunter Commission of 1882 (c) Anglicist Classicist Controversy (d) Macaulay’s Minute (e) Anglicist Classicist Controversy

Answer: (a) The Charter Act of 1813: This act renewed the East India Company’s charter and allocated a sum of ₹1 lakh for the “revival and improvement of literature” and the promotion of knowledge in India. This marked the beginning of the British government’s formal involvement in Indian education.

(b) Hunter Commission of 1882: Officially known as the Indian Education Commission, it was formed under the chairmanship of Sir William Hunter to review the progress of education in India since the Despatch of 1854. It made recommendations for the expansion and improvement of education, particularly at the primary level.

(c) Anglicist Classicist Controversy: This debate centered around the medium of instruction in Indian education. Anglicists favored English, believing it would modernize India and provide access to Western knowledge. Classicists advocated for indigenous languages, arguing for the preservation of Indian culture and traditions.

(d) Macaulay’s Minute: Written in 1835 by Lord Macaulay, who favored Anglicist views, this minute heavily influenced the British decision to adopt English as the medium of instruction in higher education. Macaulay believed in creating a class of “interpreters” fluent in English to bridge the gap between the British rulers and the Indian population.

6. Discuss the importance of Woods Despatch of 1854 in the field of Indian education. 

Answer: Its significance lies in these key areas:

  • Government Responsibility: It explicitly stated that the British government was responsible for educating the Indian people, a shift from the previous laissez-faire approach.
  • Establishment of a System: It laid the groundwork for a structured education system in India. This included creating a Department of Education in each province, establishing universities in major cities, and promoting a graded system of schools from primary to higher education.
  • Emphasis on English: It firmly endorsed English as the medium of instruction for higher education, solidifying Macaulay’s earlier proposal. This decision had long-lasting impacts on Indian intellectual life and administration.
  • Grants-in-Aid System: It introduced a system of grants-in-aid to support private schools that met government standards. This fostered the growth of private educational institutions in India.
  • Focus on All Levels: The Despatch didn’t solely concentrate on higher education. It acknowledged the importance of primary education, advocating for its expansion, particularly vernacular primary schools.

7. Mention the important suggestions of Woods Despatch for the development of primary education in India. What were their effects? 

Answer: Woods Despatch of 1854 is a landmark in the history of Indian education, providing a blueprint for a modern educational system. Key suggestions include:

  • State Responsibility: Emphasized government responsibility for educating the Indian populace.
  • Education Departments: Recommended establishing Education Departments in each province to manage educational affairs.
  • Graded Schools: Proposed a network of graded schools from primary to university levels for a structured system.
  • Medium of Instruction: Suggested vernacular languages for primary education to ensure accessibility, with English for higher education.
  • Teacher Training: Stressed the importance of teacher training and proposed establishing training institutions.
  • Grant-in-Aid System: Introduced financial assistance for private schools meeting certain standards, encouraging expansion.
  • Indigenous Institutions: Emphasized supporting and integrating indigenous schools into the official education system.
  • Female Education: Advocated promoting female education and recommended incentives to encourage enrollment.

Effects of Woods Despatch

  • Educational Infrastructure Expansion: Led to the creation of numerous primary, secondary, and tertiary institutions across India.
  • Increased Enrollment: Use of vernacular languages for primary education made schooling more accessible, increasing enrollment rates.
  • Improved Teaching Standards: Better-trained teachers improved the quality of education.
  • Promotion of Female Education: Special incentives led to a gradual increase in girls attending school.
  • Financial Support for Schools: Grant-in-Aid system supported the development and expansion of private and indigenous schools.
  • Integration of Indigenous Education: Indigenous institutions were preserved and promoted alongside modern ones.
  • Foundation for Modern Education: Laid the groundwork for a modern educational framework, influencing future policies and reforms.

8. Why is the Despatch of 1854 known as the ‘Magna Carta’ of Indian Education? Dicuss. 

Answer: The Despatch of 1854 is known as the ‘Magna Carta’ of Indian Education because it laid down a comprehensive scheme for the development of education in India, marking a significant and foundational step in the formalisation of the educational system in the country. Here are the reasons why it is referred to as the ‘Magna Carta’ of Indian Education:

Comprehensive Scheme:

  • The despatch provided a detailed blueprint for the development of education at all levels, including primary, secondary, and higher education.
  • It proposed the establishment of a systematic structure of education, which included the creation of a Department of Education in each province, the establishment of universities in the Presidency towns, and the formation of a network of graded schools.

State Responsibility:

  • It recognised education as a state responsibility, insisting that the British government should play a significant role in educating the Indian populace.
  • The despatch advocated for the government to provide liberal grants for the growth of both higher and primary education.

Medium of Instruction:

  • The Despatch upheld the view that English should be the medium of instruction for higher education, following Lord Macaulay’s recommendations.
  • It also acknowledged the importance of vernacular languages in primary education, promoting a bilingual approach to education.

Grants-in-Aid System:

  • It introduced the system of grants-in-aid to support private educational institutions, thus encouraging private participation in education alongside state efforts.
  • This policy aimed to provide financial assistance to deserving institutions, promoting the expansion and improvement of education.

Emphasis on Professional and Vocational Education:

  • The despatch highlighted the need for professional education, recommending the establishment of institutions for technical and vocational training.
  • It stressed the importance of training teachers and providing stipends to those in training.
  • Promotion of Women’s and Indigenous Education:
  • It emphasised the need for the education of women and the development of indigenous schools, advocating for a more inclusive approach to education.
  • The despatch suggested a policy of neutrality in religious education, aiming to provide secular education to all communities.

Employment and Scholarships:

  • It proposed the provision of scholarships and employment opportunities for educated Indians, aiming to create a more skilled and knowledgeable workforce.
  • The Despatch recommended measures to ensure that education would lead to tangible benefits in terms of employment and social mobility.

9. State briefly the Curzon’s educational policy. 

Answer: Lord Curzon’s educational policy, implemented during his tenure as Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905, aimed to reform and improve the Indian education system at all levels. His policy involved several key measures:

Shimla Education Conference (1901): Curzon convened a conference with Directors of Public Instruction and Christian missionaries to discuss the problems and reforms needed in Indian education from primary to higher levels. The conference resulted in several resolutions sent to provincial governments for feedback.

Indian Educational Policy Resolution (1904): Based on the conference’s outcomes, Curzon issued a resolution on March 11, 1904, detailing reforms in elementary, secondary, university, and vocational education.

Primary Education: Curzon focused on expanding primary education, especially in backward areas, by increasing government funding, revising curricula, and improving teacher training and salaries. He sought to replace the grant-in-aid system based on examination results with more scientific methods of funding.

Secondary Education: Curzon addressed issues in private secondary schools by enforcing government recognition and improving the quality of education through increased grants, better teacher training, and a strengthened inspectorate.

Higher Education: Curzon’s reforms included the establishment of the University Commission in 1902, leading to the University Act of 1904, which aimed to elevate the standards of university education and promote learning.

Vocational and Agricultural Education: He promoted vocational and agricultural education by establishing institutions like the Central Research Institute at Pusa and encouraging agricultural colleges in provinces.

Other Reforms: Curzon also focused on moral and spiritual education, the promotion of Indian art, the establishment of the Department of Archaeology, and foreign scholarships for technical education.

10. What were the major suggestions for the improvement of primary education given by Indian Education Commission of 1882? What were their effects? 

Answer: The Indian Education Commission of 1882, also known as the Hunter Commission, made several significant recommendations for the improvement of primary education in India. The Commission suggested that the state should take responsibility for the expansion and development of primary education and that it should be imparted through vernacular languages. They advised against making upper and lower primary examinations compulsory and recommended efforts to make primary education compulsory through regulation. The Commission emphasized maintaining the freedom of managers of aided schools and proposed a simplified examination system.

Additionally, they encouraged pupils to participate in native games for physical development and suggested fee relaxation for poor students. The establishment of night schools where necessary was recommended, along with specific funds from districts and municipal boards for school repairs. The system of “payment by result” was suggested, though not for schools in backward areas. They also recommended that government positions should prefer candidates who could read and write and advocated for the larger introduction of practical subjects like agriculture and industrial arts in the curriculum. The Commission stressed the importance of infrastructure and equipment in primary schools being simple and called for the establishment of adequate numbers of normal schools for teacher training. They proposed uniform policies for religious education in both government and private schools and suggested that school hours and holidays be adjusted to local requirements, especially in agricultural and backward districts.

The recommendations also included provisions for admitting students of all classes and religions in aided schools and directed municipal and local boards to set aside funds specifically for primary education. They advised that town and district boards appoint teachers based on recommendations from the education department and that school committees determine the medium of instruction in primary schools. The Commission insisted that aided primary schools be regularly inspected.

The effects of these recommendations were notable. The primary education system in India saw a shift with local boards taking a more active role in the development of primary education, thus relieving the government of some responsibilities. This move was significant in bringing primary education closer to the general masses. Indigenous institutions, which were imparting education on the traditional Indian pattern, received encouragement and were integrated into the broader educational framework. However, the system of payment by results made education more examination-centric and there were some organizational and curricular confusions. The Commission’s silence on the issue of compulsory primary education was a notable drawback. Despite these criticisms, the Hunter Commission’s work marked a significant step towards improving primary education in India.

11. Write briefly : (a) Hunter Commission and Primary Education (b) Hunter Commission and Indigenous system of Education (c) Hunter Commission and its effects on Indian Education 

Answer: (a) The Hunter Commission, established in 1882, aimed to review the state of Indian education and suggest improvements. Its primary focus was on primary education. The commission recommended several measures for enhancing primary education:

  • Efforts should be made to expand and develop primary education.
  • Primary education should be imparted in vernacular languages.
  • Exams for upper and lower primary levels should not be compulsory.
  • Regulations should be introduced to gradually make primary education compulsory.
  • The examination system should be simplified.
  • Night schools should be established where necessary.
  • There should be provisions for reducing tuition fees for poor students.
  • Physical development should be promoted through participation in native games .

(b) The Hunter Commission also emphasised the significance of the indigenous system of education. It suggested that these institutions deserved encouragement and integration into the official education system. The commission recognised the value of indigenous schools, such as Pathsala and Maktab, and recommended that local bodies should support these schools to promote primary education. The commission believed that these schools played a crucial role in providing education to the masses and should be incorporated into the broader educational framework .

(c) The recommendations of the Hunter Commission had a substantial impact on Indian education. One significant change was bringing elementary education under local boards, which freed the government from direct responsibility and empowered local bodies to serve the general population. This led to a notable increase in the number of primary schools. However, the implementation of the “payment by results” system made education more examination-centric and created organisational, curriculum, and examination-related confusion. The commission’s recommendations highlighted the importance of expanding primary education but were criticised for not addressing compulsory primary education adequately .

12. Write about the contribution of GK Gokhale in field Primary education in India. 

Answer: Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a key figure in advocating for compulsory primary education in India. In 1910, he introduced a bill in the Imperial Legislative Council aimed at making primary education compulsory for children aged 6 to 10. The bill proposed authorising local bodies to initiate compulsory education, initially applying only to boys and extending to girls later. It suggested limiting the period of compulsion to four years and implementing it in areas where at least 33% of children were already attending school. Gokhale also proposed that provincial governments bear two-thirds of the total expenditure involved in the scheme.

Despite the bill being rejected, it had a profound impact on the Indian education system. It raised public awareness about the necessity of compulsory primary education and positioned Gokhale as the father of the compulsory education movement in India. Following the bill’s rejection, the Government of India promised to extend primary education and provided substantial grants for this purpose.

13. Discuss the significant resolutions of Wardha Conference of 1937. 

Answer: The Wardha Conference of 1937, led by Mahatma Gandhi, introduced significant educational reforms in India. The key resolutions were:

Compulsory Primary Education: All boys and girls would receive compulsory primary education for seven years in their mother tongue.

Craft-Centric Learning: Education would integrate productive activities with learning, focusing on crafts to develop mental and manual skills. Teachers’ salaries would come from the income generated by these activities.

Formation of the Zakir Hussain Committee: This committee was tasked with preparing a curriculum for implementing basic education, aiming to develop the entire personality of future citizens and promote good citizenship.

Child-Centric and Practical Knowledge: The education system emphasised active participation and practical knowledge, making education relevant to real-life situations.

Development of National Character: The system aimed to instill Indian moral customs and traditions, fostering national character and promoting non-violence, international cooperation, and virtues like truth, justice, love, and service.

Community Integration: Basic education was designed to associate closely with society, helping children adjust to real-life situations and understand their duties and responsibilities as future citizens.

Modern Concepts and All-Around Development: The curriculum included modern educational concepts such as child psychology and aimed for comprehensive development across different age groups.

14. What are the salient features of Basic Education? Discuss its merits and demerits. 

Answer: Gandhiji’s Basic Education Scheme, also known as the Wardha Scheme or Nai Talim, was introduced in 1937. Its salient features are:

Craft-Centred Education: Education combined with productive craft activities to ensure a holistic development of children. This aimed to make children self-sufficient and teach them the dignity of labour.

Mother Tongue as Medium of Instruction: Emphasis on using the child’s mother tongue for instruction to make learning more accessible and relatable.

Free and compulsory education: education provided to all boys and girls for a period of seven years, focusing on primary education.

Self-Sufficient Schools: Schools were to be self-sufficient by using the income generated from the crafts produced by students to pay for teachers’ salaries and other expenses.

Integration with Real Life: Education was to be closely linked with real-life situations, making it more practical and meaningful.

Holistic Development: Focus on the all-round development of the child, including mental, physical, and spiritual growth.

15. What are the causes of failure of Basic education? 

Answer: The causes of failure of Basic Education are outlined in the document. Basic Education failed for the following reasons:

  • Lack of interest of the common people.
  • Incorrect approach and application.
  • Dearth of trained teachers.
  • Defective curriculum.
  • Traditional examination system.
  • Scarcity of proper curriculum.

16. What are the provisions of Assam Primary Education Act 1926. 

Answer: The main provisions of the Assam Primary Education Act 1926 are as follows:

  • Scope and Jurisdiction: The Act extends to the whole of Assam.
  • Local Authority’s Resolution for Compulsory Education: Any local authority may resolve by a two-thirds majority at a specially convened meeting to apply for the sanction of compulsory education for children aged six to eleven within its jurisdiction.
  • Submission of Proposals: The local authority must submit a resolution to the Government, including details of objections received, modifications decided upon, and a statement showing particulars of the proposal, such as total expenditure and additional costs of compulsory primary education.
  • Cost-sharing for Compulsory Education: The local authority must provide one-third of the additional cost for introducing compulsory primary education and is expected to levy an education cess for this purpose.
  • Government’s Financial Support: Upon sanctioning the proposal, the Government will provide the remaining two-thirds of the additional costs.
  • Government’s Authority: If a local authority fails to submit a scheme within a reasonable time, the Government may call upon it to do so. The Government must lay the proposal before the Legislative Council, and no action will be taken if the Council disapproves by a majority.
  • Regulatory Framework: The Government can notify rules to carry out the Act, which shall be laid before the Legislative Council. These rules may include the incidence of the education cess, the constitution of the education committee, and maintenance of education funds.
  • No Tuition Fees: No fees shall be charged from any pupil for tuition in recognized primary schools maintained or aided by the local authority.
  • Provision for Needy Children: Children from needy families may be provided with books and writing materials free of cost by the local authority if recommended by the education committee.
  • Enforcement Responsibility: The local authority and the education committee are responsible for enforcing the provisions of the Act, maintaining school accommodations and equipment, and employing necessary educational staff as per the Director of Public Instruction’s requirements.

17. What is SSA? Write briefly? 

Answer: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a Government of India initiative aimed at universalizing primary education through community ownership of the school system. This program strives to provide quality basic education to all children aged 6 to 14, focusing on improving human capabilities through community-owned quality education in a mission mode. The SSA aims to bridge social, regional, and gender gaps, involving local governance bodies and grassroots-level structures in managing primary education. The objectives include ensuring all children are in school, completing primary and upper primary education, and achieving universal retention by 2010 .

18. Write notes on : (a) Universalization of Primary Education (b) District Primary Education Programme (c) Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) 

Answer: (a) Universalization of primary education aims to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14. This initiative is grounded in the constitutional mandate of Article 45 of the Indian Constitution, which directs the state to ensure free and compulsory education for all children. Despite significant progress, the goal of universal primary education remains an ongoing challenge due to factors such as financial constraints, high dropout rates, and socio-economic barriers.

(b) The District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in 1994 to revitalize the primary education system. It aimed at achieving the objectives of reducing dropout rates, increasing learning achievements, and addressing gender disparities. The DPEP focused on decentralized planning and implementation, involving the community in the educational process. Initially covering 44 districts across eight states, it expanded to 273 districts in 18 states. The programme was funded through a combination of central and state government funds, along with support from international agencies like the World Bank and UNICEF​​.

(c) The Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) is a significant component of the efforts towards universalizing primary education. Launched as a mass movement in 1989, TLC aimed to eradicate illiteracy through community participation and various innovative approaches like using cultural activities (music, art, drama) to engage people. It involved forming committees at different levels (district, block, village), appointing volunteers, and conducting training camps. The programme was designed to be time-bound, with specific periods allocated for awareness and teaching activities​​.

19. What are role of SSA in the universalisation of primary Education?

Answer: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a key government initiative in India aimed at universalising primary education for children aged 6-14 years. SSA promotes community ownership through decentralised management, involving Panchayati Raj Institutions and School Management Committees to address local needs effectively.

Access to Education: SSA ensures that all children are enrolled in schools by establishing Education Guarantee Centres, Alternate Schools, and Back-to-School Camps, targeting out-of-school children.

Quality Education: The programme focuses on improving school infrastructure, providing teaching materials, and enhancing teaching quality through teacher training and innovative methods.

Gender and Social Gap Reduction: SSA aims to reduce gender and social disparities by providing incentives for the education of girls and children from disadvantaged communities, fostering a more equitable system.

Retention and Completion: SSA targets universal retention, preventing dropouts through various support mechanisms to ensure that children not only enrol but also complete their primary education.

Infrastructure Development: Investments in building new schools, upgrading existing ones, and ensuring adequate facilities like classrooms, toilets, and drinking water create a conducive learning environment.

Curriculum and Evaluation Reforms: SSA supports curriculum and evaluation reforms, promoting child-centred pedagogy and continuous evaluation for holistic child development.

Innovative Approaches: The programme encourages innovative teaching methods, including technology use, community-based monitoring, and activity-based joyful learning.

Extra fill in the blanks

1. The first survey to know the state of indigenous education in Madras was made by ______.

Answer: Sir Thomas Munro

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165. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an expression of political will for universal primary education and a partnership between Central, State, and ______ governments.

Answer: local

Extra questions and answers

1. What were the indigenous educational institutions before British rule in India?

Answer: Before the British rule in India, there were some indigenous educational institutions which played a crucial role in spreading education in society, particularly primary education. These institutions included:

  • Gurukula
  • Pathsala
  • Tol
  • Satra
  • Maktab
  • Madrassa
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109. What are the two aspects of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?


  • It provides a wide convergent framework for implementing Elementary Education Schemes.
  • It is a programme with budget provisions for strengthening vital areas to achieve the universalization of primary education. All investments in the primary education sector from the State and Central Plans will reflect as part of the SSA framework and will be merged into the SSA Programme within the next few years. As a programme, it reflects the additional resource provision for Universal Elementary Education (UEE).

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