Flora and Fauna of Nagaland

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Here’s a short note on flora and fauna of Nagaland which is a part of the syllabus of class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education.

QUESTION: Write a short note on the flora and fauna of Nagaland.

Answer: FLORA

There are more varieties of plants in the mountain ranges of Nagaland than in any other part of the world. Nagaland is botanically one of the richest spots in the world. Nagaland’s climatic conditions range from the alpine in the higher reaches of its mountains to moist, hot tropical conditions in the foothills adjoining the plains of Assam. There are bamboo species not bigger than the thumb, then there are species of bamboo (D. Gigantium) so big that several strong men are required to lift even a single piece. An interesting aspect of the flora of Nagaland is the abundance of edible wild plants and fruits. The list of wild medicinal plants also runs into several hundred. Chalmugra, Ginseng are some of the medicinal plants. The tallest Rhododendron in the world is found in Mt. Japfu.

FAUNA

In Nagaland at any time of the year, there are some plants flowering or bearing fruit. So the animals and the birds find their food throughout the year. Being mountainous, there are only a few lakes and wetlands in Nagaland and hence water birds and water animals are not very abundant but some 80 different kinds of fish have been identified in Nagaland. Other species found in Nagaland are monitor lizards, various types of worms and insects, etc. In Dzukou, elephants are permanently found at elevations of 2500 m. Dziikou is perhaps the only place in the world where the rare species of mountain bird, the Tragopan (Tragopan Blythe) and the tropical elephant live side by side in mountainous alpine conditions.

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