Alternative Ideas and Initiatives: WBBSE Class 10 History answers

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Get here the summary, questions, answers, textbook solutions, extras, and pdf of Chapter 5 “Alternative Ideas and Initiatives (From mid-19th Century to the Early 20th Century): Characteristics and Observations” of the West Bengal Board (WBBSE) Class 10 (Madhyamik) History (Social Science) textbook. However, the given notes/solutions should only be used for references and should be modified/changed according to needs.

printing press, illustrating the chapter Alternative Ideas and Initiatives

Summary: The Indian press played a significant role in advancing the Indian nationalist cause. James Augustus Hicky established the first Indian newspaper. The first Bengali monthly, Digdarshan, was published by the Serampore Missionary. Samachar Darpan, edited by JC Marshman, first appeared in print in 1818. It was also a time when several other newspapers appeared. A few examples are “Sambad Kaumudi,” “Samachar Chandrika,” “Sambad Prabhakar,” “Jnananweshan,” “Sambad Bhaskar,” “Saptahik Bartabaha,” etc. Publication in these newspapers aided in the dissemination of information and awareness. The majority of Indians in the 18th and 19th centuries were unable to read or write.

The printing of books made it simple to share knowledge with others. Baptist Mission Press began publishing books in Bengali and other regional languages. Lord Wellesley established Fort William College in 1800 to educate and train young Indian civilian recruits. Forerunner of the printing industry, Upendrakishore Raychowdhury. His innovative approach to printing books and photographs in black and white in addition to colour has made him famous in India and beyond. He established one of the premier publishing houses in 1913 in the North Calcutta neighbourhood of Garpar. There are a number of halftone block-related methods he developed. During this time, scientists also conducted studies in a variety of disciplines. 

Nationalists at the century’s end believed that the existing educational system was inadequate, so they created the “National Educational Institution” to better serve the populace’s academic requirements. With this end in mind, the “National Council of Education” was established to establish a comprehensive national educational system. The ‘Society for Promotion of Technical Education in Bengal’ was founded by a different group of educators with the aim of increasing access to technical training for the general public.

Rabindranath’s ashramic school in Santiniketan was the physical manifestation of his educational ideals. Because Rabindranath didn’t like having his students cooped up inside a building, classes at Santiniketan were held under the open sky. Students engaged in a range of artistic pursuits and community service projects to foster their personal and spiritual growth. At “Visva Bharati,” Rabindranath aimed to bring together and unite different cultural traditions from the East and West. For him, this is where “the foundation of the relationship in which awaits dissemination all over the world will be established here.” can be laid. While discussing the institution’s goals and objectives, he stated that he had been so moved by the pressing need and weighty responsibility of the situation that he had established the groundwork for an International University dedicated to fostering understanding between Asia and the Western world.

Very short answer type questions

1. When was the Serampore Mission Press established? 

Answer: In 1800 Serampore Mission Press was established.

2. Who and when wrote “Varna Parichay”?

Answer: Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar wrote ‘Varna Parichay’ in 1905. 

3. What was the name of the first weekly newspaper, Serampore Mission Press, published in Bengali?

Answer: ‘Samachar Darpan’ was the first Bengali weekly published by Serampore Mission Press.

4. Where was the first printing press set up in Bengal? Who established it?

Answer: In Hooghly, the first printing press was established. John Andrews established it.

5. When and by whom was the Hindusthani Press in Calcutta established? 

Answer: John Gilchrist and William Hunter founded the Hindusthani Press in Calcutta in 1802.

6. Who is known as the pioneer of the Indian Press?

Answer: James Augustus Hicky is known as the pioneer of Indian Press.

7. Who enacted the University Act of 1904? 

Answer: Lord Curzon enacted the University Act of 1904.

8. What is the full form of SPTE? 

Answer: SPTE stands for Society for the Promotion of Technical Education.

9. Who was the founder of Bengal Chemicals?

Answer: Bengal Chemicals was founded by Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray.

10. What did Jagadish Chandra Bose invent?

Answer: Jagadish Chandra Bose invented the crescograph.

11. Who founded the Indian Association for Science Cultivation?

Answer: The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science was founded by Mahendralal Sircar.

12. What is the full form of NCERT? 

Answer: NCERT stands for National Council of Educational Research and Training.

13. Who was regarded as the father of wireless technology? 

Answer: Jagadish Chandra Bose is widely regarded as the “Father of Wireless Technology.”

14. Who founded the Calcutta Science College? 

Answer: Calcutta Science College was founded by Ashutosh Mukherjee.

Short answer type questions

1. What made “Hicky’s Bengal Gazette” so important?

Answer: There were many reasons why “Hicky’s Bengal Gazette” was crucial. As the country’s first major newspaper, it did more than just report the news; it encouraged Indians to take pride in their country. It was also unrestricted and autonomous.

2. What function did the Battala hawkers play in the Bengali press industry?

Answer: Battala, based in the city of Calcutta, was a major player in the Bengali press industry. Publishing houses in Battala would hire hawkers to distribute their books to outlying villages. The peddlers would travel from town to town and even to remote villages to sell books. Sometimes they would accept used books in exchange for new ones rather than cash. These books were sold in a variety of Calcutta printing facilities. Since Battala books were so inexpensive, demand was high.

3. Why did Rammohan Roy fight against Adam’s Press Regulations?

Answer: The division between the Anglo-Indian and Indian presses prompted Rammohan Roy to oppose Adam’s Press Regulations. Although the Anglo-Indian press was not subject to any censorship, the Indian press was subject to a number of restrictions.

4. When and where did the Portuguese start using a printing press in India?

Answer: In 1556, the Portuguese established their first printing press in Goa.

5. Who was Baboo Ram and what did he establish? 

Answer: Fort William College’s Sanskrit language and literature instructor was Baboo Ram. In 1807, he founded the Sanskrit Press. 

6. What part did Panchanan Karmakar play in the growth of the Bengali Press?

Answer: Skilled goldsmith Panchanan Karmakar created a set of Bengali letters for use in typing. The term “Father of Bengali Typewriting” has been coined to describe him. His illustrations were used by Serampore Mission Press in their Bengali book editions.

7. Why were lectures and classes held outside in Santiniketan?

Answer: Students at Santiniketan had ample opportunity for personal freedom. The freedom to roam the campus was appreciated. They were free to play however they liked. Due to Rabindranath’s personal distaste for confining students to a single room, classes were often held under the open sky. He felt that a student was no different from a caged bird when confined to the four walls of a classroom.

8. Why was the colonial educational system flawed?

Answer: There were many problems with the colonial education system. Only a small fraction of Indians had access to the colonial schooling system. The villagers had no access to the advantages of a western education system. Female students were ignored, and the colonial school system failed to entice the Muslim population. The primary flaw was a lack of emphasis on elementary school education. 

9. What effect did the invention of the printing press have on Bengal’s cultural life?

Answer: Prior to the development of the printing press, access to education was limited to the ruling elite. However, with the advent of the printing press, books for the general public could be produced at a low cost. This aided the movement to educate Bengal’s populace at large. The Serampore Press published a number of translations, making Bengali literature accessible to a wider audience.

10. What was the Christian Missionaries’ main goal in bringing western education to India? 

Answer: Christian missionaries played a crucial part in introducing western education to India. Christian missionaries’ primary motivation for introducing Western education to the people of India was to advance the Christian faith. The missionaries assumed that by exposing the Indians to western culture and education, they would abandon their traditional religion in favour of Christianity.

11. What did CV Raman win the Nobel Prize for, and in what year?

Answer: The Nobel Prize in Physics for 1930 went to Chandrasekhar Venkat Raman, who discovered the now-famous Raman Effect.

12. What was the purpose of Sriniketan’s establishment?

Answer: Sriniketan, located close to Santiniketan, was a lifelong ambition of Rabindranath Tagore. In 1922, Tagore founded the organisation. Its purpose was to teach villagers how to provide for themselves so that they could enjoy a higher standard of living. The programme encouraged the people of rural areas to work together to improve agriculture and infrastructure. Rather than imposing a solution on the villagers, the programme encouraged them to find their own answers. Tagore’s attempt to put into practise his ideas about village reform was the Institute of Rural Reconstruction. It has become a major centre for rural revitalization initiatives. 

Long answer type questions

1. Describe the relationship between the spread of education and the use of printed books.

Answer: A significant factor in the dissemination of education in Bengal was the establishment of printing presses in the latter half of the 18th century.

i. Several academic books from a variety of universities and colleges have been printed on these presses. Literature, mathematics, science, history, geography, etc. were all covered in these books. These books’ low prices made them accessible to students in Bengal’s rural areas, which contributed to their meteoric rise in popularity.

ii. After the advent of the printing press in Bengal, ancient texts such as the Bible, Ramayana, Mahabharata, and others were published in Bengali translation. In addition, a number of academic papers appeared in print. These were widely disseminated throughout Bengal’s common people.

iii. It was from these presses that a number of periodicals appeared, both in Bengali and English. These papers featured not only daily news but also numerous educational articles.

iv. The Calcutta School Book Society was established in 1817 to create textbooks for students and distribute them at low or no cost. Several schools in Calcutta were founded after the Calcutta School Society was organised in 1818. Since then, Bengal’s schooling has advanced.

2. What was Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar’s contribution to the advancement of science in Bengal?

Answer: In 1876, Mahendralal Sarkar founded the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS). Until now, there had never existed anywhere else in India a place where people could come together to talk about topics related to fundamental research. One of the reasons why Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar is considered the “The father of the Study of Modern Science” is because of this.

Located at 210 Bowbazar Street, this establishment relied on public funding. This Bengali institution did great things for the growth of Bengal’s culture and intelligence in the 19th century. At this school, students were immersed in an atmosphere with strong indigenous and nationalist overtones. This organization’s primary focus is on basic science research. The IACS is still working towards this end, with the intention of making people’s everyday lives easier.

In the beginning, this school had exceptionally qualified professors teaching classes. Ashutosh Mukherjee, Chunilal Bose, Premnath Bose, Father Lafont, and Jagadish Chandra Basu were among them. In addition, notable figures like Vidyasagar and Keshav Chandra Sen served on the IACS trust board. Raja Pyarimohan Mukherjee was the first Indian to hold the position of President of IACS in 1912. After him came doctors like Nil Ratan Sarkar, Gyan Chandra Ghosh, and Satyendranath Bose (an eminent physicist).

In 1907, under the direction of Sir C. V. Raman, IACS began to take a new direction in its development. Amrit Lal Sarkar, the son of Dr. Mahendra Lal Sarkar, worked as a secretary at the time. He oversaw the entirety of the institute’s operations. The Raman Effect was first documented by Dr. Raman in 1928. For this achievement, he received the Nobel Prize. Many emerging scientific fields can be traced back to Raman’s work at the IACS. K. S. Krishnan, who contributed to fields like New Physics and Structural Physics, stands out. K. Banerjee, another famous scientist, studied crystals.

In time, the IACS grew into India’s preeminent hub for study in the material sciences. In the present day, the IACS continues to attract a large number of students from all over India. D. S. Bhagavantam, L. Srinivastav, N. K. Seti, C. Prasad, and Meghnad Saha are just a few of the renowned scientists who contributed to the field in later decades.

3. What role did the Calcutta Medical College play in this country’s medical science?

Answer: The first institution in India to provide systematic training in Western medicine was the Calcutta Medical College of Bengal, established in 1835. The 28 January 1835 order that founded the College marked a turning point in the development of India’s medical education system. The stated goal was to teach young indigenous people (aged 14–20) the fundamentals of European-style medicine. This ended the government’s support for traditional medicine. There was a wide range of reactions to the introduction of this new form of education in India. The first institution in India to teach the European medical system was the Calcutta Medical College. In addition, Calcutta Medical College’s first dissected corpse is credited to Madhusudan Gupta.

4. What role did Ganga Kishore Bhattacharyya play in the development of the Bengali printing press?

Answer: The first institution in India to provide systematic training in Western medicine was the Calcutta Medical College of Bengal, established in 1835. The 28 January 1835 order that founded the College marked a turning point in the development of India’s medical education system. The stated goal was to teach young indigenous people (aged 14–20) the fundamentals of European-style medicine. This ended the government’s support for traditional medicine. There was a wide range of reactions to the introduction of this new form of education in India. The first institution in India to teach the European medical system was the Calcutta Medical College. In addition, Calcutta Medical College’s first dissected corpse is credited to Madhusudan Gupta.

5. How did the Serampore Mission Press become a leading printing press?

Answer: When the Serampore Mission was established in 1800, it marked a turning point in the development of Christian missionary work in India. But the mission’s work in the field of printing was just as crucial. William Carey nearly completed a Bengali Bible translation as part of his mission to translate Christian scripture into the vernacular languages of India. Carey also installed some antiquated printing equipment he had brought with him. In 1801, the Serampore Mission Press released the first Bengali New Testament. Additionally, the Serampore Mission Press expanded to become the largest type- of foundry in modern-day Asia. The Bible, translated into forty different Indian languages, was the most significant product of the Serampore Mission Press. The Serampore Mission Press translated works into a wide variety of Indian languages, fostering their development.

6. What was Upendra Kishore Roy Choudhary’s contribution to modern commercial press?

Answer: The printing industry owes a lot to Upendrakishore Raychowdhury, a forerunner in the field. In the publishing industry, he is revered in India and beyond for his innovative approach to reproducing black-and-white and colour photographs faithfully and with stunning fidelity. He conceived of the idea for creating halftone blocks, which ultimately became the basis of the technique. Books, Chotoder Ramayan, the wood cut line, and his invention of the “screen adjusting machine” are all examples of his contributions to the field of halftone block-making. One of his book blocks was of poor quality, so he decided to study the process of block-making by importing books, chemicals, and equipment from Britain. In Britain’s ‘Penrose Annual Volume,’ he wrote about how to make blocks, which was published internationally. After mastering the technique, he launched a block-making enterprise. Having mastered the craft, he set out to found his own publishing company. Even though he did not have access to a printing press at first, he continued to publish books. He arranged for other printing facilities to produce his books. In 1913, he established U. Ray & Sons, a publishing house widely regarded as among the finest in Garpar, in the northern part of Calcutta. Using his innovative approach, he quickly gained renown in India and beyond for the high quality of the photographs he was able to print in both black and white and colour. His Tuntunir Boi remains a staple in the refrigerators of many Bengalis. Most of his book illustrations were original works. In addition to being an entrepreneur, Upendrakishore Raychowdhury was a writer, painter, violinist, and composer.

7. What is the significance of the Indian Association in the advancement of science?

Answer: Mahendra Lal Sircar, a scientist, founded the Indian Association for Cultivation in 1867. It is a prestigious research centre in India. It was India’s first statewide scientific organisation. Mohendralal understood that for India to prosper economically and experience rapid social transformation, it was imperative that its people prioritise scientific study. Therefore, he intended for native Indians to fund, manage, and direct the organisation. Mohendra Lal and Father Eugene Lafort opened the association at 210 Bowbazar street, Calcutta, to the support of many excited and generous locals. In time, it found a permanent home in the city of Jadavpur. Departments like Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, Biology, and Spectroscopy were set up, with Dr. Sircar serving as the secretary, and eminent people like K.C. Sen and C. Vidyasagar playing key roles. Members of the board of trustees included names like Eugene Lafort and Jagadish Chandra. Scientists like K.S. Krishnan (Magnetism) and Ashutosh Saha (Astrophysics) worked alongside Bose and Ashutosh. Experiments are performed on a regular basis for the general public at this institute in an effort to make scientific knowledge more accessible to the general public. The Raman Effect was first discovered by Nobel laureate C.V. Raman at this very institution.

8. What role did Bengal Technical Institute play in the advancement of artisan education in Bengal?

Answer: Taraknath Palit founded the Bengal Technical Institute in Calcutta in 1905, during the Swadeshi Movement against Bengal’s partition. It has made the following contributions to the spread of technical education:

i. During the Swadeshi Movement, an attempt was made to establish a national system of education as an alternative to the British government’s education system. The spread of education was one of the goals of national education. Taraknath Palit, an Indian lawyer, established the Bengal Technical Institute in Calcutta on July 25, 1906.

ii. In 1910, Bengal Technical Institute merged with Bengal National College to form the Bengal National College and Technical School in order to spread the indigenous system of education. In 1928, this joint So institution was renamed the College of Engineering and Technology (CET).

iii. Following the merger of the institutions, arrangements were made for the cultivation of various subjects such as Physics, Chemical Technology, Industrial Technology, and so on, in addition to Humanities disciplines. As a result, several educated Bengalee youths will be able to pursue technical education and become self-sufficient.

iv. The College of Engineering and Technology students published a journal called ‘Tech.’ The first edition of this journal was dedicated to those who wished for national education during the Swadeshi Movement.

9. Describe how William Carey and the Serampore Mission contributed to the literacy movement.

Answer: Formal education was reserved for the upper classes before William Carey and other missionaries arrived. Carey established a printing press in the Serampore region of Bengal. As a result of his efforts, the Serampore Mission became a driving force in the expansion of public education throughout Bengal.

i. Around the year 1800, William Carey installed a printing press in Serampore. The Bible, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and other Indian literary works were all translated and made available to students in rural areas through this press.

ii. The year 1818 saw the opening of 103 primary schools in Serampore and the surrounding areas, providing education to a total of 6,703 children. The Serampore Mission was instrumental in the advancement of female education by founding the first school specifically for female students.

iii. In 1818, William Carey and two others opened a degree college in Serampore at their own expense. The university was the first of its kind in Asia.

iv. Carey understood that the only way to reach a large number of people in rural Bengal with education was to use the language of the people living there—in this case, Bengali. In light of this, he made an effort to use Bengali as a vehicle for educational outreach.

v. Carey aimed to cleanse his students’ minds of bigotry and superstition. He advocated for a shift away from the traditional approach to education in favour of one that places greater emphasis on the study of contemporary literature, science, mathematics, history, philosophy, etc.

10. How did Upendrakishore Raychowdhury contribute to the growth of Bengal’s printing sector?

Answer: In the printing industry, Upendrakishore Raychowdhury was an early innovator. In the publishing industry, he is revered in India and beyond for his innovative approach to reproducing black-and-white texts and colour photographs with stunning precision and nuance. He conceived of the halftone block technique. Among his many innovations in the field of creating halftone blocks, the “screen adjusting machine” stands out as particularly useful. After realising that the wood cut line block for one of his books, Chotoder Ramayan, was of low quality, he decided to learn the process of block-making by importing books, chemicals, and equipment from Britain. He has had several articles on blockmaking published in the British publication Penrose Annual Volume. After mastering the technique, he launched a block manufacturing company. Since he had finally mastered the craft, he set out to found his own publishing company. In the beginning, he did not have his own printing press. This necessitated having his books printed at alternative facilities. In 1913, he established U Ray & Sons, one of the premier publishing houses, in the North Calcutta neighbourhood of Garpar. The new technique he devised for printing black and white and colour photographs with great accuracy quickly gained him widespread acclaim in India and beyond. His Tuntunir Boi remains a staple in many Bengali households, where it is cherished and enjoyed by all.

11. Describe how the Serampore Mission Press rose to prominence as a printing pioneer.

Answer: Christian missionaries from Denmark, established several printing press in Serampore, due to various reasons. It added to the pride of the East. 

i. It was in Serampore that Christian missionary William Carey set up Asia’s largest and one of the world’s best printing presses.

ii.The Bible, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, etc., have all been translated into modern languages like Bengali, Hindi, Marathi, and so on, and published to a wide audience.

iii. The printing press also produced translations of academic books for Fort William College, Ramram Bose’s “Pratapaditya Charitra,” and a number of newspapers.

iv. Mass education flourished in Serampore thanks to the efforts of William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and William Ward. Between 1801 and 1832, this printing press produced over 2 lakh books in around 40 different languages. They were crucial in disseminating knowledge about history and science.

v. As a result of the high volume of books produced by these presses, they could be made available to low-income students at a reduced cost or for free. As a result, they were no longer prevented from enlightenment.

12. Why was the Vernacular Press Act introduced? What clauses did they contain?

Answer: While Lord Lytton was viceroy in 1878, he pushed through the Vernacular Press Act. The British colonial administration in India blamed the vernacular press for inciting a “critical nationalist spirit” among the populace. The moderate programme of prayer, petition, and protest was criticised in vernacular newspapers such as ‘Yugantar,’ ‘Bangabasi,’ the ‘Kaal,’ and the ‘Kesari. The need for resistance in order to win independence from the British was hammered home by the vernacular press. After years of criticism of government policies and actions in the native press, Lord Lytton enacted the Vernacular Press Act. In response to mounting opposition to the British government, the Act was passed. Publishers and printers of newspapers in Indian languages were required by the Vernacular Press Act to refrain from publishing content that could lead readers to form an anti-British opinion. They had to swear they wouldn’t spread propaganda that incited violence against British citizens, and the law allowed for hefty fines if they broke the rule. 

13. Make a note about the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.

Answer: Founded by Mahendralal Sircar in 1867, the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science is dedicated to advancing scientific study and discourse in India. When it comes to scientific research, it is at the forefront in India. The Indian Science Congress was the country’s first statewide scientific organisation. Mahendralal understood that the only way for India to achieve economic growth and speed up the process of social transformation was to encourage a culture of scientific inquiry. Therefore, he intended for an organisation to be founded, funded, and managed entirely by indigenous peoples. Mahendralal and Father Eugene Lafont opened the association at 210, Bowbazar street, Calcutta to much support from the local community. Jadavpur replaced the original site sometime later. Trustee luminaries included K. C. Sen and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, and the organization’s secretary was Dr. Sircar. Spectroscopy, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Biology were set up as the foundational disciplines. Eugene Lafort, Jagadish Chandra Bose, Ashutosh Mukherjee, Nilratan Sirker, and many others were among the lecturers. K. S. Krishnan (Magnetism) and Meghnad Saha (Astrophysics) were two of the many brilliant minds that called this place home. This organisation is conducting basic research across many scientific disciplines. Regular public lectures and demonstrations are held to increase exposure to scientific topics. Here is where C V Raman, winner of the Nobel Prize in physics, conducted his seminal research into the Raman Effect.

14. What role did Jagadish Chandra Bose play in advancing science education in Bengal?

Answer: Physicists, chemists, biologists, microbiologists, biophysicists, animal physiologists, immunologists, bioinformaticians, and environmental scientists all conduct research at Bose Institute. It was founded by Jagadish Chandra Bose in 1917 and is located at Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road in Rajabazar, West Bengal. Rabindranath, Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, Nilratan Sircar, Bhupendranath Basu, Sudhangshumohan Basu, Satishranjan Das, Abala Basu, and Jagadish Chandra were among the founding members who later formed a management team. The institute’s focus is on expanding access to scientific education and fostering new scientific breakthroughs. Jagadish Chandra made these remarks at the institute’s inauguration “Today, I dedicate this institution as more than a lab; it is a temple. The primary goals of this organisation are scientific progress and the dissemination of knowledge.” The Bose Institute was an early leader in integrating international perspectives into Indian research. Debendramohan Basu took over as head of the organisation following Jagadish Chandra’s passing.

15. Write a note about the Santiniketan ashram school founded by Rabindranath Tagore.

Answer: Rabindranath Tagore posited that there are three essential components necessary for an effective educational approach. The first is the ability to do as one pleases, the second is to express oneself creatively, and the third is for man to have an interactive dialogue with the natural world around him. A human being is born into both a natural and social environment. Rabindranath argues that the best approach to education is one that successfully combines both of these perspectives. He founded the Ashrama Vidyalaya in Santiniketan to facilitate this kind of coexistence. He hoped that the children would benefit from a more holistic education provided by the ashramic community and the surrounding natural environment. He opened this school in 1901 with a handful of students. He decided to open this institution after becoming inspired by the methods of ancient Indian ashramic education. In order to learn, the students there adopted a minimalist lifestyle. Teacher-student relationships were as close and respectful as those in the ancient ashramic tradition. Three of Rabindranath Tagore’s pedagogical tenets were put into practise at his Santiniketan school. Students were given adequate freedom at school. Participants had complete freedom of movement throughout the campus. Furthermore, they were free to engage in any form of play they desired. When deciding where to build the school, he followed his pedagogical ideals and principles. Rabindranath disliked having his students confined to a classroom, so he moved the lessons outside. Pupils engaged in a wide range of artistic pursuits and social improvement programmes designed to foster their personal and communal growth.

Multiple choice questions (MCQs)

1. What played a significant role in advancing the Indian nationalist cause?

1. Indian Music
2. Indian Food
3. Indian Films
4. Indian Press

2. Who established the first Indian newspaper?

1. Jawaharlal Nehru
2. Subhas Chandra Bose
3. James Augustus Hicky
4. Mahatma Gandhi

3. What was the name of the first Bengali monthly?

1. Bangla Sahitya
2. Bangla Darshan
3. Digdarshan
4. Bangla

4. Who edited Samachar Darpan?

1. Jc Marshman
2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
3. Jawaharlal Nehru
4. Mahatma Gandhi

5. Who established Fort William College in 1800?

1. Lord Wellesley
2. Lord Hastings
3. Lord Clive
4. Lord Cornwallis

6. Upendrakishore Raychowdhury printed books and photographs in what two colours?

1. Yellow And White
2. Blue And White
3. Black And White
4. Green And White

7.  What type of printing method did Upendrakishore Raychowdhury develop?

1. Halftone Block
2. Dye Transfer
3. Stencil
4. Monotype

8.  When was the Serampore Mission Press established?

1. 1801
2. 1802
3. 1800
4. 1803

9. What was the name of the first weekly newspaper, Serampore Mission Press, published in Bengali?

1. Samachar Darpan
2. Varna Parichay
3. Bangla Darpan
4. Mirat-Ul-Akbar

10. Who wrote Varna Parichay in 1905?

1. Rabindranath Tagore
2. Michael Madhusudan Dutt
3. Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar
4. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

11. Who was the first Bengali weekly published by Serampore Mission Press?

1. Samachar Darpan
2. Anandabazar Patrika
3. Sambad Prabhakar
4. Bartaman

12. Who established the first printing press?

1. John Andrews
2. Johannes Gutenberg
3. Aldus Manutius
4. William Caxton

13. Who founded the Hindustani Press in Calcutta in 1802?

1. John Gilchrist And William Hunter
2. William Carey
3. James Augustus Hickey
4. James Thompson

14. Who is known as the pioneer of the Indian press?

1. Subhash Chandra Bose
2. James Augustus Hicky
3. Mahatma Gandhi
4. Jawaharlal Nehru

15. Who enacted the University Act of 1904?

1. Lord Curzon
2. Lord Kitchener
3. Lord Roberts
4. Lord Salisbury

16. What does SPTE stand for?

1. Society for the Prevention of Tigers in Enclosure
2. Society for the Prevention of Teen Pregnancy
3. Society for Temporary Professional Journalists
4. Society for the Promotion of Technical Education

17. The Anglo-Indian press was not subject to what?

1. Censorship
2. Lack Of Interest
3. Government Control
4. Financial Instability

18. In what year did the Portuguese establish their first printing press in Goa?

1. 1553
2. 1556
3. 1555
4. 1554

19. In what year did Baboo Ram founded the sanskrit press?

1. 1807
2. 1837
3. 1827
4. 1847

20. Who created a set of Bengali letters for use in typing?

1. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
2. Rabindranath Tagore
3. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
4. Panchanan Karmakar

21. _________ was the name of the first Bengali monthly

1. Bangla Darshan
2. Bangla
3. Bangla Sahitya
4. Digdarshan

22. The majority of Indians in the 18th and 19th centuries were _________

1. Slaves
2. Unable to read or write
3. Educated
4. Farmers

23. The printing of books made it _________

1. Hard to share knowledge with others
2. Impossible to share knowledge with others
3. Simple to share knowledge with others
4. Only possible to share knowledge with others

24. Nationalists believed that the existing educational system was _________

1. Inadequate
2. Perfect
3. Too Easy
4. A Waste Of Time

25. _________ is known as the pioneer of indian press

1. Jawaharlal Nehru
2. Subhash Chandra Bose
3. James Augustus Hicky
4. Mahatma Gandhi

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