Here you will find all the questions, solutions, answers, and notes of chapter 15 Challenges to Democracy of Social Science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: Though democracy is the best form of government, it faces many challenges. A challenge is a set of difficulties that are significant and which have to be faced and overcome. A challenge carries within itself seeds of progress that have to be nurtured to sprout and blossom. Different countries face different challenges depending on their socio-economic condition, population size, international cooperation, etc. At least one-fourth of the countries of the world do not have a democratic government.
Despite our strengths and belief in democracy, and our being the fastest growing democracy in the world, there are many obstacles and challenges facing us. A constant struggle and effort have to be made to overcome them. The weaknesses of Indian democracy are many and not easily surmountable. The first thing a democracy demand is an equality. Inequalities undermine democracy. Unfortunately, India suffers from many kinds of inequalities – political, social and economic. There is a great deal of ignorance, illiteracy and superstitious beliefs.
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1.Which type of challenge is being faced by most of the democracies of the world?
Answer: (c) Challenge of Deepening of Democracy
4. Which among the following is associated with challenges facing Indian democracy?
Answer: (d) All of these
II. Very Short Answer Questions
1.Name the three types of challenges faced by democracies all over the world.
Answer: The three types of challenges faced by democracies all over the world are: Foundational Challenge, Challenge of Expansion, and Challenge of Deepening of Democracy.
2. Which challenge of democracy involves bringing down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions?
Answer: Challenge of Deepening of Democracy.
III. Short Answer Questions
1.What is meant by the term ‘challenges to democracy’?
Answer: ‘Challenges to democracy’ is a set of challenges faced by democratic countries depending on their socio-economic condition, population size, international cooperation, etc.
4. What is the challenge of expansion?
Answer: The challenge of the expansion includes the expansion of democratic principles and institutions to all the regions, different social groups and all the government institutions, to the grassroots levels.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1.Explain which four guidelines should be kept in mind while devising ways and means for political reforms in India.
Answer: Four guidelines to be kept in mind while devising ways and means for political reforms in India are:
Legal reforms: Undoubtedly a law passed after careful deliberations in different forums can be helpful in solving an unhealthy political practice and encourage sound ones. However, total dependence on the law is not a way to overcome challenges to democracy. To effect political reforms, politically conscious citizens, activists, parties and movements have to come to the forefront.
Consideration of all pros and cons: Any hastily passed law to introduce political reform is likely to be counterproductive. Therefore, weighing all the pros and cons regarding its result is a very important task.
Improving the quality of political participation: Democratic reforms have to be ushered mainly through political practice.
Implementation of reforms: Mass media, democratic movements and citizens’ organizations are most likely to succeed if they come forward for political reforms.
3. Explain four ways to reform democracy in India.
Answer: Four ways to reform democracy in India are:
I. The first step in reforming democracy in India is educating the people. Creating a literate society, enlightened masses, tolerant people who have only one goal – the unity, and development of the country.
II. Education builds skills besides giving information and increasing knowledge. One must have legal literacy also. Legal literacy helps in seeking legal remedies against exploitation and injustice.
III. Freedom of the Press is another factor that helps in promoting democracy. It helps in forming public opinion on issues of national importance.
IV. For democracy to be successful and meaningful there should be economic security. It means that there should not be a vast disparity in the ownership of wealth.
Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions
1. What are the basic challenges that democracy faces in different parts of the world?
Answer: The basic challenges that democracy faces in different parts of the world are:
i. Foundational challenge: Non-democratic governments supported by the military exist in many nations around the world. Because non-democratic regimes are backed by a substantial segment of society, overthrowing them is a challenging task.
ii. Challenge of expansion: This entails extending democratic ideals and institutions to all regions, all social groups, and all government institutions, as well as the entire society at the grassroots level.
iii. Challenge of deepening democracy: In most countries, the wealthy and powerful exert influence over the various branches of government. As a result, deconstructing the current power system and transferring power to the public is a critical task.
2. How does education bring changes in a democratic country?
Answer: Education can bring qualitative and quantitative change. Freedom, equality, humanism, and inculcation of a scientific temper should be the themes of education. Only through education, there would be a growth of a new intelligent class, taking to modernity. Education leads to political awareness among the poor and backward classes. It helps people to cast out obsolete ideas and customs. They can understand the importance of liberty and social equality. They can understand what women empowerment and gender justice are. Education builds skills besides giving information and increasing knowledge.
21. Describe the major challenges that Indian democracy faces.
Answer: The major challenges of Indian democracy are communalism, regionalism, casteism, untouchability, gender inequality, economic inequality, population explosion, corruption, illiteracy, and so on.
22. How many countries in the world do not have democracy?
Answer: 1/4 of the countries in the world don’t have a democracy.
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