Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) History (Themes in Indian History) chapter 11 “Representations of 1857”. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.
- Exercise/textual questions and answers
- Extra/additional questions and answers
- Extra/additional MCQs
The Revolt of 1857, also known as the First War of Indian Independence, marked a significant turning point in India’s struggle against British rule. This widespread uprising was a reaction to the British policies that led to political, economic, and social degeneration in the country. The British ruthlessly exploited Indian society, following expansionist policies that ruined the local cottage and handicraft industries, impoverished the nation, and led to numerous local revolts. Although these earlier uprisings, such as the Kutch Rebellion, the Kol uprising of 1831, and the Santhal uprising of 1858, were local in nature and easily suppressed, the Revolt of 1857 sowed the seeds for India’s eventual independence in 1947. Numerous sources offer insight into the events of the Mutiny, including official records, contemporary accounts, newspaper reports, and artistic representations. These sources help to piece together a comprehensive understanding of the Revolt of 1857, its causes, and its impact on the Indian freedom struggle.
Exercise/textual questions and answers
I. Very Short Answer Questions
1. Give the lines written by Subhadra Kumari Chauhan about Rani Jhansi.
Answer: The lines written by Subhadra Kumari Chauhan about Rani Jhansi are “Khoob lari mardani who to Jhansi Wali rani thee” which means “She fought like a man, she was the Rani of Jhansi.”
2. What is Mutiny?
Answer: A mutiny is a rebellion by a group of people who refuse to accept a person’s authority any longer and try to take control of power from that person.
3. When was subsidiary alliance introduced by Wellesley in Awadh?
Answer: Subsidiary Alliance was introduced by Wellesley in Awadh in 1801.
4. Who represented 1857 uprising in Bihar?
Answer: Kunwar Singh, a discontented Zamindar of Jagdishpur, was the chief organiser of the revolt in Bihar. He was an outstanding military leader and strategist of the revolt.
5. Who said “1857 uprising was the First War of Indian Independence?”
Answer: Vir Savarker and Ashok Mehta said “1857 uprising was the First War of Indian Independence”.
II. Multiple Choice Questions
(i) ‘Bell of Arms’ is:
Answer: (iii) Both of them
(ii) Who was the leader of revolt in Kanpur?
Answer: (iii) Tantya Tope
(iii) Which one of the following escaped to Nepal after the collapse of rebellions:
Answer: (iii) Nana Sahib
(iv) Shah Mal was killed in battle in:
Answer: (ii) May 1857
(v) Resident was the designation of a representative at:
Answer: (ii) The Governor General
III. Short Answer Type Questions-I
1. Name any two libraries where official records of the mutiny are available.
Answer: The Punjab Government Record Office and the India Office Library London have official records of the mutiny.
2. Give the names of any three important books which narrate the events of Mutiny.
Answer: There are several important books that narrate the events of Mutiny. Some of them are:
- The North-West Provinces of India during the Mutiny of 1857 written by Sir William Muir.
- The Indian Rebellion, its Causes and Results, in a series of letters by A. Duff.
- The Indian War of Independence 1857 by V.D. Savarkar.
3. Who was the prominent leader of the rebels at Delhi?
Answer: The prominent leader of the rebels at Delhi was Bahadur Shah.
4. Which day had been fixed for the revolt to start?
Answer: May 31, 1857 had been fixed as the day of rising for the revolt.
5. Who led the freedom fighter at Jagdishpur?
Answer: Kunwar Singh was the chief organizer of the revolt in Bihar and he led the freedom fighters at Jagdishpur.
6. Give the name of writer who interpret the Revolt of 1857 as Muslim organised revolt.
Answer: According to James Outram and some other historians, the Revolt of 1857 was a Muslim organised revolt.
7. Give the names of any two writers who interpret the rising of 1857 as the First War of Indian Independence.
Answer: V.D. Savarkar and G.B. Malleson are two writers who interpret the rising of 1857 as the First War of Indian Independence.
8. When was Delhi reoccupied by the British after the rising of 1857?
Answer: Delhi was reoccupied by the British on 14th September, 1857.
IV. Short Answer Type Questions-II
1. Discuss the evidence that indicates planning and coordination on the part of the rebels?
Answer: The rebels issued proclamations and ishtahars (notifications) to propagate their ideas and encourage people to join the revolt. These proclamations indicated a vision of unity and appealed to all sections of Indian society irrespective of their castes and creeds. Proclamations issued by the Muslim princes took care to appeal to the sentiments of Hindus. They reminded the pre-British Hindu-Muslim past and glorified the co-existence of different communities under the Mughal Empire. A proclamation issued under the name of Bahadur Shah II appealed to the people to join the rising under the banners of both Muhammad and Hindu deities.
2. Write a brief note on the sources of study of the history of events of 1857-58.
Answer: There are several sources available for the study of the history of events of 1857-58. These include official records, parliamentary papers, British newspapers, and general works. The official records include official narratives of the Mutiny furnished by magistrates or commissioners of various localities, reports on engineering operations during the defense of Lucknow, and The North-West Provinces of India during the Mutiny of 1857 written by Sir William Muir. Parliamentary Papers also contain records of the Mutiny. British newspapers and magazines published stories of the Uprising and reflect the sentiments of the British people during the period of Mutiny. General works include personal journals of the Siege of Lucknow by Captain R.P. Anderson, The Campaign in India (1857-58) by Captain G.F. Atkinson, Indian Gup: Untold Stories of the Indian Mutiny by Rev. J.R. Baldwin, Eighteen Fifty-Seven by Surendra Nath, The Indian Rebellion, its Causes and Results, in a series of letters by A. Duff, The Tale of the Great Mutiny by W.H. Fitchett, and Reminiscences of the Great Mutiny (1857-59) by William Forbes-Matchell.
3. Why did the mutinous sepoys in many places turn to the erstwhile rulers to provide leadership to the revolt?
Answer: The mutinous sepoys in many places turned to the erstwhile rulers to provide leadership to the revolt because they were dissatisfied with the British rule and saw the native rulers as a potential alternative to the British. The native rulers were also dissatisfied with the British rule and had lost their power and privileges to the British. Therefore, they saw the revolt as an opportunity to regain their power and status. Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II was informed that his successors would not be allowed to use the historic Red Fort, which was a symbol of his power and status. Thus, only those rulers led the revolt who were dissatisfied with the British.
4. Describe the role of Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi in the rising of 1857.
Answer: Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi played a significant and courageous role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which is often referred to as the first war of Indian independence. As the widow of Raja Ganga Dhar Rai, she took up the mantle of leadership after her husband’s death and led the rebellion in Jhansi against British rule.
When the British refused to recognize her adopted son as the rightful heir to the throne of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmi Bai decided to rise in revolt. She displayed exceptional bravery, courage, and military skill, successfully driving away the British after a fierce battle and establishing her rule over Jhansi.
In April 1858, the British troops under Sir Hugh Rose invaded Jhansi, and Rani Lakshmi Bai joined forces with Tantia Tope, another prominent leader of the revolt. They fought several battles against the British but were ultimately defeated. After the British occupied Kalpi in May, Rani Lakshmi Bai and Tantia Tope moved to Gwalior, hoping for support from the Scindhiya ruler. However, the ruler refused to join them and was eventually defeated by the Rani’s troops.
Rani Lakshmi Bai managed to occupy Gwalior in June 1858, but the British forces, along with the Scindhiya, invaded Gwalior soon after. On June 17, Rani Lakshmi Bai died fighting in battle, dressed as a soldier and mounted on a charger.
The role of Rani Lakshmi Bai in the 1857 uprising became a source of inspiration for the nationalist movement in the twentieth century. Her bravery and determination to fight against injustice and foreign rule were celebrated in art, literature, and history. The image of her in battle armor with a sword in her hand and riding a horse has become a symbol of resistance against oppression. Her legacy continues to inspire generations of Indians and has contributed to shaping nationalist ideas.
7. What were the measures taken to ensure unity among the rebels?
Answer: The proclamations of the rebels issued by the rebels indicated a vision of unity. They appealed to all sections of Indian society irrespective of their castes and creeds. Proclamations issued by the Muslim princes took care to appeal to the sentiments of Hindus. They reminded the pre-British Hindu-Muslim past and glorified the co-existence of different communities under the Mughal Empire. A proclamation issued under the name of Bahadur Shah II appealed to the people to join the rising under the banners of both Muhammad and Mahavir. During the uprising, religious divisions between Hindu and Muslim were hardly noticeable though the British attempted to create such divisions.
8. What steps did the British take to quell the uprising?
Answer: The British took brutal measures to quell the uprising. The rebels were blown from cannons or hanged from the gallows, and images of these executions were printed in popular journals. General Neil, who proceeded from Calcutta in May 1857 with a regiment towards Benaras and Allahabad, committed inhuman cruelties all along the way. He gave written instructions to attack and destroy all places en route close to the road occupied by the enemy. Certain guilty villages were marked out for destruction, and all the men inhabiting them were to be slaughtered. All sepoys of mutinous regiments not giving a good account of themselves were to be hanged. The town of Fatehpur, which had revolted, was to be attacked, and the Pathan quarters destroyed with all their inhabitants. Renaund, “pressed on his commission, and eager to do the bidding of his Chief, on they marched for three days, leaving everywhere behind them, as they went, traces of retributory power of the English in desolated villages and corpses dangling from the branches of trees.
V. Long Answer Type Questions-I
1. Describe the main sources for constructing the history of rising of 1857.
Answer: The main sources for constructing the history of the 1857 uprising can be categorized as follows:
Official records and unpublished documents: These include the National Archives of India, which houses a variety of records like the Mutiny Papers in Urdu and Persian, proceedings of various departments, and Persian and Urdu papers recovered from the palace after the fall of Delhi.
Punjab Government Record Office: This office possesses important papers like those of Maulvi Rajab Ali and correspondence with Punjab princes, as well as manuscript collections such as Naqal-i-Marasalajat, Naqal-i-Siqajat, and Intzam Mafsadan.
West Bengal Record Office: This office contains many papers related to the Mutiny in Bihar and Rattray’s Sikhs, as well as records of trials preserved among the District Records of Bihar.
Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh archives: These archives possess papers relating to the Uprising of 1857.
India Office Library, London: This library holds four volumes of notes and documents used by Sir John Kaye, including private papers and correspondence of exceptional interest and value.
Parliamentary Papers: Some of the published records related to the uprising can be found in the Parliamentary Papers, such as official narratives, reports on engineering operations, and accounts of the North-West Provinces of India during the Mutiny.
British newspapers: Stories of the Uprising were published in British newspapers and magazines, providing detailed accounts of the violence and reflecting the sentiments of the British people during the period of Mutiny.
General works: Numerous books, memoirs, and personal accounts written by military officers, scholars, and contemporary writers offer insights into the events and experiences of the 1857 uprising.
Paintings: British painters like Barker and Paton depicted various moments and scenes from the Mutiny, providing a visual record of the events.
By analysing and comparing these diverse sources, historians can construct a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the 1857 uprising, its causes, and its consequences.
2. Describe the main events of the rising of 1857 at Lucknow.
Answer: The main events of the rising of 1857 at Lucknow are as follows:
Revolt begins: On the night of 30th May 1857, a cannon boomed in the cantonment of Lucknow Mahal, signaling the start of the revolt. The massacre of Englishmen, burning of their houses, and hoisting of Emperor Bahadur Shah’s green flag followed.
Leadership by Begum of Awadh: The revolt was led by Begum Hazrat Mahal, who declared her young son Burijis Kadar as the Nawab of Awadh. Other prominent figures in organizing the revolt included Maulwa Ahmed Shah of Faizabad, Raja Man Singh, the Taluqadar of Shahgunj, and Raja Hanumat Singh.
Popular revolt: The uprising soon took the form of a popular revolt, with sepoys, Zamindars, and peasants joining forces with the Begum to attack the British.
British take shelter: The British General, Henry Lawrence, along with 1,000 British and 700 Indian sepoys, took shelter in the British Residency building at Lucknow.
Siege of the Residency: On 1st July 1857, the rebels besieged the Residency building. Henry Lawrence was struck by a cannonball and died, but the besieged British soldiers continued fighting against the rebels.
Reinforcements and continued siege: General Neill captured Allahabad and, along with Havelock, proceeded towards Lucknow after fighting rebels in Kanpur. Although Havelock reached the Residency, they continued the siege, waiting for reinforcements from Allahabad.
Campbell’s arrival: Campbell, the newly appointed commander-in-chief of the army, marched with a large army to help Havelock. The forces of Campbell and Havelock besieged the rebels, leading to a fierce fight in the streets of Lucknow.
Temporary rebel retreat: The rebels eventually had to lift the siege of the Residency, but they continued to occupy a large part of Lucknow. Havelock died on 24th September, and Campbell focused on the conquest of Kanpur until December.
Final British assault: In December 1857, Campbell received reinforcements, and in February 1858, a large British army marched from Kanpur to Lucknow. Outram had already reached Alam Bagh with 4,000 soldiers, and the troops of both commanders routed the rebels.
British victory: The British eventually occupied the entire city of Lucknow, effectively breaking the backbone of the rebels and marking a significant turning point in the uprising of 1857.
5. Is it proper to call the uprising of 1857 as the First War of Indian Independence?
Answer: It is a matter of debate among historians whether it is proper to call the uprising of 1857 the First War of Indian Independence. Some argue that it was merely a sepoy mutiny, while others consider it a national revolt against British rule. Here are some factors that support the claim of it being the First War of Indian Independence:
Participation from various sections of society: The uprising was not limited to Indian soldiers (sepoys) but also involved native rulers, nawabs, Hindus, Muslims, rich, and poor. This shows a united effort against the British rule.
Role of women: Women, like Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, actively participated in the revolt and fought alongside men, further highlighting the national character of the uprising.
Leaders were not motivated by selfish interests: Many leaders of the revolt, such as Bahadur Shah II and Tantia Tope, were not driven by selfish interests but by the desire to free their country from foreign rule.
Pre-planned revolt: The revolt was planned months before it actually took place, suggesting a coordinated effort among various groups rather than just a spontaneous rebellion by the sepoys.
Long-standing grievances: The greased cartridges episode was just the spark that ignited the accumulated discontent among Indians against British rule. The uprising was fueled by various social, economic, and political factors that had been building for years.
National awakening: The spirit of national awakening was emerging during this time, and the events of 1857 served as an inspiration for the nationalist movement in the twentieth century.
While the 1857 uprising had elements of a nationalist revolt, it is essential to note that it was not a fully organized and united national movement. The revolt did not spread across the entire country, and there were instances of internal conflicts between various factions.
In conclusion, referring to the uprising of 1857 as the First War of Indian Independence can be justified to some extent, considering its broader impact on Indian society and the national awakening it inspired. However, it is essential to recognize its limitations as a unified and organized national movement.
6. What do the visual representations tell us about the revolt of 1857? How do the historians analyse these representations?
Answer: Visual representations of the Revolt of 1857 offer a glimpse into the events, emotions, and sentiments that unfolded during that time. These representations, which include paintings, illustrations, and cartoons, not only depict the violence and brutality of the revolt but also highlight the responses and reactions from both the British and Indian sides.
British painters documented key moments, such as Campbell’s entry in Lucknow by Thomas Jones Barker, and the painting “In Memoriam” by Joseph Noel Paton, which portrays English women and children awaiting their fate. The Illustrated London also printed images of the execution of mutineers in Peshawar, indicating the widespread British response to the uprising.
These visual representations reveal the anger and shock felt by the British people, who demanded retribution and supported brutal repression and violent reprisal. The images also depict the vengeance exhibited by British officers in their execution methods, such as blowing rebels from cannons or hanging them from gallows.
In contrast, nationalist imageries of the 1857 Revolt in India emerged as a source of inspiration for the nationalist movement in the twentieth century. Indian artists and writers contributed to the creation of heroic figures and imagery that celebrated the events as the first war of Indian independence. The Rani of Jhansi, for example, was depicted as a symbol of determination to fight against injustice and foreign rule.
Historians analyze these visual representations to better understand the motivations, aspirations, and emotions of the people involved in the Revolt of 1857. While some historians view the revolt as a sepoy mutiny with the involvement of disgruntled elements, others argue that it was a popular uprising with traces of national elements. This analysis helps historians piece together a more comprehensive picture of the events, motivations, and consequences of the 1857 Revolt, as well as its impact on the subsequent nationalist movement in India.
7. What part was played by Nana Sahib, Azim Ullahshah and Tantia Tope in the rising of 1857?
Answer: Nana Sahib, Azim Ullah Shah, and Tantia Tope were prominent leaders in the uprising of 1857, also known as the First War of Indian Independence or the Sepoy Mutiny.
Nana Sahib: The adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Sahib was the leader of the revolt in Kanpur. After occupying Kanpur in June, he declared himself Peshwa. He initially assured the British of their safe passage to Allahabad, but Indian soldiers, enraged by the news of atrocities committed by General Neill, attacked the British. This led to the massacre of a large number of British soldiers, while Nana Sahib took 125 women and children into his custody, who were later killed at Bibigarh. Ultimately, the British recaptured Kanpur, and Nana Sahib, disappointed, fled to the forests of Nepal and was never heard from again.
Azim Ullah Shah: Azim Ullah Shah in the provided text, he was an influential figure during the revolt. He served as an advisor to Nana Sahib and played a crucial role in organizing and strategizing the rebellion. His diplomatic skills helped to bring different factions together in their fight against the British.
Tantia Tope: One of Nana Sahib’s most loyal supporters, Tantia Tope played a significant role in the uprising. After the fall of Kanpur, he joined Rani Lakshmi Bai in Jhansi and fought alongside her against the British. Later, when the British invaded Jhansi and captured Kalpi, Tantia Tope and Rani Lakshmi Bai moved to Gwalior, hoping for support from the Scindhiya ruler. However, the Scindhiya refused to join them and was eventually defeated by Rani Lakshmi Bai’s troops. After Rani Lakshmi Bai’s death in battle, Tantia Tope fled to the south but was ultimately captured and hanged to death on April 18, 1859.
These leaders played significant roles in the revolt of 1857, demonstrating courage, strategic thinking, and a strong desire to free their country from British rule. They inspired others to join the fight and contributed to the broader struggle for Indian independence.
8. What did the rebels want? To what extent did the vision of different social groups differ?
Answer: The rebels during the 1857 uprising in India wanted to overthrow British rule and restore the pre-British socio-political order. They were driven by various grievances, including the loss of power and status among rulers and zamindars, the impact of British trade policies on Indian merchants and artisans, the low pay and lack of respect for Indian soldiers in the British army, and the perceived threat to the religious beliefs and practices of both Hindus and Muslims.
Different social groups involved in the rebellion had their own specific grievances and motivations, which led to differing visions of what they hoped to achieve. However, there were common themes that united these diverse groups:
Restoration of pre-British rule: The rebels sought to reinstate the Mughal Empire or other regional powers to restore the pre-British socio-political order. They believed that the British had disrupted their way of life and wanted to reestablish the harmony of different communities that had existed under the Mughal rule.
Preservation of religion and culture: The rebels were concerned about the potential destruction of their religious and cultural identities by the British, who were seen as attempting to convert them to Christianity. They fought to protect their faiths, traditions, and customs.
Economic grievances: The rebels were angered by the British land revenue policies, which had dispossessed many landlords and ruined artisans and weavers. They sought to restore the traditional systems of land ownership and revive local industries.
Social and political empowerment: The rebels wanted to regain the political power and social status that had been eroded under British rule. They believed that native Indians should hold positions of authority and be treated with respect.
Despite these common goals, the vision of different social groups did differ in some aspects. For instance, the zamindars and rulers wanted to regain their lost power and privileges, while the common people sought relief from economic exploitation and a return to traditional ways of life. The sepoys, on the other hand, sought better pay, respect, and equal opportunities in the military hierarchy.
VI. Long Answer Type Questions-II
1. What do you think are major problems faced by historian in reconstructing the point of view of the rebels?
Answer: Historians face several challenges when reconstructing the point of view of the rebels during events like the revolt of 1857. Some of these challenges include:
Limited and biased sources: Many historical accounts of the revolt come from European and British sources, which may have their own biases and may not accurately represent the perspective of the rebels. Primary sources from the rebels themselves might be scarce, making it difficult to understand their motivations and experiences.
Language barriers: The rebels and their supporters may have communicated in various languages, some of which may not be familiar to historians. This can make it difficult to access and interpret original documents and accounts.
Diverse motivations and backgrounds: The rebels involved in the revolt had diverse backgrounds, affiliations, and motivations. Understanding each individual’s perspective can be challenging, especially when trying to create a comprehensive view of the rebellion.
Fragmented and localized nature of the revolt: The revolt was not a unified, centrally organized movement, but rather a series of uprisings in different parts of India. This fragmented nature makes it difficult to identify common themes and motivations across the various uprisings.
Lack of comprehensive documentation: The revolt took place in the mid-19th century, when documentation and record-keeping were not as systematic or extensive as they are today. This can make it challenging to piece together the events and perspectives of the time.
Interpretation and bias of modern historians: Historians themselves can have biases and preconceived notions about historical events, which may influence their interpretation of the evidence. This can lead to different historians reaching different conclusions about the nature and motivations of the revolt.
Political and ideological narratives: The way in which the revolt of 1857 is understood and represented has evolved over time, shaped by the political and ideological narratives of different historical periods. This can make it difficult to disentangle the rebels’ actual perspectives from the ways in which they have been portrayed in subsequent retellings of the event.
4. Why did the people believe in the rumours? Explain.
Answer: People believed in the rumours for several reasons:
Deep-rooted fears and suspicions: The people of India had deep-rooted fears and suspicions about the intentions of the British. The policies adopted by the British, such as promoting Western education, ideas, and institutions, as well as passing laws that challenged traditional customs, fueled these fears. The activities of Christian missionaries further aggravated these suspicions, leading people to believe that the British aimed to destroy their cherished socio-religious customs.
Lack of trust in the British: The British had a history of annexing territories of native rulers and breaking treaties, which led people to perceive them as untrustworthy. This mistrust made it easier for people to believe in rumours, even if they were not factually correct.
Socio-economic impact of British rule: The British land revenue settlements had dispossessed landlords and ruined artisans and weavers. These negative consequences of British rule made people more receptive to rumours that portrayed the British as destructive and oppressive.
Threat to identity and religion: The rumours played on the fears of the people that the British intended to destroy their caste and religious systems and convert them to Christianity. This perceived threat to their identity, faith, and way of life made the rumours more believable.
Prophecies and omens: The prophecy that British rule would end on the centenary of the Battle of Plassey, along with the mysterious distribution of chappatis, created a sense of impending upheaval. People interpreted these events as omens, further reinforcing their belief in the rumours.
Thus, people believed in the rumours because they played on their existing fears, suspicions, and grievances against the British. These factors, combined with a lack of trust in the British and the perceived threat to their identity and religion, made it easier for people to accept the rumours as true.
Extra/additional questions and answers
1. What are some important sources for studying the events of the Mutiny?
Answer: Some important sources for studying the events of the Mutiny are:
- Official records and accounts in published and unpublished form found in the National Archives of India and Commonwealth Relations Office (formerly India Office) Library, London.
- Press list of Mutiny Papers in Urdu and Persian.
- Proceedings of the Foreign Department, Political and Secret, Home Department Public Proceedings, Military Department Proceedings, and Persian and Urdu papers recovered from the palace after the fall of Delhi.
- Punjab Government Record Office’s papers of Maulvi Rajab Ali, Persian and Urdu correspondence with Punjab princes, and manuscript collections entitled Naqal-i-Marasalajat and Naqal-i- Siqajat and Mutiny Papers styled as Intzam Mafsadan.
- West Bengal Record Office’s papers relating to Mutiny in Bihar and Rattray’s Sikhs, and the proceedings of trials preserved among the District Records of Bihar.
- Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh archives’ papers relating to the Uprising of 1857.
- India Office Library London’s four volumes of notes and documents used by Sir John Kaye (Home Misc. 724-27).
- Parliamentary Papers, British News Papers, and General Works.
2. What is the significance of the Revolt of May 1857 in Indian history?
Answer: The Revolt of May 1857 was significant in Indian history as it was the First War of Indian Independence. Although the revolt failed, it sowed the seeds of the freedom struggle, which ultimately led to India achieving independence in August 1947.
3. List three general works that can be used as sources for studying the events of the Mutiny.
Answer: Three general works are: (1) A Personal Journal of the Siege of Lucknow by Captain R.P. Anderson, (2) The Campaign in India (1857-58) by Captain G.F. Atkinson, and (3) Indian Gup: Untold Stories of the Indian Mutiny by Rev. J.R. Baldwin.
4. How do British paintings from the period contribute to our understanding of the events of the Mutiny?
Answer: British paintings from the period contribute to our understanding of the events of the Mutiny by visually capturing and depicting key moments and scenes from the uprising. Examples include Barker’s painting celebrating Campbell’s entry into Lucknow, Thomas Jones Barker’s 1859 painting of the relief of Lucknow, and Joseph Noel Paton’s “In Memorium,” painted two years after the Mutiny. These paintings provide visual representations of historical events and help us understand the emotions and experiences of the people involved, as well as the perspectives of the artists who created them.
60. What impact did the events of 1857 have on the future of Indian politics?
Answer: The events of 1857 had a significant impact on the future of Indian politics, as they served as a constant reminder of courage, patriotism, and resistance against colonial rule. This memory of the uprising fueled the birth and growth of nationalism in Indian politics. The events of 1857 helped unite different sections of society and encouraged them to work together for the liberation of the country. The sense of nationalism and unity that emerged from the 1857 revolt laid the foundation for the National Movement and future struggles for independence in India.
1. Which rebellion took place in 1831?
A. Kutch Rebellion B. Kol uprising C. Santhal uprising D. Meerut Mutiny
Answer: B. Kol uprising
2. When did the Santhal uprising occur?
A. 1856 B. 1857 C. 1858 D. 1860
Answer: C. 1858
3. Where can the press list of Mutiny Papers in Urdu and Persian be found?
A. India Office Library B. West Bengal Record Office C. National Archives of India D. Punjab Government Record Office
Answer: C. National Archives of India
107. Which British historian believed that beef and pork were used in the making of the cartridges?
A. Winston Churchill B. Sir John Kaye C. Edward Gibbon D. Arnold Toynbee
Answer: B. Sir John Kaye
106. What did the 1857 events inspire in Indian politics?
A. Regionalism B. Imperialism C. Nationalism D. Secularism
Answer: C. Nationalism
Get notes of other boards, classes, and subjects