Post Colonial India..: WBBSE Class 10 History notes, answers

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Get here the summary, questions, answers, textbook solutions, extras, and pdf of Chapter 8 “Post-Colonial India: Second Half of the 20th Century” of the West Bengal Board (WBBSE) Class 10 (Madhyamik) History (Social Science) textbook. However, the given notes/solutions should only be used for references and should be modified/changed according to needs.

Post-Colonial India: Second Half of the 20th Century

Summary: The Indian Independence Act was passed in July 1947, allowing native rulers the choice to accede to either India or Pakistan. However, some states believed they were entitled to independence. Vallabhbhai Patel convinced the leaders of these states to join the Indian Union, and all states, except Kashmir, Hyderabad, and Junagadh, did so. India invaded and occupied Junagadh, and the Nizam of Hyderabad was merged with India after attempting to act independently. The state of Jammu and Kashmir acceded to India, but Pakistan did not accept this merger, leading to several wars between the two countries.

The partition of India and the resulting refugee crisis caused significant issues, including communal riots. The Delhi Pact, signed between Jawaharlal Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan, aimed to address these issues by ensuring complete equality of citizenship and a sense of security for minorities in both India and Pakistan. The history of the partition and the condition of refugees have been reconstructed with the help of autobiographies and reminiscences, such as ‘Chere Asa Gram’, ‘Udvastu’, ‘Atmakatha’, ‘Udbritter Itibritta’ by Ajoy Gupta, and ‘Kichu Smriti Kichu Katha’ by Saibal Gupta. Immediately after independence, there was a demand for the reorganization of states based on language.

The Dar Commission advised against the reorganization of states based on language, fearing it could threaten national unity. However, the public was not satisfied, and a committee appointed in December 1948 also recommended against the creation of linguistic states for the time being. The movement for reorganisation persisted, and eventually led to the creation of the separate state of Andhra Pradesh in 1952 and the emergence of Tamil Nadu as a Tamil-speaking state. The agitation for the reorganisation of boundaries continued, and a commission known as the States Reorganisation Commission was established to recommend the reorganizationreorganisation of state boundaries. This commission recommended the reorganization of India’s state boundaries into 16 states and 3 union territories, which were subsequently implemented and became integral parts of the Indian Union by 1956.

India is rich in languages, and the constitution does not give any language the status of a national language. The official languages recognised by the government of India are Hindi and English. The Constitution also includes provisions for the inclusion of 14 languages in the Eighth Schedule, which as of December 1, 2007, lists 22 languages: Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Kannada, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Telugu, Urdu, Tamil, Sindhi, Konkani, Manipuri, Nepali, Bodo, Dogri, Maithili, and Santhali.

Very short answer type questions

1. In what year did Pondicherry join the Indian Union?

Answer: Pondicherry joined the Indian Union in 1954.

2. Who was the last Viceroy of India?

Answer: Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of India.

3. Who was the first Prime Minister of independent India?

Answer: Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of independent India.

4. What was the purpose of the Cabinet Mission’s visit to India?

Answer: The Cabinet Mission was sent to India to develop a plan for the transfer of power and to negotiate an “Independence Plan” with Indian leaders.

5. Who was the last ruling Nawab of the princely state of Junagadh?

Answer: Muhammad Mahabat Khanji II was the last ruling Nawab of the princely state of Junagadh.

6. On which date did the Indian Constitution come into effect?

Answer: The Indian Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950.

7. What was “Operation Polo” (1948)?

Answer: “Operation Polo” was a military operation in which Indian army General JN Choudhury led a force into Hyderabad in September 1948, after the Nizam of Hyderabad ignored an ultimatum from India.

8. What is the full name of the SRC?

Answer: The full name of the SRC is the States Reorganisation Commission.

9. Who was the first Home Minister of independent India?

Answer: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the first Home Minister of independent India.

10. Who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi and on what date?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by Nathuram Godsey on January 30, 1948.

11. Who was the leader of the Muslim League?

Answer: Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the leader of the Muslim League.

12. What Act granted India its independence?

Answer: India gained independence through the Indian Independence Act of 1947.

13. In which two states was the refugee problem particularly acute?

Answer: The refugee problem was particularly acute in Punjab and West Bengal.

14. When did the members of the Cabinet Mission arrive in India?

Answer: The Cabinet Mission arrived in India in 1946.

15. Name some Portuguese colonies in India.

Answer: Some Portuguese colonies in India included Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli.

16. How many princely states were there in India before independence?

Answer: There were 601 princely states in India prior to independence.

17. Who was in charge of setting up the Linguistic State Reorganisation Commission?

Answer: The Linguistic State Reorganisation Commission was set up under the leadership of S K Dar, Hon’ble justice of the Allahabad High Court.

18. What is the full form of UCRC?

Answer: The full form of UCRC is United Central Refugee Council.

19. Can you provide more information about Potti Sreeramulu?

Answer: Potti Sreeramulu was a Gandhian leader who conducted a fast for 58 days to demand a separate state for the Telegu population. He ultimately sacrificed his life for this cause.

20. Name some French colonies in India.

Answer: Some French colonies in India included Chandernagore, Mahe, Karaikal, Yanam, and Pondicherry.

21. How many languages are currently recognized by the Indian Constitution?

Answer: The Indian Constitution currently recognises 22 languages.

22. Mention one book written by Khuswant Singh.

Answer: One book written by Khuswant Singh is “A Train to Pakistan”.

23. When did Andhra become a linguistically reorganised state?

Answer: Andhra became a linguistically reorganised state in 1957.

24. Who was the chairman of the States Reorganisation Commission in 1953?

Answer: Justice Fazal Ali was the chairman of the States Reorganisation Commission in 1953.

25. What are the official languages recognized by the government of India?

Answer: The government of India recognizes Hindi and English as its official languages.

26. How many languages were included in the Indian Constitution when it came into effect?

Answer: 14 languages were included in the Indian Constitution when it came into effect.

27. Which was the largest princely state in India at the time of independence?

Answer: Hyderabad was the largest princely state in India at the time of independence.

Short answer type questions

1. What diplomatic and skilful policy did Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel use to bring the princely states into the Indian Union?

Answer: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel appealed to the princes of the native states to accede to India and promised them benefits, but if they did not respond, he was willing to use force to achieve accession.

2. Why did the ruler of Kashmir request military assistance from India?

Answer: In October 1947, Pathan tribesmen, supported by the Pakistan army, invaded Kashmir and headed towards its capital, Srinagar. The ruler of Kashmir therefore appealed to India for military assistance.

3. Why did the people of Junagadh revolt at the end of British rule in India?

Answer: At the end of British rule in India, the leaders of the nationalist movement made it clear that the princely states were to accede to either India or Pakistan. However, the ruler of Junagadh, Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III, announced that the state would accede to Pakistan, which was against the wishes of the people of Junagadh. As a result, they revolted against their Nawab.

4. Under what circumstances did Hari Singh, the ruler of Kashmir, sign the Instrument of Accession?

Answer: After India gained independence, both India and Pakistan asked the Maharaja of the princely state of Kashmir, Hari Singh, to accede to their respective countries. The Pakistan Hindu government feared that the Maharaja might eventually choose to join India. In October 1947, mercenaries supported by the Pakistan army infiltrated into Kashmir, leaving the Maharaja with no choice but to sign the Instrument of Accession.

5. What is the meaning of the Instrument of Accession?

Answer: The Instrument of Accession was a legal document used by the rulers of the princely states to join either the newly formed Dominion of India or the Dominion of Pakistan after the partition of British India. The princely states were given the freedom to make their own decisions.

6. Who was Potti Sreeramulu and what did he do?

Answer: Potti Sreeramulu was a freedom fighter who led a movement in Andhra for the creation of a separate Andhra state. He undertook a fast unto death to advocate for this cause and ultimately died in pursuit of this goal.

7. What was the purpose of the JVP committee and who were its members?

Answer: The JVP committee was formed to address issues related to the linguistic reorganization of states. The members of the committee were Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Pattabhi Sitaramayya.

8. When was the Official Languages Act passed by the Indian Parliament and what were its provisions?

Answer: The Official Languages Act was passed by the Indian Parliament in 1953. Its provisions included the continuation of English for use in official work alongside Hindi, even after 1965, and the granting of the right to state legislatures to determine the official language for their respective states.

9. What were the six union territories formed on linguistic basis in 1956?

Answer: The six union territories formed on linguistic basis in 1956 were Tripura, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Delhi, Lakshadweep, Manipur, and Himachal Pradesh.

10. Why was the Dar Commission (1948) established?

Answer: The Dar Commission, also known as the Linguistic Provinces Commission and headed by Justice S K Dar, was appointed in 1948 in response to the demand for the reorganization of states based on language.

11. Which states were formed by the State Reorganisation Act of 1956?

Answer: The states formed by the State Reorganisation Act of 1956 were Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Mysore, Madras, and Rajasthan.

12. Can you name two states that have adopted Hindi as their official language?

Answer: Two states that have adopted Hindi as their official language are Bihar and Chattisgarh.

13. Can you list the 14 Indian languages that were included as official languages in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution?

Answer: The 14 Indian languages that were included as official languages in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution are Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu.

Long answer type questions

1. What did Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel do to earn the nickname of ‘Iron Man of India’?

Answer: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel played a crucial role in the integration of India after its independence from British rule. There were hundreds of princely states in the country at the time, and Patel was responsible for persuading most of them to accede to the Indian Union. However, a few states – Kashmir, Hyderabad, and Junagadh – did not immediately join the Union. In these cases, Patel did not hesitate to use force to annex the states and ensure their integration with the rest of the country. His unwavering commitment to national unity and integrity earned him the nickname of the ‘Iron Man of India’.

2. What was the purpose of the Delhi Pact (also known as the Nehru-Liaquat Pact) and when was it signed?

Answer: The Delhi Pact was signed on April 8, 1950 between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistan’s Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in New Delhi. The pact aimed to address the concerns of religious minorities and promote communal harmony and peace between the two countries. It also sought to create a more conducive environment for both countries to address and resolve their ongoing issues.

3. What were the reasons for the failure of the Nehru-Liaquat Pact (also known as the Delhi Pact) of 1950?

Answer: The Nehru-Liaquat Pact, signed on April 8, 1950, between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistan’s Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, faced criticism and opposition from several leaders in India. Two central ministers, Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee and Dr. Khitish Chandra Neogy, were strongly opposed to Nehru’s invitation to the Pakistan Prime Minister and criticized the pact for establishing a minority commission and guaranteeing minority rights in both countries. Dr. Mukherjee held Pakistan responsible for the influx of millions of Hindu refugees from Pakistan who had fled the country due to religious violence supported by the Pakistani government. He also accused the Indian government of appeasing Pakistan through the pact. In protest of the Indian government’s policy towards Pakistan, both ministers resigned.

4. What were some of the challenges faced by the newly independent India?

Answer: After gaining independence from British rule on August 15, 1947, India faced several challenges and problems. These included:

i. Communal riots: Riots between Hindus and Muslims had been occurring in various parts of India, and these continued after independence.

ii. Princely states: Some of the major princely states, such as Kashmir, Junagadh, and Hyderabad, refused to join the Indian Union.

iii. Partition and refugee crisis: The partition of India led to a large influx of refugees, particularly in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, and Punjab.

iv. Food shortages: India’s food production was severely disrupted by the partition, leading to shortages.

v. Economic crisis: The newly independent India faced economic challenges in the agriculture, industry, trade, and commerce sectors.

vi. Regional and cultural problems: There were movements for separate states based on language and culture, leading to issues of national unity.

5. How did the Indian government address the issue of integrating the princely states into the Union after independence?

Answer: After India gained independence, the integration of the princely states into the Indian Union was a major challenge. At the time of the transfer of power, the British government had left these states free to join either India or Pakistan. Most of the 562 princely states signed the Instrument of Accession, drafted by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, which granted them autonomy in their internal affairs while allowing the Union government control over their defense and foreign policy. However, Junagadh, Hyderabad, and Kashmir did not agree to join India. The Indian government took military action to occupy Junagadh and worked to merge Hyderabad with India. The state of Jammu and Kashmir also acceded to India, but Pakistan did not accept this merger, leading to conflicts between the two countries.

6. What were the events that led to the creation of the Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan?

Answer: The Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan originated after the princely state of Kashmir declared its intention to remain an independent state after India’s independence. Some of the key events that led to the conflict include:

i. Attempts by Kashmir to maintain independence: After independence, both India and Pakistan asked Maharaja Hari Singh to join their respective countries, but he refused and declared his desire to remain independent.

ii. Entry of Pakistan army: The Pakistani government feared that the Hindu Maharaja might eventually choose to join India, and so it sent mercenaries, supported by the Kashmir government, into the region on October 22, 1947.

iii. Signing the Instrument of Accession: The rapid spread of Pakistani forces within Kashmir and their advancement towards Srinagar left Maharaja Hari Singh with no choice but to sign the Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union in order to receive military aid from India.

iv. Setting up of government: With the help of the Indian army, the leader of the National Conference party in Kashmir, Sheikh Abdullah, took control of the state. The Pakistani-occupied portion of Kashmir was named “Azad Kashmir” by the Pakistani government, from which it launched attacks on the Indian-controlled region.

v. Appeal to the United Nations: India brought the Kashmir issue to the United Nations to protest the infiltration by Pakistan.

vi. Ceasefire: In the midst of ongoing conflicts between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, the United Nations declared a ceasefire on January 1, 1949. As a result, a portion of Kashmir became part of the Indian Union, while Azad Kashmir remained a part of Pakistan. Since then, Pakistan has continued to attack the Indian-controlled part of Kashmir, leading to wars between the two countries in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999.

7. What were the provisions of the Indian Independence Act of 1947?

Answer: The Indian Independence Act of 1947, which was based on the Mountbatten Plan, was passed by the British Parliament in July 1947. Its provisions included:

i. Independence of India and Pakistan: The Act provided for the independence of India and Pakistan on August 15, 1947, with both countries empowered to govern their domestic and foreign affairs independently.

ii. Division of territory: The Act divided British India into the Indian Dominion, comprising East Punjab and West Bengal, and the Pakistan Dominion, comprising West Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, the North West Frontier Province, and East Bengal.

iii. Boundary Commission: The Act established a Boundary Commission to demarcate the boundaries between India, West Bengal, and East Punjab.

iv. Constitutions: The Act stated that India and Pakistan would remain under British dominion until their own constitutions were formulated.

v. Right of princely states to accede: The Act granted the native rulers of princely states the right to accede to either India or Pakistan.

vi. Lack of British jurisdiction: The Act stated that the British Parliament would have no jurisdiction to legislate in the Indian Dominion after August 15, 1947, transferring power fully to Indian leaders.

8. What were the issues that arose after the partition of India in 1947 and how did it affect the newly independent country?

Answer: After the partition of India in 1947, as outlined in the Indian Independence Act, India faced several issues, including:

i. Mass migration: Millions of Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan migrated to India seeking safety and shelter.

ii. Refugee crisis: Large numbers of Hindus from East Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs from West Pakistan sought refuge in India, creating a strain on the country’s resources and ability to provide basic amenities and secure a future for these people, particularly in states such as West Bengal, Assam, Tripura, and Punjab.

iii. Transfer of wealth: The partition resulted in the transfer of wealth and resources to Pakistan, weakening India’s economy.

iv. Shortage of cultivable land: A significant portion of cultivable land went to Pakistan, leading to a shortage of land for agriculture and resulting in food shortages.

v. Lack of raw materials for industries: Jute and cotton-producing areas went to Pakistan, causing a shortage of raw materials for industries in India.

9. When was India officially declared an independent, sovereign republic and into how many categories were the Indian states divided at that time?

Answer: India was officially declared an independent, sovereign republic when the Indian Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950. At that time, the Indian states were divided into four categories:

i. ‘A’ category states, which were states governed by Governors, including West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bombay, Madras, and Punjab.

ii. ‘B’ category states, which were states governed by native Princes, including Hyderabad, Central Province, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab State Union (PEPSU), Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Saurashtra, and Travancore-Cochin.

iii. ‘C’ category states, which were states governed by commissioners, including Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch, Coorg, Delhi, Manipur, Tripura, and Vindhya Pradesh.

iv. ‘D’ category states, which were Union Territories, including the Andaman and Nicobar islands.

10. What were the characteristics of the princely states in India before independence?

Answer: Before India gained independence on August 15, 1947, the country was home to a number of princely states. These states had several notable features, including:

i. A large number of princely states: The Indian subcontinent had approximately 600 princely states at the time of independence. These states were located throughout the country.

ii. Varying sizes of princely states: Most of the princely states were quite small, with some being similar in size to Zamindari divisions. However, a few states, such as Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Mysore, and Baroda, were larger.

iii. Autonomy of the princely states: The rulers of these states were highly autonomous and wielded significant power within their own territories. They were not subject to the same laws as the rest of India.

iv. Poor treatment of subjects in princely states: The subjects of these states often suffered under oppressive conditions, including high taxes and poor treatment.

v. Economic, political, military, and educational backwardness: Many of the princely states were underdeveloped in these areas, compared to the rest of India.

11. What was Lord Mountbatten’s role in the integration of the princely states into the Indian subcontinent?

Answer: Lord Mountbatten played a key role in the integration of the princely states into India just before the country’s independence. He took several steps to encourage the rulers of these states to join India, including:

i. Maintaining friendly relations with the rulers: Lord Mountbatten had friendly relationships with many of the rulers of the princely states. He knew that if they did not join India, their relationship with him would deteriorate, which could create problems for the states.

ii. Implementing the British government’s policy: Lord Mountbatten declared that the British government would not recognize any of the princely states and would not allow them to join the British Commonwealth. This meant that if the states did not join either India or Pakistan, they would lose all their connections to the British government.

iii. Economic loss: Lord Mountbatten stated that India and Pakistan were united as the Indian subcontinent, which was considered a distinct economic zone. If the princely states did not join India, they would suffer economic losses.

iv. Potential for communal tensions: Lord Mountbatten warned the rulers of the princely states that if they tried to maintain their independence, it could lead to riots and communal tensions.

v. Making promises: Lord Mountbatten promised the rulers of the princely states that he would fulfill any promises made by the local rulers, as he would be working in India until 1947.

12. What was the “Carrot and Stick” policy?

Answer: The Indian Independence Act was passed in July 1947, which included a provision requiring native rulers to accede to either India or Pakistan. Some states believed they were entitled to declare their independence. Sardar Patel, a leader in the Indian independence movement, employed a strategy known as the “Carrot and Stick” policy to address this situation.

Under this policy, Patel attempted to persuade the leaders of the states to join the Indian union by highlighting the benefits of doing so and warning of the potential consequences of non-compliance. He argued that if the states did not cooperate, there would be chaos and anarchy, leading to a common ruin for all. He also made it clear that the rulers of the states could face backlash from the people if they did not join India, and that he would not be able to prevent this anger.

In cases where his appeals were unsuccessful, Patel did not hesitate to use force to annex these states.

13. How was Junagadh integrated into the Indian Union?

Answer: At the time of the transfer of power from the British government to India and Pakistan, the princely states of India were given the choice of which country to join. The Nawab of Junagadh, Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III, communicated his desire to accede to Pakistan, much to the dismay of the majority Hindu population of Junagadh. When Pakistan accepted the Nawab’s Instrument of Accession, the Indian government was outraged. Sardar Patel, a leader in the Indian independence movement, saw this as a potential source of increased communal tension. He offered Pakistan the opportunity to reverse its acceptance of the accession and to hold a plebiscite in Junagadh to determine the will of the people.

When these efforts failed, Patel ordered the forcible annexation of Junagadh. The Nawab was unable to resist and fled to Pakistan. A plebiscite was then held, in which 99.95% of the people voted to join India rather than Pakistan. As a result, Junagadh was integrated into the Indian Union.

14. How did Hyderabad become a part of the Indian Union? 

Answer: The princely state of Hyderabad was the largest in India at the time of independence in 1947. The ruler of Hyderabad, known as the Nizam, was Osman Ali Khan. Despite the Nizam being a Muslim, 87% of the population of Hyderabad were Hindus.

After India gained independence, the Nizam of Hyderabad sought to maintain his independence rather than accede to either India or Pakistan. Qasım Rizvi, a leader of the Muslims, led a group called the “Razakar” that carried out acts of terrorism against Hindus living near the borders of Hyderabad. These people were forced to flee their homes and take refuge in relief camps in India.

The Nizam of Hyderabad encouraged Muslims to declare jihad against those living in India and brought in arms and ammunition from Pakistan. He also appealed to the United Nations and the International Court of Justice for support against India. In response, India sent an ultimatum to Hyderabad, which was ignored by the Nizam. As a result, the Indian army, led by General J N Choudhury, launched a military operation called “Operation Polo” on September 13, 1948. The Hyderabad army was easily defeated and surrendered on September 18. The Nizam of Hyderabad then signed the Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union, and Hyderabad officially became a part of India on January 26, 1950.

15. What was the process of incorporating the French and Portuguese colonies in India into the Indian subcontinent?

Answer: In addition to the princely states, several colonies in India remained under the control of France and Portugal after India gained independence in 1947. These included the French colonies of Chandannagar, Mahe, Karaikal, Yanam, Pondicherry, and the Portuguese colonies of Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. It was necessary to incorporate these regions into the Indian subcontinent.

To annex the French colonies, a treaty was signed between India and France in 1948 stating that the fate of the French colonies in India would be decided through a plebiscite. As a result, Chandannagar became a part of India in 1949. In 1954, the people of Yanam and Mahe, who supported joining India, gained power in these regions through political uprisings, and they subsequently became a part of the Indian Union. In October 1954, Pondicherry and Karaikal joined the Indian Union through a plebiscite.

To annex the Portuguese colonies, the Gomantak party revolted and took power in Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, leading India to declare this region under its governance. Movements in Goa in favor of joining India were suppressed by the Portuguese government, but in 1961, under the leadership of General Jayanta Choudhury, the Indian army marched into Goa and forced the Portuguese government to sign a treaty transferring Goa to the Indian Union. In the same year, Daman and Diu also acceded to India.

16. What was the process by which the Portuguese colonies in the Indian subcontinent were incorporated into India?

Answer: After India gained independence, several Portuguese colonies including Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli remained in India. In an effort to maintain control over these colonies, the Portuguese annexed several of its colonies around the world in 1951.

One of these colonies, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, was taken over by the Gomantak party in 1954. When the Portuguese government attempted to reclaim the region, the Indian government resisted. In 1961, India formally declared Dadra and Nagar Haveli to be a part of the Indian Union.

Protests against the Portuguese government in Goa were met with violence in 1955, with 22 protestors being killed and several leaders of the protest movement being imprisoned or killed. In response, the Indian government imposed an economic blockade on Goa and made repeated appeals to the Portuguese government to hand over the territory to India, even taking the matter to the international level.

Finally, under the leadership of General Jayanta Choudhury, the Indian army marched into Goa in December 1961 and the Portuguese army was defeated, leading to the surrender of Goa and its incorporation into the Indian Union.

17. What were the consequences of the partition of India in 1947?

Answer: The partition of India in 1947 had significant impacts on the people of India and Pakistan. Many were forced to leave their homes and abandon their motherland, leading to a mass migration of Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, and other minority communities from East and West Pakistan to India, and a large number of Muslims moving from India to Pakistan.

Communal riots broke out across the newly formed nations, leading to the massacre of Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists in Pakistan and Muslims in India. Women, especially those belonging to minority communities, suffered greatly during this time, with incidents of kidnapping and rape becoming common.

The partition also caused a major refugee crisis in both India and Pakistan, with many refugees from Pakistan settling in various states of India, putting a strain on the country’s resources and economy. The partition of India had devastating consequences for the people involved and its impacts continue to be felt to this day.

18. What were the impacts of the partition of Bengal, along with the partition of India in 1947, on the people of Bengal?

Answer: The partition of India in 1947 resulted in the division of Bengal into East Bengal, which became a part of Pakistan, and West Bengal, which became a part of India. This partition had significant consequences for the people of Bengal. The partition caused a large number of refugees from East Bengal to seek shelter in West Bengal, leading to an increase in the population of West Bengal and putting a strain on the West Bengal government to provide rehabilitation facilities for the refugees. The industries in West Bengal faced difficulties due to the lack of raw materials, as the cultivable lands that produced such materials were now part of East Bengal. The partition led to widespread unemployment in West Bengal as industries struggled to operate without sufficient raw materials. The partition also resulted in the movement of intellectuals from one side of Bengal to the other, with Hindu intellectuals from East Bengal contributing to the cultural development of West Bengal and Muslim intellectuals from West Bengal doing the same in East Bengal.

19. How did the demand for a separate state of Andhra Pradesh come about and how was it eventually granted?

Answer: The demand for a separate state of Andhra Pradesh was based on the idea of creating linguistic states in India. The Linguistic Provinces Commission, headed by Justice S.K. Dar, was appointed in 1948 to examine the feasibility of reorganizing states based on language. While the commission advised against it, the idea gained widespread support among the public, particularly among the Telugu-speaking population in the Madras Presidency. In 1948, a committee consisting of Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, and Pattabhi Sitaramayya was appointed to examine the situation and ultimately recommended against the creation of linguistic states. However, the movement for a separate state of Andhra Pradesh continued, with Potti Sreeramalu undertaking a fast unto death to demand the state. After 58 days of fasting, Sreeramulu died and the movement gained momentum. In 1952, the government eventually conceded to the demand and created the separate state of Andhra Pradesh, with the Telugu-speaking area being separated from the Tamil-speaking area. This also led to the creation of the Tamil Nadu state for Tamil speakers.

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