School and its Organisation: AHSEC Class 11 Education notes

School and its organisation
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Get summaries, questions, answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF and guide of Class 11 (first year) Education textbook, chapter 3, School and its Organisation, which is part of the syllabus of students studying under AHSEC/ASSEB (Assam Board). These solutions, however, should only be treated as references and can be modified/changed. 

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A school plant encompasses various components including the school building, playground, furniture, equipment, apparatus, and human resources such as students, teachers, and other employees. A well-designed school plant facilitates effective teaching and learning by incorporating physical resources, human resources, curriculum, and co-curricular activities. As per the Kothari Commission, “The destiny of a nation is shaped in her classrooms.” Libraries are considered the heart of educational institutions, supporting the learning process. Historical figures like Alexander the Great have emphasized the significance of teachers, stating that they deserve more honor than parents for educating children.

A good teacher should possess both personal and professional qualities, playing the roles of facilitator, motivator, and counselor for students. Modern teachers face challenges related to the rapid expansion of knowledge. Students are often classified based on their Intelligence Quotient (IQ) into categories such as genius, very superior, superior, normal, dull, borderline, deficient, morons, imbeciles, and idiots, with most students falling into the normal range. Additionally, students can be classified based on physical ability. School employees include the headmaster, office staff, library assistants, Grade IV staff, canteen staff, and cooks for the hostel.

The term ‘curriculum’ is derived from the Latin word ‘currere,’ meaning ‘to run,’ implying a course to be completed to reach a specific goal. Curricula can be divided into six types, and there are several defects in the current curriculum. Educators should adhere to certain principles when designing a curriculum. Co-curricular activities, which occur outside the classroom, contribute significantly to the development of students’ personalities, encompassing physical, mental, and emotional aspects. These activities support the holistic development of children.

Technology plays a crucial role in modern education, with computers being essential tools. Invented by Charles Babbage, computers perform arithmetic and logical operations at incredible speeds and consist of parts such as the monitor, keyboard, system unit, mouse, and printer. The advantages of computers in education are numerous, including speed and accuracy. The Internet, a global network of computers, started as ARPANET and facilitates information access. Email and CD-ROM technology are integral to this system, with CDs being used for recording, storing, and retrieving electronic information via optical drives. Websites, starting with WWW, are collections of web pages that serve various educational purposes. Teleconferencing, a distance education method, includes audio, video, and computer-based types.

Several agencies guide educational systems, including the University Grants Commission (UGC), National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), and State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERT). The UGC, established in November 1953, focuses on higher education. UNESCO, a specialized United Nations agency established in 1945, operates in educational, scientific, and cultural fields. NCERT, established on 1 September 1961 in New Delhi, aims to improve the quality of school education in India through research and development, training, and dissemination of knowledge. The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), established in 1973, regulates teacher training institutes and supports professional development for teachers, with headquarters in Delhi and regional offices in Jaipur, Bhubaneswar, Bhopal, and Bangalore.

SCERTs were established at the state level with similar objectives to NCERT, consisting of multiple academic departments. SCERT Assam, established on 29 March 1985, has four academic departments. District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) were established under the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 guidelines, comprising seven academic branches. DIETs have three main functions: training, resource support, and action research.

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Textbook questions and answers

1. What is meant by school plant?

Answer: School plant is a very broad term which includes the school building, playground, school furniture, other equipment, apparatus, the human resources – the students, teachers, and other employees. It is an integral part of the learning environment. A good school plant helps in the effective teaching-learning process.

2. Mention three physical resources required for setting up a school plant?


  • Site or land
  • School building and playground
  • Classroom

3. Mention three human resources required for setting up a school plant?


  • Teachers
  • Students
  • Employees

4. Mention five conditions required for selecting site or land for setting up a school plant.


  • The site should not be very close to the main road nor far from it. The surroundings should be healthy.
  • It should have a good communication facility.
  • The level of the area should be a little raised so that waterlogging does not take place.
  • The rooms should be constructed in such a way that each one of them gets sunlight and air.
  • There should be scope for further expansion in the future.

5. Mention five conditions to be kept in mind while constructing a school building.


  • The school building should be planned and constructed in such a way so that it is able to serve the various academic needs and interests of the students.
  • The school building may be constructed in I, L, T, U, E, or H pattern. The E pattern is, however, the most suitable one.
  • The school plant must provide all the necessary facilities needed for curricular and co-curricular activities.
  • While constructing the school building proper ventilation, provision for light and air should be kept in mind.
  • As far as possible, the building must be well-constructed.

6. Mention five conditions to be kept in mind while constructing a classroom.


  • The minimum size of a classroom depends upon the number of students to be accommodated.
  • The standard classroom is a square-sized one.
  • Light in the room should fall from the left side.
  • The color of the walls should be such that it does not disturb the eyes of the students.
  • There should be enough windows for proper lighting and ventilation.

7. Mention five conditions to be kept in mind while constructing a science laboratory.


  • It should be constructed at any one side of the school building, a bit far from the main building.
  • Provision should be made for regular supply of gas, water, and electricity to the room.
  • Arrangements should be made to display the films and slides with the help of a projector and screen.
  • The costly and dangerous chemicals should be kept safely inside an almirah.
  • A laboratory assistant should be appointed to keep a record of the materials and for their maintenance and care.

8. Mention five functions of a teacher as a facilitator.


  • The teacher should have everything ready to start class work and ensure that every child pays attention.
  • The teacher should make use of a variety of teaching aids.
  • He should ask questions unevently, should not repeat them and allow the students to take their time in answering them.
  • He should encourage students to answer questions.
  • He should check the written work of the students carefully and explain to them their mistakes.

9. Mention five functions of a teacher as a motivator.


  • He should be able to give a clear and vivid knowledge of the subject.
  • He should use a variety of teaching aids to make his teaching effective and interesting.
  • He should take his classes in a special room fully equipped with the necessary material related to his subject which helps in creating the necessary type of atmosphere.
  • From time to time specialist teachers should interact with the students which will broaden their outlook.
  • The teacher should always keep on adopting new methods of teaching which will remove the dullness of classroom teaching.

10. Mention five functions of a teacher as a counselor.


  • He should be acquainted with the home conditions of the child.
  • Study the health records, test scores, anecdotal records, etc. of each student.
  • He should be able to recognize individual differences among the students.
  • He should be able to develop a feeling of friendliness so that each child feels free to ask for his assistance in personal and academic problems.
  • He should provide guidance and support to students regarding their academic and personal issues.

11. ‘Destiny of a nation is being shaped in her classroom’ – who said this?

Answer: The Kothari Commission.

12. Mention five conditions of a good library.


  • A library must have books for everyone – for young children, teachers, and adults.
  • The library should be equipped with comfortable furniture shelves, charming pictures, wall hangings, etc.
  • It should have a well-qualified librarian.
  • The library should maintain some rules and regulations with regard to lending, borrowing, and reading of books.
  • The teacher should give occasional talks to pupils on the importance of extra-reading.

13. Mention five personal qualities of a teacher.


  • He should act as a friend, philosopher, and guide for his students.
  • He should have love and respect for the teaching profession.
  • He should have a natural love for children.
  • He should have a loud and clear voice.
  • He should be very punctual.

14. Mention five professional qualities of a teacher.


  • Mastery of the subject matter.
  • Grasp over the method.
  • Planning and preparation.
  • Respect for the individuality of each child.
  • Knowledge of child psychology.

15. Mention five challenges that a teacher has to face while imparting education to the children in the present-day world.


  • Knowledge explosion.
  • Technological advancement.
  • Diverse learning needs of students.
  • Maintaining discipline.
  • Balancing curricular and co-curricular activities.

16. Name five different types of curriculum.


  • Traditional or subject-centered curriculum.
  • Activity curriculum.
  • Experience curriculum.
  • Undifferentiated curriculum.
  • Basic education curriculum.

17. Mention five defects of the present-day curriculum.


  • Overemphasis on rote learning.
  • Lack of practical and hands-on experience.
  • Inadequate focus on life skills.
  • Insufficient attention to individual differences.
  • Outdated content not relevant to current needs.

18. Mention five principles that should be adopted while constructing the curriculum.


  • The curriculum should be child-centered.
  • It should be flexible to accommodate changes and innovations.
  • The curriculum should integrate academic and co-curricular activities.
  • It should focus on the overall development of the child.
  • The curriculum should be relevant to the needs of society.

19. Mention five advantages of the co-curricular activities.


  • Develops social skills.
  • Enhances leadership qualities.
  • Improves physical health.
  • Encourages teamwork.
  • Provides opportunities for creative expression.

20. Write briefly about:

(a) The traditional or subject-centered curriculum.

Answer: The traditional or subject-centered curriculum focuses on the delivery of subject-specific knowledge and skills. It is organized around disciplines like mathematics, science, and history, with an emphasis on academic achievement and standardized testing.

(b) Activity curriculum.

Answer: The activity curriculum is based on the principle of learning by doing. It encourages students to engage in hands-on activities, experiments, and projects that are relevant to their interests and experiences.

(c) Experience curriculum.

Answer: The experience curriculum emphasizes the importance of real-life experiences in learning. It integrates students’ personal experiences and interests into the learning process, making education more meaningful and engaging.

(d) Undifferentiated curriculum.

Answer: The undifferentiated curriculum does not separate subjects into distinct areas. Instead, it integrates various subjects into a unified learning experience, encouraging students to see connections between different fields of knowledge.

(e) Basic education curriculum.

Answer: The basic education curriculum aims to provide essential knowledge and skills needed for everyday life. It focuses on literacy, numeracy, and practical skills that are necessary for personal and social development.

(f) Life-centered curriculum.

Answer: The life-centered curriculum emphasizes the development of skills and knowledge that are directly applicable to real-life situations. It prepares students to handle everyday challenges and to become responsible and productive members of society.

21. From which Latin word has the word curriculum been derived?

Answer: The word curriculum has been derived from the Latin word ‘currere’.

22. What is the meaning of the word ‘currere’?

Answer: The word ‘currere’ means ‘to run’.

23. Mention five objectives of co-curricular activities.


  • To develop social skills.
  • To enhance leadership qualities.
  • To improve physical health.
  • To encourage teamwork.
  • To provide opportunities for creative expression.

24. Mention five physical co-curricular activities.


  • Sports
  • Yoga
  • Physical training
  • Swimming
  • Athletics

25. Mention five academic co-curricular activities.


  • Debates
  • Quiz competitions
  • Science fairs
  • Mathematics club
  • Language club

26. Mention five social co-curricular activities.


  • Community service
  • Social awareness campaigns
  • Volunteering
  • Environmental protection activities
  • Cultural exchange programs

27. Mention five emotional co-curricular activities.


  • Drama
  • Music
  • Dance
  • Art and craft
  • Literary activities

28. Who are the visually handicapped children?

Answer: Visually handicapped children are those who may be completely blind or possess poor eyesight. The totally blind have to be given education in separate schools with specialized teachers, but those with poor eyesight may be given education in the normal schools but should be made to sit on the front seats.

29. Who are the aurally handicapped children?

Answer: Aurally handicapped children are those who may be totally or partially deaf. Arrangement should be made for their education as per their needs.

30. Who are the speech handicapped children?

Answer: Speech handicapped children are those who may have disorders in voice, stammering, delayed speech problems, etc. They may be provided treatment by a speech therapist.

31. Who are the orthopaedically handicapped children?

Answer: Such children are physically crippled, deformed and disable children who are incapable of leading a normal life.

32. Mention five types of employees needed for the proper functioning of a school.

Answer: A school organization also needs some employees for its proper functioning.

(i) The principal or Head Master
(ii) The office staff
(iii) Library assistant
(iv) Grade IV staff such as peon, chowkidar, sweepers etc.
(v) Canteen staff

33. What is the range of IQ of the genious students?

Answer: Above 140

34. What is the range of IQ of the very superior students?

Answer: 120 to 140

35. What is the range of IQ of superior students?

Answer: 110 to 120

36. What is the range of IQ of the normal or average students?

Answer: 90 to 110

37. Mention five functions of each of the following: (a) UGC (b) NCERT (c) SCERT (d) DIET


(a) UGC

  • The commission will inquire into the financial needs of the universities.
  • Allocate and disburse funds to universities established or corporate by or under a Central Act for the maintenance and development of such universities.
  • It can recommend to any university measures necessary for the improvement of university education and advise the university upon the action to be taken for the purpose of implementing such recommendation.
  • Advise the central or state government on the allocation of any grants to universities.
  • It may require a university to furnish it with such information as may be needed relating to the financial position of the university.


  • It develops curriculum, instructional materials, methods of teaching, techniques of evaluation, teaching aids, kits and equipment, and learning resources.
  • It organizes pre-service and in-service training for teachers, teacher educators, and other educational personnel.
  • Conducts and promotes educational research.
  • Disseminates improved educational techniques and practices of research findings.
  • Acts as a clearinghouse for ideas and information on all matters relating to school education and teacher education.


  • To assist the government in academic policy planning covering the entire 10+2 school education.
  • To take active part in academic research in the field of school education.
  • To recommend the implementation of the findings of such research in the syllabi and curriculum to the competent authority.
  • To act as the coordinating agency of the government to maintain uniformity, harmony, integrity, and stability in academic activities of the state.
  • To keep in touch with NCERT for national policies and with various academic and professional institutions.

(d) DIET

  • Provide training and orientation to elementary school teachers (both pre-service and in-service education), headmasters, heads of school complexes, officers of the education department up to block level, instructors and supervisors of non-formal and adult education, members of the district board of education, village education committees, community leaders, youth, and other volunteers who wish to work as educational activists.
  • Provide academic and resource support to the elementary and adult education systems in the district through extension activities and interaction with the field, provision of services of a resource and learning center for teachers and instructors, development of locality relevant materials, teaching aids, evaluation tools, and serving as an evaluation center for elementary schools and programs of non-formal education or adult education.
  • Carry out action research and experimentation to deal with specific problems of the district in achieving the objectives in the areas of elementary and adult education.
  • Facilities of latest technology such as computer-based learning, VCR, TV, etc. will be provided at DIETs.
  • Monitoring and clearing house activities .

38. Mention three uses of technology in education.


  • Technology facilitates distance education through various platforms, making learning accessible to students regardless of their geographical location.
  • It provides interactive and multimedia content that enhances understanding and retention of information.
  • Technology aids in the management and administration of educational institutions, streamlining processes like attendance, grading, and communication.

39. Mention three advantages of technology in education.


  • Technology allows for personalized learning, catering to the individual pace and style of each student.
  • It increases engagement and motivation among students through interactive and multimedia content.
  • Technology provides access to a vast amount of resources and information, broadening the learning horizon beyond traditional textbooks.

40. What is the meaning of the word computer?

Answer: A computer is a calculating device that can perform arithmetic and logical operations at high speed.

41. Who invented computer?

Answer: Charles Babbage, an Englishman.

42. What is a laptop computer?

Answer: A laptop computer is a portable personal computer with a screen and alphanumeric keyboard.

43. What is a palmtop computer?

Answer: A palmtop computer is a small, portable personal computer that fits in the palm of your hand.

44. Mention any three basic parts of a computer.


  • Monitor
  • Keyboard
  • System unit

45. Mention the five parts of a computer unit.


  • Monitor
  • Keyboard
  • System unit
  • Mouse
  • Printer

46. Mention any three uses of computer.


  • Data processing and storage
  • Internet browsing and communication
  • Educational and training purposes

47. Mention three characteristics of a computer.


  • Speed
  • Accuracy
  • Storage capacity

48. Mention any three advantages of computer-aided instruction.


  • Provides interactive and engaging learning experiences.
  • Allows for individualized learning at the student’s own pace.
  • Offers immediate feedback and assessment.

49. Mention any five basic educational advantages of a computer.


  • Facilitates access to a vast amount of information and resources.
  • Enhances the learning experience through multimedia content.
  • Supports interactive and collaborative learning.
  • Provides tools for effective data management and analysis.
  • Enables distance learning and virtual classrooms.

50. Mention any five limitations of using computers in education.


  • High initial cost of setup and maintenance.
  • Dependence on electricity and internet connectivity.
  • Potential for distraction from non-educational content.
  • Requires ongoing technical support and updates.
  • May widen the digital divide between students with and without access to technology.

51. Mention any five advantages of using Internet.


  • Provides access to vast information and resources.
  • Facilitates communication and collaboration worldwide.
  • Enables online education and distance learning.
  • Offers various tools and platforms for business and commerce.
  • Supports social networking and community building.

52. Mention any three characteristics of E-mail.


  • Instantaneous delivery of messages.
  • Ability to send attachments such as documents and images.
  • Easy to organize and store communications.

53. Mention any three characteristics of CD-Rom.


  • High storage capacity for data.
  • Durable and portable medium.
  • Readable by CD-ROM drives on computers.

54. Mention any three characteristics of Website.


  • Contains multiple web pages linked together.
  • Accessible through a web browser via the internet.
  • Can include multimedia content such as text, images, videos, and interactive elements.

55. What is the first page of a website known as?

Answer: The first page of a website is known as the homepage.

56. What is the full form of URL?

Answer: Uniform Resource Locator.

57. Name the three types of Tele Conferencing.


  • Audio Teleconferencing
  • Video Teleconferencing
  • Computer Teleconferencing

58. Write short notes on: (a) Internet (b) Website (c) CD-ROM (d) E-mail (e) Teleconferencing


(a) Internet: The Internet is a global network of interconnected computers that communicate freely and share and exchange information. It enables access to vast amounts of data, online services, and communication platforms.

(b) Website: A website is a collection of related web pages located under a single domain name. Websites are hosted on servers and can include various forms of multimedia content such as text, images, videos, and interactive features.

(c) CD-ROM: A CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) is a type of optical disc that stores large amounts of data. It is read by a CD-ROM drive in computers and is commonly used to distribute software, games, and multimedia applications.

(d) E-mail: E-mail (Electronic Mail) is a method of exchanging digital messages over the Internet. It allows users to send and receive text messages, documents, images, and other files quickly and efficiently.

(e) Teleconferencing: Teleconferencing is a method of holding meetings or discussions with participants in different locations using telecommunications technology. It can be conducted via audio, video, or computer-based systems, allowing for real-time communication and collaboration.

59. Write the full form of the following: (a) NCERT (b) UGC (c) SCERT (d) DIET

Answer: (a) NCERT: National Council of Educational Research and Training (b) UGC: University Grants Commission (c) SCERT: State Council of Educational Research and Training (d) DIET: District Institute of Education and Training

60. What is a Website?

Answer: A website is a collection of web pages located under a single domain name, accessible via the internet through a web browser.

61. What is a Web-page?

Answer: A web page is a single, usually hypertext document on the World Wide Web that can be viewed in a web browser.

62. In which year was the UGC established?

Answer: The UGC was established in November 1953.

63. In which year was the NCERT established?

Answer: The NCERT was established on September 1, 1961.

64. Where is the headquarter of NCERT?

Answer: The headquarters of NCERT is located in New Delhi.

65. Mention the three broad functions of NCERT.


  • Research and development
  • In-service and pre-service training
  • Extension and dissemination work

66. Mention the three main objectives of setting up SCERT at the state level.


  • To facilitate the organization of activities of different units and departments and manage their total development from one place.
  • To develop an inter-disciplinary approach to solve the educational problems of the state.
  • To ease the administration and control of educational developmental activities through an umbrella institution.

67. Mention the name of any three academic departments of the SCERT.


  • Department of Curriculum Development
  • Department of Educational Research and Examination Reform
  • Department of Teacher Education

68. In which year was the SCERT, Assam set up?

Answer: The SCERT, Assam was set up on March 29, 1985.

69. Mention the name of any three academic departments of the SCERT, Assam.


  • Department of Curriculum Development
  • Department of Educational Research and Examination Reform
  • Department of Teacher Education

70. Mention the name of any three academic branches of the DIET.


  • Pre-service Teacher Education Branch
  • Work Experience Branch
  • Educational Technology Branch

71. Mention the three main functions of the DIET.


  • Training
  • Resource support
  • Action research

Extra fill in the blanks

1. The term “curriculum” is derived from the Latin word “_______“.

Answer: currere

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99. The _______ should share his knowledge and understanding of students with other teachers.

Answer: teacher

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