Indian National Movement

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Ger here solutions, questions, answers, and notes of chapter 4: Indian National Movement which is a part of social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.

INTRODUCTION: It is ironical that the establishment of British rule in India gave birth to Nationalism in India. First and foremost, India was unified politically for the first time under the British. A uniform legal system, uniform currency and a uniform system of administration made Indians think of India as one nation. The spread and imposition of western education, use of English as a common language produced unity of thought, feelings and ideas. There was a rediscovery of India’s glorious past which revived pride and self-respect among the Indians.

The modern means of communication, the role of press and literature and the works of the reformers contributed greatly to the growth of Nationalism. Above all was the realisation that the British were exploiting India’s economic resources for their own benefit. They were not paying any heed to education, health, sanitation, irrigation and industry. The British followed a policy of discrimination against the Indians in their own country. More Englishmen were in the legislative assemblies and civil services. Last, but not the least, was the racial arrogance and racial discrimination practised by the British. They established exclusive clubs for English, they tried to strangle the press by various Acts (Press Act of 1878 and Arms Act of 1878). An English offender could not be tried in the court of an Indian judge. All these factors led to a reawakening in India and nationalism became a huge mass movement for complete independence.

l. Choose the correct answer

1. The first session of the Congress was held in :

Answer: b) Bombay, 1885

2. “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it” was a slogan given by :

Answer: d) Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

3. When was Bengal partitioned?

Answer: (a) 1905

4. The famous ‘Dandi March’ of Gandhiji began on :

Answer: d) None of the above

5. The slogan “Do or Die” was given to the nation by :

Answer: c) Mahatma Gandhi

6. Which national leader revived Ganapati and Shivaji festivals in Maharashtra?

Answer: b) B.G. Tilak

7. When was the Civil Disobedience Movement finally called off?

Answer: d) 1934

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. Who was the first President of Indian Nationa! Congress?

Answer: Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first President of the Indian National Congress.

2. What was the attitude of the British Government towards the Indian National Congress in the beginning? Why did it change later?

Answer: The British Government backed the formation of the Indian National Congress. It was a retired Englishman Mr Allan Octavian Hume who was instrumental in its formation. He wanted INC to act live a safety valve to prevent the outbreak of a popular revolt due to discontentment amongst Indians.

The attitude of the British later changed towards INC as it ironically became a mass national movement.

3. Why did the leaders of the Indian National Congress want the association with Britain in the beginning and not separation?

Answer: They believed that if public opinion was created and organised and popular demands presented to the authorities through petition, meetings, resolutions and speeches, the authorities would concede these demands gradually. They had full faith in the good intentions of the British Government.

4. Name the Viceroy who divided Bengal into two provinces. What was his real motive?

Answer: Lord Curzon was the Viceroy who divided Bengal into two provinces. His real motive was to divide the Hindu-Bengali and make them minorities in both the provinces so as to weaken the nationalist movement led by Congress.

5. Mention two acts of Bal Gangadhar Tilak to inculcate self-confidence and national pride among the Indian people.

Answer: The two acts of Bal Gangadhar Tilak to inculcate self-confidence and national pride among the Indian people are:
I. He raised the slogan, “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it.”
II. He revived Ganapati and Shivaji festivals in Maharashtra to arouse national feelings.

6. What happened at the Calcutta Session of the Congress in 1906? Who was the main leader?

Answer: At the Calcutta Session of the Congress in 1906, for the first time ‘Swaraj’ became the aim of the Congress. A resolution regarding self-government was adopted for the first time from the Congress platform. Promotion of national education was declared as an aim of Congress.

7. When was the Muslim League founded? Who were its leaders?

Answer: The Muslim League was founded on December 30, 1906. Its leaders were Agha Khan and Nawab
Salimullah of Dacca.

8. When did Gandhiji enter Indian politics and what were the two new weapons he used in the struggle for independence?

Answer: Gandhiji entered Indian politics in the year 1915. His two weapons were non-violence and Satyagraha.

9. Mention two aims of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer: The aims of this movement were to redress the wrongs done to Punjab and Turkey and to achieve the aim of Swaraj.

II. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Why is the first phase of the National Movement called the ‘Moderate Phase?’

Answer: The first phase of the National Movement called the ‘Moderate Phase’ because of the following reasons:

I. They believed that if public opinion was created and organised and popular demands presented to the authorities, they would concede these demands gradually.
II. The Moderates had full faith in the good intentions of the British and wanted reforms within the British Government.

2. Describe the main contributions of the following leaders :
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(b) Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) Bipin Chandra Pal

Answer: (a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak laid great stress on the sufferings and sacrifices of the people. He raised the slogan, “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it.” He was active in the Congress from 1890. He revived Ganapati and Shivaji festivals in Maharashtra to arouse national feelings. He infused new life in Indian politics, built self-confidence in the people to fight political tyranny

(b) Lala Lajpat Rai believed in direct action and agitated in Punjab for reform in agriculture. He started a newspaper ‘Young India’ and was the President of Congress. He inspired the Punjabis with a new national spirit and made them bold and patriotic. He was a great social reformer and educationist. He opened orphanages and hospitals. He was an active worker of the Arya Samaj and opposed the policy of the Early
Nationalists.

(c) Bipin Chandra Pal was born in Bangladesh in 1858. He joined the Chennai Congress and made a powerful speech against Arms Act. He was a wonderful orator who spoke for swadeshi and boycott and started a journal called “New India.” He wanted India to take sterner measures against the British and was charged with supporting Aurobindo Ghose. Bipin Chandra Pal stood for complete freedom.

3. How did the people of Bengal react to the Partition of Bengal?

Answer: Lord Curzon’s highly unpopular measure of partitioning the state of Bengal led to an Assertive/Radical Nationalist movement. It was led by three ‘Bal, Pal, and Lal’. The movement was called Swadeshi and Boycott movement. “Swadeshi” means “of one’s own country.” The Swadeshi and Boycott movements spread to almost all parts of the country. The national movement thus became a mass movement.

4. How did the National Movement become mass movement after 1919? [HOTS]

Answer: To protest against the arrests of Gandhiji and two prominent Congress leaders, a large crowd gathered at Jallianwala Bagh on April 13, 1919. General Dyer, with his troops, entered the park and without giving any warning he ordered his troops to fire. Dyer left with 1000 dead and more than 2000 wounded. It sent a wave of anger and shock throughout the country. This prompted Gandhiji and the Congress to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement and people. Thus, the National Movement become a mass movement after 1919.

5. What were the main aims of the Muslim League?

Answer: The main aims of the Muslim League were:

a) To promote, among the Muslims of India, feelings of loyalty to the British Government and to remove any misconception that may arise due to the intentions of the Government with regard to Indian Muslims.
b) To protect and advance the political rights of the Muslims in India and respectfully represent their needs and aspirations to the Government.
c) To prevent the rise among the Muslims of India of any feeling of hostility towards other communities without prejudice to the aforesaid object of the league.

6. ‘Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.’ Explain.

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, stating eleven demands. The most important demand was to abolish the salt tax. Lord Irwin refused any sort of negotiation. So Gandhiji began the Dandi March. The Civil Disobedience began with Gandhiji breaking the Salt Law. He had started with only a few followers but thousands of men and women joined him as he marched forward. His ‘Dandi March’ aroused the whole nation.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. Discuss the impact and significance of the Boycott and Swadeshi Movement.

Answer: The partition of Bengal created widespread dissatisfaction and discontent all over the country. This indignation all over the country created a turbulent atmosphere and led to the Boycott and Swadeshi Movements. “Swadeshi” means “of one’s own country.” It aimed at the promotion of indigenous industries and the boycott of British goods. The movements spread to almost all parts of the country. Shops selling foreign goods were picketed. Students also played an important part in the movement. The national movement became a mass movement. The movement gave a stimulus to the growth of indigenous industries and crafts. Swadeshi factories came into existence everywhere.

2. Which factors contributed to the awakening of national consciousness among the Indian people? [HOTS]

Answer: The factors that contributed to the awakening of national consciousness among the Indian people were:

i. India was unified politically for the first time under the British. A uniform legal system, uniform currency and a uniform system of administration made Indians think of India as one nation.
ii. The spread and imposition of western education, use of English as a common language produced unity of thought, feelings and ideas.
iii. There was a rediscovery of India’s glorious past which revived pride and self-respect among the Indians.
iv. The modern means of communication, the role of press and literature and the works of the reformers contributed greatly to the growth of Nationalism.
v. Above all was the realisation that the British were exploiting India’s economic resources for their own benefit.
vi. The British followed a policy of discrimination against the Indians in their own country. More Englishmen were in the legislative assemblies and civil services.

3. What did the National Movement try to achieve in its Moderate phase (1885 – 1905)?

Answer: The Moderates believed in constitutional agitation and slow, orderly political progress. They believed that if public opinion was created and organised and popular demands presented to the authorities through petition, meetings, resolutions and speeches, the authorities would concede these demands gradually. The Moderates had full faith in the good intentions of the British Government. They wanted reforms within the British Government. Prominent Moderate or Early Nationalist leaders were-W.C. Bonnerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, S.N. Banerjea, G.K. Gokhale and others.

4. Give an estimate of Gandhiji’s role in India’s struggle for freedom.

Answer: After a successful and significant political career in South Africa Gandhiji returned to India in January 1915. Gandhiji contributed immensely in the freedom struggle of India and gave it new direction with his entry in Indian politics. He spearheaded the Indian National Movement with new ideas that resonated with the masses. He was a staunch believer of non-violence. Gandhiji understood the importance of Unity among the Indians for the freedom struggle to become a success. Therefore, he took up various social initiatives to unite the people like his campaign against untouchability. He organised a number of Satyagraha at the beginning of his political career in India and later spearheaded massive movements like the Non-Cooperation, which planned to wreck the Government in the country by not co-operating with it anymore, the Civil Disobedience Movement, and the Quit India Movement.

All these impacted significantly the British government in India. He was able to unite the whole country and went to jail several times. It is safe to say that though everyone contributed equally in the freedom struggle, it was Gandhiji who had kept the country together.

5. Why did the Indian National Congress change its goal from Swaraj to “Poorna Swaraj”?

Answer: Series of events made the Indian National Congress change its goal from Swaraj to “Poorna Swaraj”. Swaraj had been a part of the greater goal of Congress. The immediate reason why Congress made a shift was the Chauri Chaura incident and the suggestion of a leading Urdu poet and nationalist leader Maulana Hasrat Mohani who suggested that Swaraj should be defined as “complete independence, free from foreign control.”

At Chauri Chaura. a village in district Gorakhpur (U.P.), the police opened fire on a peaceful procession of peasants. The angered demonstrators attacked and burnt a police station. About 22 policemen were killed in this attack. Gandhiji took upon himself the moral responsibility of the riot and later he was jailed. All these collectively contributed to the decision of the Indian National Congress to change its goal from Swaraj to “Poorna Swaraj.”

6. Describe the main features of the Quit India Movement.

Answer: The main features of the Quit India Movement are:

i) It authorised Gandhiji to launch the Quit India Movement against the British on non-violent lines and the widest possible scale. Gandhiji raised the slogan ‘Do or Die.’
ii) A large number of Congressmen were also put behind the bars. The people were leaderless, unorganised, unprepared and undirected. So the movement assumed a violent turn.
iii) The movement became a popular upsurge and the whole country rose to overthrow the British Rule. It was the last mass-uprising against the British Rule in India.
iv) There was much tension and the Government got alarmed and became nervous. It adopted a repressive policy to suppress the movement.
v) By using repressive measures the Government ultimately succeeded in crushing the movement within a few weeks.
vi) The revolt was short-lived but very intensive. About 10,000 people died in firing and about 70,000 were put behind the bars.

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