Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 11 (Arts) History (Themes in World History) Chapter 5: An Empire Across Three Continents- The Roman Empire. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.
The Roman Empire, alongside its rival the Iranian Empire, dominated most of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East during the period between the birth of Christ and AD 630, extending across three continents. Rome’s origins can be traced back to the eighth century BC, when it was founded as a small settlement on the Italian Peninsula. Over time, Rome transformed from a republic into a powerful empire, with Julius Caesar consolidating power in 37 BC. The political evolution of the Roman Empire can be broadly divided into two periods: the early empire, which lasted until the main part of the 3rd century AD, and the late empire, which followed. The transition from republic to empire was marked by Octavian, a former companion of Julius Caesar, being granted the titles of Augustus, Imperator, and Principate in 27 BC. Despite his claims to uphold the republican title of “First Citizen,” Octavian effectively functioned as the Emperor of the Roman Empire.
Textual questions and answers
I. Very short answer type questions
1. Who were Remulus and Remus brothers?
Answer: Remulus and Remus were brothers who founded Rome on the left bank of the river Taber (in the Italian Peninsula) in the middle of the eighth century before Christ.
2. When did Rome establish a republic?
Answer: In 509 BC, the Romans established a republic and abolished monarchy.
3. Who was the first Roman monarch in 27 BC?
Answer: Augustus was the first Roman monarch in 27 BC.
4. What was the original name of Augustus?
Answer: Octavian was the original name of Augustus.
5. Give the names of any three monuments built by Augustus in the city of Rome.
Answer: Three monuments built by Augustus in the city of Rome were the Ara Pacis Augustae, the Stagnum and Euripus, the Pantheon and the Saepta Julia.
6. Give the names of any four unworthy successors of Augustus.
Answer: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.
7. Who was Nero?
Answer: Nero was a Roman Emperor notorious for his tyrannical rule and the last of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
8. What were the names of two Roman Emperors during AD 284-337 who checked the decay of Roman empire?
Answer: Diocletian and Constantine.
9. Who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople?
Answer: Emperor Constantine.
10. Which barbarians were the cause of the fall of the West Roman Empire?
Answer: Germanic tribes led by Odoacer were the cause of the fall of the West Roman Empire.
11. Give the name of the last west Roman Emperor who was forced to abdicate?
Answer: Romulus Augustulus was the last west Roman Emperor who was forced to abdicate.
12. What is the meaning of Pax Romana?
Answer: Pax Romana refers to a period of peace and stability experienced within the Roman Empire due to effective Roman governance.
13. What do you know about Emperor Justinian?
Answer: Emperor Justinian, also known as Justinian the Great, ruled as the Eastern Roman Emperor from 527 to 565. His reign is notable for his ambitious, though only partially successful, efforts to restore the Empire.
14. When did the Byzantine Empire come to an end?
Answer: The Byzantine Empire came to an end in 1453.
15. Give the names of scholars who justified slavery.
Answer: Some scholars who justified slavery include Plato, Aristotle, Saint Augustine, and Thomas Aquinas.
16. Which philosophical ideas contributed to the end of the system of slavery?
Answer: The end of the slavery system was influenced by liberal, humanitarian, and socialist philosophical ideas.
17. Who was Spartacus?
Answer: Spartacus was a Thracian gladiator and an escaped slave in the Roman Empire who led a slave revolt against Roman forces.
18. When did Christianity become state religion in the Roman Empire?
Answer: Christianity became the state religion in the Roman Empire during Emperor Theodosius’ reign (379-395).
19. Give the names of three classes in which the Roman society was divided.
Answer: Roman society was divided into three classes: Patricians, Plebeians, and Slaves.
20. Who were Patricians?
Answer: Patricians were the highest and wealthiest social class in Rome, descended from the city’s earliest inhabitants.
21. Give the names of famous Roman thinkers and scholars.
Answer: Some famous Roman thinkers and scholars include Cicero, Virgil, Julius Caesar, and Horace.
22. What technique of architecture influenced most of the Roman architecture?
Answer: Roman architecture was heavily influenced by Greek architectural techniques.
23. What was the official language of the Roman Empire?
Answer: The official language of the Roman Empire was Latin.
II. Short answer type questions
1. Describe the economic reforms of Augustus.
Answer: Augustus implemented significant economic reforms such as a regular census for fair tax assessment and a financial structure that connected the central treasury to provincial treasuries. New taxes, including a poll tax and a land tax, were introduced to fund the imperial system. These reforms stimulated trade and contributed to stability, security, and prosperity throughout the empire.
2. Describe the progress of art and culture during the rule of Augustus.
Answer: During Augustus’ rule, Rome experienced a flourishing of arts and culture. The emperor commissioned notable architectural projects like the Ara Pacis Augustae, Stagnum and Euripus, Pantheon, and Saepta Julia. His reign also saw the rise of famous writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, Tibullus, and Livy. Augustus’ associate, C. Maecenas, was a renowned patron of the arts during this period.
3. What was the extent of Roman Empire in AD 192?
Answer: The Roman Empire in AD 192 included fortifications built from the Forth to the Clyde in the extreme north, the Rhine and the Danube in the northeast, which further curved north of the Danube to include Dacia (modern Romania). Both Asia Minor and Egypt were Roman possessions. In North Africa, the Romans controlled the coastal territories between Egypt and the Atlantic, with the Sahara as their southern limits.
4. How Diecletian and Constantine checked the decay of the fall of Roman Empire?
Answer: Diocletian and Constantine made efforts to halt the decline of the Roman Empire by implementing measures to strengthen the government and control prices, interest rates, and strategic exports. They reformed the military, tying agricultural laborers to the land, and established a totalitarian system to regulate the lives of citizens. These measures slowed down the empire’s civil wars and economic deterioration.
5. Write a note on the successors of Constantine.
Answer: The successors of Constantine in the East Roman or Byzantine Empire were a series of emperors who strove to halt the decline of the empire. However, their efforts only temporarily halted the decline. Beginning in 406, the west Roman emperors were powerless to prevent permanent large-scale invasions of Franks, Burgundians, Visigoths, and Vandals in Gaul, Spain, and Africa, nor could they prevent the ultimate indignity of the sack of Rome by barbarians in 410 and again in 455. Finally, in 476, Romulus Augustus, the last of the West Roman emperors, was deposed by the Germanic king Odoacer, marking the end of the Western Roman Empire.
6. How far were the German barbarians responsible for the fall of the West Roman Empire?
Answer: Germanic barbarians played a significant role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Over time, they encroached on Roman territory, with the Visigoths sacking Rome in 410, the Vandals in 455, and finally, the Germanic leader Odoacer deposing Emperor Romulus Augustus in 476.
7. Briefly describe the legacy of the West Roman Empire.
Answer: The Western Roman Empire left a lasting legacy, including impressive architectural structures, Romanized languages, and legal systems based on Roman law. The Roman Catholic Church’s organization and rituals owe much to the empire’s religious traditions, and the Pax Romana brought about centuries of peace and prosperity that influenced imperial unity.
8. How did the East Roman Empire come into existence?
Answer: The East Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, came into existence after the Roman Empire was divided in two by Emperor Diocletian in the late 3rd century. Diocletian kept the eastern half for his own administration and appointed a co-emperor for the western half. This division was hardened when Emperor Constantine built a new capital on the site of the old Greek colony of Byzantium on the Bosphorus.
9. Describe the slave rebellion led by Spartacus.
Answer: In 74 BC, a group of gladiators led by Spartacus revolted against slave owners in Capua. Spartacus, a Thracian gladiator, led the escaped slaves in attacks on Roman estates, caravans, and armies. They attracted thousands of supporters, though ultimately, they were defeated by the Roman commander, Marcus Licinius Crassus.
10. How were the Christians persecuted by the Roman Emperors?
Answer: Christians faced persecution in the Roman Empire due to their refusal to worship Roman gods and their criticism of Roman practices. Emperors Nero, Trajan, and Marcus Aurelius persecuted Christians, while in the third century AD, Decius, Valerian, and Diocletian intensified persecution efforts by targeting Christian soldiers, burning religious texts, and removing Christians from public offices.
11. Describe the contribution of the Romans to government and politics.
Answer: Romans made significant contributions to government and politics, including ideas about popular sovereignty, separation of powers, and the rule of law. Roman law forms the basis of legal codes in many countries today, and the Romans established the progressive principle of a defendant’s presumption of innocence until proven guilty. The official collection and codification of Roman laws during the empire’s later period proved to be a crucial milestone in human progress.
12. If you had lived in the Roman Empire, where would you rather have lived – in the towns or in the countryside? Explain why.
Answer: I would have lived in towns. Living in the towns of the Roman Empire would have provided more opportunities for cultural diversity, access to education and literacy, and economic opportunities. The towns had a more diverse population, with many different languages spoken, and a variety of religious cults and local deities. Casual literacy was widespread in towns like Pompeii, and there were more opportunities for education and learning. The towns also had a more developed economic infrastructure, with harbors, mines, quarries, brickyards, and olive oil factories. In contrast, the countryside was dominated by large rural estates, where the condition of slaves was often miserable, and poverty was widespread among the poor. However, it is important to note that this is a subjective question, and different people may have different preferences based on their individual circumstances and needs.
III. Essay type questions
1. Describe the achievements of Augustus
Answer: Augustus brought the Pax Romana (the advantages of peace brought by Roman Rule) to the Romans and to the world. He reformed and refined the administrative system of the Roman Empire, creating permanent standing offices headed by long-term appointments. He created a centralised system of courts under his own personal supervision and assumed direct control over the provincial governors, punishing them severely for corruption and extortions. Augustus made tax collection a state function, and taxes were collected efficiently. He also reorganized the army, creating a professional army where soldiers had to put in a minimum service of 25 years. Augustus recruited the Roman army from the ranks of the Roman citizens and officered them by men from the aristocratic classes. He kept the loyalty of the troops by taking their personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster. In the sphere of art and architecture, Augustus was a pre-eminent patron of the arts, and his building program was extensive, including his Forum, the Ara Pacis Augustae, the Stagnum and Euripus, the Pantheon, and the Saepta Julia. In literature, the Augustan Age was exceptionally bright, with some of Rome’s most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, and Livy.
2. Give an account of the achievements of Constantine.
Answer: Constantine (AD 306-337) was a strong and capable emperor who made significant achievements during his reign. He halted the decline of the Roman Empire and adopted policies to hold the empire together. He built a new capital on the site of the old Greek colony of Byzantium on the Bosphorus, which served as the proud capital of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire for centuries after Rome and the western empire had passed away. Constantine also made Christianity a tolerated religion and sought stability and cohesion through cooperation with Christianity. In 313, he issued the Edict of Milan, which granted complete freedom of worship to the Christians. He accelerated conversion among the upper classes of Roman society and took steps to convert the conservative peasantry who worshipped many pagan gods and goddesses. He made observation of Sunday obligatory, built new churches, granted alms to poorer congregations, exempted Christian priests from political obligations and compulsory labour, participated actively in Church Councils, and helped to enforce the decisions of these Councils. Under Constantine, it became increasingly difficult to be anything but Christian, and his successors (except Julian AD 361-63) took more direct steps against paganism. Constantine also reorganized the army, creating a professional army where soldiers had to put in a minimum service of 25 years, and recruited the Roman army from the ranks of the Roman citizens and officered them by men from the aristocratic classes.
3. How did Christianity spread in the Roman Empire?
Answer: Christianity spread in the Roman Empire through various means. In the beginning of the AD fourth century, Christianity was a small struggling sect in a vast sea of contradicting beliefs. But by AD 392, it was the only legal faith in Europe. Early Christians set for themselves the goal of carrying their faith to all men. As a result of St. Paul’s missionary work, congregations were founded in Jerusalem, Antioch, Phillipi, Thessalonica, Corinth and Athens. Tradition holds that Peter evangelized Rome and was followed there by Paul. Early successes were greater in the East than in the West, and in the cities than in the villages. The common people were obviously attracted to Christianity by such features as humility, its feeling for brotherhood, its care for the poor, the widowed and the orphans. Conversions took place first among the slaves, poor freemen and women, though, at all times, a few of the well-to-do were attracted to the new faith. Constantine’s pro-Christian policy accelerated conversion among the upper classes of Roman society. The emperor also took steps to convert the conservative peasantry who worshipped many pagan gods and goddesses. He made observation of Sunday obligatory, built new churches, dedicated the new city of Constantinople to the Blessed Virgin, granted alms to poorer congregations, exempted Christian priests from political obligations and compulsory labour, participated actively in Church Councils and helped to enforce the decisions of these Councils. Under Constantine, it became increasingly difficult to be anything but Christian. Constantine’s successors (except Julian AD 361-63) took more direct steps against paganism (worship of pagan gods). Death penalty was imposed on those who performed pagan sacrifices. Temple properties were confiscated by the state and given to the Church. Pagan priests were deprived of exemptions and privileges. “Heretics” (non believers in Christianity) were driven into exile. They could not make wills or inherit property. Finally, under Theodosius I (AD 379-395), Christianity became the state religion and Catholicism the only religious faith in the empire.
4. Examine the causes of the fall of the West Roman Empire.
Answer: There were several causes that led to the fall of the West Roman Empire:
German barbarians: The invasion of German barbarians was the most important cause behind the fall of Rome. Historians estimate that only about 100,000 Ostogoths invaded Italy and an equal number of Visigoths subjugated Spain and natural resources, it was enough to weaken the already declining empire.
Economic issues: The economy of the West was less advanced and weaker than that of the East. Italian agriculture was never as productive as that in the rich valleys of the Middle East. The grain harvest in Italy was on an average not more than four times the sowing. The rich soils of the Central Europe had yet to wait medieval technological advances for effective exploitation of natural resources. Likewise, industry in the west was of relatively recent origin and generally lagged behind that in the East. Economic decentralisation was accompanied by political decentralisation, leading to the economic disintegration of the imperial economy.
Heavy expenditure: The army, which previously had been a profitable source of slaves and material wealth, now became a heavy burden on the state. Likewise, the size of the bureaucracy had increased much during the expansion. The heavy expenditure on bureaucracy and army led to inflation and eventually reached runaway proportions. With such great inflation, coinage became worthless, and the traders reverted to barters.
Political decentralisation: With the decline of trade and the shrinkage of state revenue, the imperial structure could no longer be supported and slowly it began to crumble. Diocletian and Constantine made much efforts to save the structure by government measures. But the disease was “organic” rather than superficial. So all the measures were of no avail in the long-run.
5. Write an essay on the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).
Answer: The Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East after the fall of the West Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was predominantly Greek in language and culture, and Greek became the language of the court and the schools. The Greek art influenced Byzantine architecture, painting, and sculpture to a marked degree. The Greek element was, however, grafted upon Roman institutions which were retained, chiefly the legal and administrative systems, the practices, the system of taxation, the engineering, and the designs of the cities.
The Byzantine Empire went through expansion-decline-revival-expansion cycles marked the epochs of Byzantine political history. In the 4th century, Teutonic invasions caused the Eastern Empire to totter along with the Western. In AD 378, the Visigoths killed emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople. A century later, Theodoric, the Ostrogoth, almost took Constantinople. The city’s impregnable position saved the empire. In the sixth century, Justinian the Great led a revived imperial corps out of Constantinople in a majestic effort to retake the entire empire of old. His brilliant generals, Belisarius and Narrses took almost all of North Africa, the Balkans, and Italy. Further conquests were then made eastwards into Asia Minor. After Justinian’s death, the empire crumbled under the blows delivered by barbarian Slaves, Avars (a Mongolian people), Bulgars, and Muhammaden Arabs, and by the eighth century, it had shrunk into a smaller size. The most serious threat to the Byzantine Empire came in the 11th century by the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks. In 1204, the crusaders occupied and sacked Constantinople. The Empire was considerably weakened but it lingered on for two centuries. Finally, in 1453, the Ottoman Turks took Constantinople and this marked the end of Byzantine Empire.
Despite its fall, the Byzantine Empire has left a rich legacy. Its linguistic bequest in the form of the Greek language has influenced the development of the modern Greek language. Byzantine art and architecture have influenced the development of art and architecture in Europe and the Middle East. The Byzantine Empire also played a significant role in the development of Christianity, particularly in the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Byzantine Empire’s legal and administrative systems have also influenced the development of modern legal and administrative systems.
6. Describe the legacy of the Roman empire in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting and literature.
Answer: The Roman Empire left a rich legacy in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting, and literature. In architecture, the Romans invented concrete, which allowed them to build arches, domes, and aqueducts. The Colosseum and the Pantheon are fine examples of Roman architecture that still stand today. In sculpture, the Romans were influenced by Greek art but developed their own style that tended to be realistic, secular, and individualistic. They produced life-like busts of administrators, soldiers, and emperors, and showed the emperors as gods, giants, and heroes of myths. In painting, the Romans did not make significant contributions, but they did use frescoes to decorate the walls of their homes and public buildings. In literature, the Romans turned to Greece for their models, but they made original contributions in fields such as didactic poetry, historical writing, and satire. Latin also gradually developed into the Romanic languages, including Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Romanian. Roman Law is still alive in the legal systems of many countries, and the organization and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church owe much to the Roman imperial structure and religious traditions. Finally, the Pax Romana left a tradition of imperial unity that fired the imagination and ambition of barbarian princes throughout Europe to become despots like Augustus or Tsar.
IV. Passage based questions
Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
The Roman state was an authoritarian regime: In other words, dissent was rarely tolerated and government usually responded to protest with violence (especially in the cities of the East where people were often fearless in making fun of emperors). Yet a strong tradition of Roman law had emerged by the fourth century, and this acted as a brake on even the most fearsome emperors. Emperors were not free to do whatever they liked, and the law was actively used to protect civil rights. That is why in the later fourth century, it was possible for powerful bishops like Ambrose to confront equally powerful emperors when they were excessively harsh or repressive in handling the civilian population.
1. What was the nature of the Roman state?
Answer: The Roman state was an authoritarian regime.
2. How did the state react to the protests of the people?
Answer: The state usually responded to protest with violence.
3. What law emerged as a brake in the 4th century on the powers of the emperors?
Answer: A strong tradition of Roman law emerged in the 4th century, acting as a brake on the powers of the emperors.
4. Besides the Roman Law, what was another check on the powers of the Emperor?
Answer: Powerful bishops like Ambrose were another check on the powers of the Emperor, as they could confront them when they were excessively harsh or repressive.
Objective type questions
1. Who founded the small settlement known as Rome?
Answer: (a) Romulus & Remus
2. The Roman Empire blossomed under the succession of
Answer: (a) Five Good Emperors
3. Constantine introduced
Answer: (b) Despotism
4. Most active and strongest slaves were known as
Answer: (b) Gladiators
1. Who were the three main players in the political history of the Roman Empire? Write about each of them in one or two sentences. Explain, how did the Roman Emperors manage such a vast empire. Whose collaboration and support were crucial to this?
Answer: The three main players in the political history of the Roman Empire were Julius Caesar, Augustus, and Constantine. Julius Caesar was a military general who became the dictator of Rome, and his assassination led to a power struggle that eventually resulted in the rise of Augustus as the first emperor of Rome. Constantine was another important emperor who converted to Christianity and made it the official religion of the empire.
The Roman Emperors managed such a vast empire through a combination of military conquest, efficient administration, and the use of local elites to govern on their behalf. They also relied on the support of the army, which was a professional force that was well-trained and well-equipped. The collaboration and support of local elites, such as the aristocrats and wealthy families, were crucial to maintaining stability and order in the empire.
2. What was the position of women in the Roman world? Compare the situation of the Roman family with the family in India today.
Answer: In the Roman world, women had legal rights in owning and managing property, and divorce was relatively easy. However, they were generally dominated by their husbands and fathers had much control over their children. The situation of the Roman family differs from the family in India today, where women have made significant progress in terms of legal rights and social status, but still face challenges such as gender-based violence and discrimination. In India, the family structure is often patriarchal, with men holding more power and decision-making authority.
3. It is said that the archaeologists who work on the remains of Pottery are a bit like detectives. Explain why? Also tell us about the economic life of the Mediterranean in the Roman period?
Answer: Archaeologists who work on the remains of pottery are compared to detectives because they use clues from the pottery to piece together information about the people who made and used it, such as their culture, economy, and trade networks.
During the Roman period, the Mediterranean had an extensive economic infrastructure of harbors, mines, quarries, brickyards, and olive oil factories. The empire imported wheat, wine, and olive oil in large quantities from Spain, France, North Africa, Egypt, and Italy. The empire had many regions that were very fertile, but a large part of the Roman Empire was economically backward, such as pastoral and nomadic communities in Numidia (modern Algeria).
In contrast, the situation of women in the Roman world was characterized by legal rights in owning and managing property, but they were generally dominated by their husbands and fathers had much control over their children. The family structure in India today is often patriarchal, with men holding more power and decision-making authority. Women have made significant progress in terms of legal rights and social status, but still face challenges such as gender-based violence and discrimination.
Overall, the economic life of the Mediterranean during the Roman period differed from the situation of women in the Roman world and the family structure in India today. While the Roman Empire had a complex economic infrastructure, women in the Roman world were often dominated by men, and the family structure in India today is often patriarchal.
4. Give the names of three writers who tell us something about the treatment method out to the workers by the Romans. Describe any two methods the Romans used to control labour or slaves.
Answer: The three writers who tell us something about the treatment method out to the workers by the Romans are Pliny the Elder, Columella, and Cato the Elder.
The Romans used various methods to control labor or slaves, including:
Punishments: Slaves who did not work hard enough or made mistakes were punished severely. Punishments included whipping, branding, and even death. This was meant to instill fear in the slaves and make them work harder.
Rewards: The Romans also used rewards to control their slaves. Slaves who worked hard and showed loyalty to their masters were sometimes given better living conditions, more food, and even their freedom. This was meant to motivate the slaves to work harder and be more loyal to their masters.
5. Suppose the emperor Trajan had actually managed to conquer India and the Romans had held on the country for several centuries. In what ways do you think India might be different today?
Answer: If Emperor Trajan had managed to conquer India and the Romans had held onto the country for several centuries, India might be different in several ways today:
Cultural Influence: India’s culture would likely have experienced a significant impact from Roman customs, traditions, and beliefs. This could have led to a blending of Indian and Roman traditions, resulting in a unique hybrid culture.
Language: The influence of Latin and other Roman languages might have led to changes in the development of Indian languages, potentially incorporating Latin vocabulary and even altering the scripts used in the region.
Religion: Roman polytheistic beliefs could have merged with Indian religious practices, leading to a syncretism of religious beliefs and practices. Alternatively, the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire might have made it a more dominant religion in India as well.
Architectural Influence: Roman architectural styles and engineering techniques might have been introduced in India, leading to a fusion of Indian and Roman architectural elements, such as the use of arches, domes, and Roman-style public buildings.
Legal and Administrative Systems: The Roman legal and administrative systems might have been implemented in India, leading to changes in governance and the organization of society. This could have influenced the development of India’s own legal and administrative systems over time.
Trade and Economy: With the Roman Empire’s extensive trade networks, India’s economy might have become more closely integrated with the global economy of the time. This could have led to increased wealth and economic development in the region.
Technology and Knowledge Transfer: India might have benefited from Roman advancements in areas such as engineering, medicine, and science. This knowledge transfer could have accelerated India’s own technological and scientific progress.
Extra/additional questions and answers
1. Who founded Rome according to legend?
Answer: According to legend, Rome was founded by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus.
2. How was Rome established according to scholars?
Answer: Scholars believe that in the early eighth century BC, occupants of small Latin settlements in the hills in the Taber Valley united and established a common meeting place, “the Forum,” around which the city of Rome was set up.
3. Describe the political evolution of Rome from a monarchy to a republic.
Answer: In the beginning, the Romans were ruled by a king. In 509 BC, the Romans drove the king out of Rome and abolished monarchy. They established a republic and developed a somewhat democratic government. However, the real power lay within a Senate, a body dominated by a small group of aristocratic families who formed the nobility in practice. The common people had no control over the government. The Romans conquered Italy and the whole of the Mediterranean region. Rome became one of the mightiest empires under Julius Caesar who became the undisputed master of the Roman Empire in 37 BC. In 27 BC, the Republicans were overwhelmed, and Rome was again united under one ruler, and the republic gave way to the empire.
4. Explain the difference between the early and late Roman Empire.
Answer: The Roman Empire is generally divided into two phases, ‘early’ and ‘late’, separated by a historical watershed in the 3rd century. The early empire refers to the whole period down to the main part of the 3rd century AD, while the late empire refers to the period after that. The early empire began in 27 BC, when the Senate of the Republic conferred upon Octavian the titles of Augustus, Imperator, and Principate, symbolizing the transformation of Rome from Republic to an Empire. Octavian acted like the Emperor of the Roman Empire but maintained the illusion that he was only a leading citizen. The late empire is marked by a series of crises and changes, including military, economic, and social issues, that eventually led to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
5. What was the significance of Augustus’s respect for the Senate?
Answer: Augustus’s respect for the Senate was significant because it demonstrated that he did not want to become an absolute ruler or despot. He valued the Senate as an institution that had controlled Rome during the time it was a republic and was composed of the wealthiest Roman families. This respect allowed the Senate to maintain some of its influence and continue to exist.
6. Describe the Roman army under Augustus’s rule.
Answer: Under Augustus’s rule, the Roman army was recruited from the ranks of Roman citizens and officered by aristocratic men. It was a professional army with soldiers serving for a minimum of 25 years, and it was unique in having a paid army. By the fourth century, the army had become the largest organized body (600,000) in the Empire. Augustus ensured the loyalty of his troops by having them take a personal oath of loyalty to him and by being their sole paymaster. The military commanders were either members of his family or from his immediate circle. He kept the army occupied with various campaigns and used it to aid political settlements.
63. Explain the advancements in Roman technology and engineering, and provide examples of their achievements.
Answer: Despite a general ignorance of pure science, Roman technology was the most advanced of the ancient world. The Romans excelled as builders, surpassing all previous civilizations. They were masters of civil engineering, as evidenced by their roads, bridges, and tunnels that still survive today. These structures demonstrate their impressive knowledge of construction techniques, tooling, metallurgy, practical hydraulics, and siphoning.
The Romans were also master craftsmen in mining, glass and glassworks, dyes, and textiles. Their achievements in these fields showcase their ability to innovate and create practical solutions for various challenges in their society.
Alexandria, which became part of the Roman Empire, continued to be a center of study of sciences, with its most noted scientists still being Greeks. Claudius Ptolemy, an astronomer, compiled a comprehensive encyclopaedia of astronomy that remained the standard book in its field for almost 1500 years. Ptolemy also influenced geography as the first map-maker to show the roundness of the world.
In the field of medicine, the Romans made significant contributions to healing rather than theories about medicines and diseases. They organized sanitation and public health measures, established hospitals where the poor obtained free medical care, and promoted advancements in surgical techniques and medical knowledge.
These advancements in Roman technology and engineering, along with their numerous achievements, stand as a testament to their ingenuity and skill in the ancient world, leaving a lasting impact on the development of future civilizations.
1. Who founded Rome according to the legend?
A. Julius Caesar B. Octavian C. Romulus and Remus D. Senate
Answer: C. Romulus and Remus
2. What was the common meeting place established by the occupants of small Latin settlements?
A. The Colosseum B. The Forum C. The Taber Valley D. The River Taber
Answer: B. The Forum
3. What type of government was established after the monarchy was abolished in Rome in 509 BC?
A. Dictatorship B. Empire C. Republic D. Oligarchy
Answer: C. Republic
4. Who became the undisputed master of the Roman Empire in 37 BC?
A. Octavian B. Julius Caesar C. Romulus D. Remus
Answer: B. Julius Caesar
5. In what year did the republic give way to the empire?
A. 509 BC B. 37 BC C. 27 BC D. AD 630
Answer: C. 27 BC
85. What type of engineering were the Romans masters of?
A. Mechanical Engineering B. Chemical Engineering C. Electrical Engineering D. Civil Engineering
Answer: D. Civil Engineering
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