Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 11 (Arts) History (Themes in World History) Chapter 10: Changing Cultural Traditions (Focus on Europe 14th to 17th Century). However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.
The time between the 14th and 17th centuries marked a big change in Europe, as it moved from the Medieval period to modern times. Life in Medieval Europe was very different from life today. People back then were mainly focused on getting ready for the afterlife because the Christian Church said that life on earth wasn’t as important. That’s why people admired monks who spent their time praying, instead of doctors or inventors.
During the Medieval period, people didn’t try to get individual rights, and they didn’t have much freedom to share their opinions or choose their own lifestyles. For example, a person interested in religion could only belong to one Church. Merchants and craftsmen had to be part of guilds to work. Most people were serfs, which meant they were born into a certain way of life and had to stick with it.
Because of this focus on group activities and control, people in the Medieval period didn’t have much personal freedom or self-expression. Their world stayed the same and didn’t change much because they were afraid of new ideas and different ways of living. Nowadays, we experience changes in thoughts, government, and lifestyles much faster than people did during the Medieval times.
Textual questions and answers
I. Very short answer type questions
1. According to the scholars when did the Modern Age Europe begin?
Answer: The period from the 14th to 17th century marked the transition of the Medieval Europe to modern times.
2. Give two features of the medieval age?
Answer: Life during the medieval age in Europe was characterized by a feudal system where the king or lord owned all the land and peasants worked on the land in exchange for protection and a share of the crops. The medieval age was also marked by the dominance of the Catholic Church, which had significant political and social power and controlled access to education and knowledge.
3. Give the names of any four Italian cities which were the centres of “New Learning”.
Answer: Florence, Genoa, Venice, Rome.
4. Give the names of some important inventions of the renaissance period.
Answer: Printing press, telescope, microscope, and gunpowder.
5. When was Constantinople occupied by the Turks?
6. Describe one important effect of invention of printing press.
Answer: The invention of the printing press facilitated the spread of Renaissance by giving valuable books at cheap rates. This allowed for a large number of people to have access to books and information, which in turn led to an increase in literacy rates and the spread of knowledge.
7. Who was Petrarch?
Answer: Petrarch was a scholar and founder of the school of thinkers who built new ideals of life during the Renaissance movement in Italy. He was interested in the revival of classical Latin and spent much time trying to perfect his style of writing in Latin, imitating the polished letters and essays of Cicero and also the “Aeneid” of Virgil. He won considerable support of humanism by his ability as a scholar and dedicated his whole life to the study of classical writers. He is most famous for his “Song Book” in Italian, which contains the collection of his beautiful love sonnets. His poems illustrate Humanism’s new interest in human emotions.
8. Give the names of the Important universities of Italy.
Answer: University of Padua, Pavia, Milan, and Venice.
9. Who wrote “the Prince”?
Answer: Niccolo Machiavelli wrote “The Prince”.
10. Name the most famous book written by Geoffrey Chaucer.
Answer: The most famous book written by Geoffrey Chaucer is “The Canterbury Tales”.
11. Who was Martin Luther?
Answer: Martin Luther was a monk and a university lecturer at Wittenburg who launched his attack on the sale of indulgences which was to provoke Reformation. He argued that people did not need priests to establish contact with God. He enjoined upon his followers to have complete faith in God, for faith alone could guide them to the right life and entry into heaven. This movement called the Protestant Revolution spread in almost half of the countries in Europe.
19. Name the English king who broke with the Pope of Rome?
Answer: King Henry VIII.
20. What was Counter Reformation?
Answer: Counter Reformation was a successful program undertaken by the Roman Catholic Church to remove abuses and useless rituals without causing much disruption.
II. Short answer type questions
1. Describe the way of life of the people during the Medieval Age in Europe.
Answer: During the Medieval Age in Europe, men and women were guided in nearly everything they did by the idea of other worldliness. Their main concern was to prepare themselves for the next life, as the Christian Church taught that life on earth was of secondary importance. The ideal man during this age was the cloistered monk who spent all his life praying and meditating and gave little thought to his bodily comforts and the beauties of this world. The people thought about afterlife explains why there was so little progress in the field of science during the Middle Ages and why practically all education, art, and literature served only the church. In the medieval age, no efforts were made to get individual rights. The average man had no liberty to express his own views or live his own way of life. A man inclined towards religion could find only one Church to belong to. The merchants and craftsmen could work only as guild members. If a man were a serf (and the majority of people belonged to this class), his status of life and his vocation were fixed at birth. He was born as a serf bound to the soil. He was supposed to fill his accustomed place in the community all his life, despite his own desires. In the Medieval Age, people lived in an atmosphere of authority. Medieval thought laid far more emphasis on group activities and group control than on individual interests and personal freedom. Where people had no freedom of self-expression. If all the features of the Medieval Ages are added up, it becomes clear why medieval man lived in a static world, meaning a world ruled by customs and resisted any change. New ideas and new ways of life were vigorously opposed by the people.
2. Describe the differences between the ideas of the people of Europe in the Medieval Age and those of 15th and 16th centuries.
Answer: During the Medieval Age in Europe, people were primarily focused on religion and the afterlife, while in the 15th and 16th centuries, they began to pay more attention to the world around them and the beauties and problems it presented. The average person wanted to live their life in their own way and form their own opinions. City life became more important than agriculture and manorial society, and powerful national governments emerged to replace the feudal system. Additionally, the public and private spheres of life began to separate, with the individual having both a private and public role. The different regions of Europe also began to establish their separate identities based on language.
3. Compare details of Italian architecture of this period with Islamic architecture.
Answer: While both Italian Renaissance and Islamic architecture exhibit impressive craftsmanship and design, they showcase distinct differences in style, form, and decorative elements. Here is a comparison of some key aspects of Italian Renaissance architecture and Islamic architecture:
Inspiration and Style: Italian Renaissance architecture drew inspiration from ancient Greek and Roman styles, as well as from Gothic and Byzantine styles, to create a harmonious blend of various elements. Islamic architecture, on the other hand, was mainly influenced by regional and cultural styles, including Byzantine, Persian, and Central Asian styles. It evolved uniquely with the spread of Islam, incorporating regional elements into its design.
Decorative Elements: Italian Renaissance architecture features classical elements such as columns, pilasters, and pediments, as well as decorative moldings, cornices, and friezes. Sculptures, reliefs, and frescoes were also commonly used to adorn buildings. Islamic architecture is characterized by its extensive use of decorative elements such as calligraphy, geometric patterns, and arabesques. Stucco, tile work, and intricate stone carvings were often employed to create these intricate designs.
Form and Structure: Italian Renaissance architecture emphasized symmetry, proportion, and balance in its design, often using the classical orders (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian) to define the structure. Buildings typically feature large domes, rounded arches, and horizontal lines. Islamic architecture is known for its diverse range of structural elements, including horseshoe arches, pointed arches, and muqarnas (ornamental vaulting). Key features of Islamic architecture include minarets, domes, and courtyards.
Religious Buildings: In Italian Renaissance architecture, religious buildings like churches and cathedrals were designed to showcase the grandeur and magnificence of the faith. St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome and the Florence Cathedral are prime examples of this style. Islamic architecture is most prominently showcased in mosques, which served as both religious and social centers for the Muslim community. Notable examples include the Alhambra in Spain, the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, and the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
4. Describe the features of Humanism.
Answer: Humanism was a literary and intellectual movement that emerged during the Renaissance period in Europe. It was primarily interested in the affairs of humanity, in the beauties and opportunities of life here on earth. Humanists turned away from the other-worldliness of the Middle Ages and attacked influential religious ideas such as the virtue of poverty and contempt for man’s physical body. They believed that man should live a full life, one packed with new experiences, and solve his problems in this world rather than accept bad conditions here and wait for a better life in the next world. Humanists focused on classical Greek and Roman texts and also on the holy books of the Christians. They believed that the individual should live a free and happy life here on earth. Christian humanists like Thomas Moore in England and Erasmus in Holland said that the Church, instead of being a thing of heart, had become a matter of ceremonies. The spiritual life of the Church had sunk to a low ebb. Popes had become notorious for their loose and luxurious living.
5. What were the causes of growth of Renaissance Movement?
Answer: The causes of growth of Renaissance Movement were:
- Contacts of Europeans with Muslims and Byzantine civilizations
- Commercial revolution with its interchange of goods and ideas
- New learning of the 13th century that created a spirit of enquiry among the people
- Rise of national monarchies
- Growth of a wealthy leisured middle class seeking prestige as patrons of art
- Capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 that gave great impetus to the Renaissance movement.
6. Give the ideas of Petrarch.
Answer: Petrarch was a great scholar and founder of the school of thinkers who built new ideals of life. He believed in the importance of this world, in the beauties of nature, in love, in subtle things which influenced human art in the problems of everyday life. Petrarch won considerable support of humanism by his ability as a scholar. He dedicated his whole life to the study of classical writers. He spent much time trying to perfect his style of writing in Latin, imitating the polished letters and essays of Cicero and also the “Aeneid” of Virgil. However, the most famous of Petrarch’s writings is the ‘Song Book’ in Italian, which contains the collection of his beautiful love sonnets. His poems illustrate Humanism’s new interest in human emotions.
7. Explain the political ideas of Machiavelli.
Answer: Machiavelli was a political thinker of the Renaissance era in Italy. He served as a secretary to the Florentine Government for fifteen years and studied Latin, Greek thought, and ancient history. His most famous work, “The Prince,” is a secular treatise on politics. It was not only a close study of the political problems and customs of his own day but also an attempt to lay down rules as to how people should be governed. Machiavelli emancipated politics from theology and moral philosophy. The practices which he formulated were widely used by the politicians and princes who were building up the new nation-states for fifteenth and sixteenth-century Europe and later came into their own again in Fascist Italy in the twentieth century.
8. What was the contribution of the Arabs to Science?
Answer: The Arabs made significant contributions to various sciences such as geometry, algebra, geography, astronomy, optics, chemistry, and medicine. They became leaders in the field of sciences by setting up some of the best-stocked libraries and leading scientific laboratories in the world during the period of AD 1400-1700. The Arab science was truly international and was called Arab science because Arabic was the language of literature in their empire and the people. Many of the achievements of the Arabs in the field of science were done by the people outside Arabia in Khorasan, Egypt, Sudan, etc.
9. Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?
Answer: Italian towns were the first to experience the ideas of humanism because of the influence of scholars like Petrarch and Dante who showed early signs of humanistic inclinations in their works. Humanism got its way in Italy largely through the influence of Petrarch, who was a great scholar. The old master’s influence directed towards the revival of secular learning and literature by recapturing the spirit of the Romans and Greeks. The Italian scholars focused on classical Greek and Roman texts and also on the holy books of the Christians. The Italian city republics of Florence and Venice made the greatest contribution to the spheres of Renaissance civilization, but the practice of these arts was not confined to these only. Every city produced its great artists, and every Italian prince wished to become a patron of art.
15. Which elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
Answer: the revival of interest in the old Greek texts and ancient law and philosophy was caused by the learned Greeks who sought new homes in Italy and other European countries after the triumphs of the Turks in 1453. They brought their precious manuscripts with them, which led to the revival of classical literature and learning. Additionally, the archaeological and artistic recovery of Roman culture produced great admiration for that civilization. However, it is important to note that the European Renaissance men not only learned from Greeks and Romans but also from India, Arabia, Iran, Central Asia, and China. Therefore, elements of various cultures were revived during the Renaissance period.
III. Essay type questions
1. How the transformation from Medieval Age to Modern Age come in Europe?
Answer: During the period from the 14th to 17th century, i.e., about three hundred years, the medieval pattern was revolutionized. The people still remained religious but paid much more attention to the beauties and problems of the world around them. The average man wanted to get the right to live his life in his own way and to form his own opinion. Now the city life became more important than agriculture and manorial society. A few powerful national government emerged which took the place of little independent chiefs that had made up the feudal system. Europe also restored cornices, capitals, plasters and use of rusticated (rusted on the outside) stone blocks. They made use of columns and arches centered about a cruciform. The architects devoted their greatest energies to the problem of the outer face of the building. The problem of matching the outer face to dome agitated Rome, early in the 16th century. The construction of the Church of St. Peter in Rome took fifty years. Numerous architects submitted plans and worked upon the problem of relating the great dome to the outer face of the building. The final solution was a compromise among the suggestions of Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo and others. The problem of the dome and outer face of the St. Peter’s Church became the model for most of the governmental buildings of the western world. In short, the period AD 1400-1700, was the period of awakhening of Europe from its long-period of slumber.
2. What were the causes of the Renaissance Movement? Describe its main features.
Answer: There were various factors which contributed to the rise and growth of the Renaissance movement. Many of the causes of the Renaissance lay in the developments in the period earlier than the 14th century such as the contacts of the Europeans with the Muslims and Byzantine civilizations, the commercial revolution with its interchange of goods and ideas, the new learning of the 13th century that created a spirit of enquiry among the people, the rise of national monarchies, and the growth of a wealthy leisured middle class seeking prestige as patrons of art. The Medieval Age predicted the coming of the Renaissance. All along the 14th century, there was a constant appearance of the eager desire which plainly indicated the coming change and of revolution in the intellectual world. The forerunners of the “new spirit had attacked the abuses of the society and thus created public opinion against medievalism.” As early as the 12th and 13th century, the Crusaders had awakened in the nations of Western Europe the spirit of new life. The era of discoveries and inventions which began before the Renaissance movement, also paved the way for this movement. The invention of the printing press facilitated the spread of Renaissance by giving valuable books at cheap rates. The discovery of the Mariner Compass encouraged maritime activities and consequently widened the outlook of the people of Europe. The invention of the gun powder made the kings powerful and independent of the feudal nobility and thus paved the way for the new spirit in the political thought. It was, however, the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 that gave great impetus to the Renaissance movement. The triumphs of the Turks drove the learned Greeks to seek new homes in Italy and other European countries. They brought their precious manuscripts with them. This caused the revival of interest in the old Greek texts and in ancient law and philosophy.
The main features of the Renaissance Movement consisted of two distinct yet closely related phases, namely the revival of classical literature and learning and the revival of classical arts. The literary and intellectual aspects of the movement are called Humanism, and the promoters are known as Humanists because of their interest in the studies of classics or “the human letters in opposition to the ‘divine letters’ that is theology.” The movement was driven by the revival of interest in old Greek texts and ancient law and philosophy, which was brought about by the learned Greeks seeking new homes in Italy and other European countries after the triumphs of the Turks. The chief cities of Italy, such as Florence, Genoa, and Venice, became the centers of the Renaissance, and the movement was characterized by the active participation of rich merchants and bankers in the government. The movement also saw the printing of many classical texts, which made it possible for individuals to read books and developed the reading habit among people.
3. Describe the contribution of Humanist writers to literature.
Answer: Humanist writers made significant contributions to literature during the Renaissance movement. They focused on classical Greek and Roman texts, as well as the holy books of Christians. Humanist literature emphasized the importance of individualism, free thinking, and rationality.
Italian humanists, such as Petrarch and Dante, showed early signs of Humanistic inclinations in their use of Italian language and love of classical literature. The humanist movement spread from Italy to other European countries in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
In France, Francois Rabelais and Michael Montaigne were two great writers who matched the achievements of scholar Erasmus. Rabelais drew literary portraits of two giants, Gargantua and Pantagruel, who did what they wanted. Rabelais believed it was man’s supreme obligation to “Do what thou wilt.”
In England, literary artists expressed mounting confidence in man’s power to interpret both himself and nature. The most famous scholars of Oxford who added to the fame of the Renaissance movement were John Colet, Thomas Moore, and Erasmus. Thomas Moore wrote his famous book ‘Utopia,’ in which he criticized the ways of Europe in the 16th century and gave the picture of an imaginary world in which there is no poverty, no oppression of man by man, no war, no disease, and men work six hours a day.
4. Describe the growth of art of painting in Europe from 15th and 17th century.
Answer: During the Renaissance period in Europe, painting made rapid progress, especially in Italy. The first painter to illustrate a new style of painting was the Florentine artist Giotto, who got away from the lifelessness of medieval painting. He was the first European to give figures a sense of movement and being alive. He decorated the walls of churches with paintings illustrating the life of Christ. After Giotto, the art of painting made a rapid progress in Italy.
In Florence, with her large leisured and wealthy class, the greatest artists congregated. Men like Lorenzo de Medici, the Magnificent, made fifteenth century Florence resemble Athens in the days of Pericles. There was the same zest and excitement of intellectual life, the same breathless appreciation of all artistic achievements, and the same political restlessness.
Paintings in other European countries, such as Germany, were influenced by the hold of Christianity upon the Germans, which did not permit the humanistic and pagan elements of the Italian Renaissance to spread in their country. However, painting and engraving advances did make their appearance in Germany in the works of two great Renaissance painters, Albrecht Durer and Hans Holbein. Durer specialised in making woodcuts and copper plate engravings. He painted religious scenes which were starling in their realism and frightening in their somberness and gloom. He depicted scenes from the Bible and from classical literature. Hans Holbein was secular.
England produced no great native school of painting. Her Renaissance was essentially literary, musical, and architectural. The great English portraits of the time of Henry VII were the work of a German painter, Holbein, who spent the last years of his life in London.
The Renaissance also produced in Netherlands a school of painting. Towards the close of the fourteenth century, the Flemish cities of Brages and Ghent had become the envy of all northern Europe. A Flemish Sculptor named Claus Saluter produced masterpieces of realism, at least equal to the work of Ghiberti and Masaccio. Early in the fifteenth century, John and Hubert van Eyejk, two brothers, produced the celebrated masterpiece known as “The Adoration of the Lamb.” Roger Van der Weyden’s “Descent from the Cross and the charm of Memling’s “Shrine of Saint Ursula” were the other great works of Flemish School. Weyden and Memling achieved a brilliant realism, especially in small details, vivid and glowing colours, and the discovery of oil as a painting medium.
5. Describe the progress of architecture in Europe during the Renaissance period.
Answer: During the Renaissance period in Europe, architecture closely followed Greek and Roman styles. However, classical pillars and domes were never as original as Renaissance paintings and sculptures. This architecture brought forth many magnificent buildings and took the place of the Gothic style in Europe. Rome was the center of Renaissance architecture. Various features of Roman, Gothic, and Byzantine were blended together in buildings. Michelangelo began the construction of St. Peter’s Church in Rome, the largest church ever built covering a space of two hundred twenty-five thousand square feet, or twice as much as the cathedral in Milan or the cathedral of St. Paul in London and about three times of the cathedral in Cologne. The architecture of Michelangelo’s days was far more than the revival of an art of the past. Ancient art had been modified by a thousand years of Christian tradition and when it was used as a model by the Italian architects, it was transformed into something new and original. The architects devoted their greatest energies to the problem of the outer face of the building. The problem of matching the outer face to the dome agitated Rome, early in the 16th century. The construction of the Church of St. Peter in Rome took fifty years. Numerous architects submitted plans and worked upon the problem of relating the great dome to the outer face of the building. The final solution was a compromise among the suggestions of Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo, and others. The problem of the dome and outer face of the St. Peter’s Church became the model for most of the governmental buildings of the western world.
6. What was the position of women in Europe during the 15th to 16th centuries?
Answer: During the 15th to 16th centuries in Europe, women had limited rights and opportunities. Men from aristocratic families dominated public life and decision-making, and educated their sons to take their place in business or public life. Women’s dowries were invested in family businesses, but they had no say in the running of their husbands’ businesses. Matrimonial alliances were made to strengthen business alliances, and women had no attention paid to their dignity as individuals or citizenship. However, in the families of merchants, women were somewhat better off and greatly helped their husbands in running shops. In the families of bankers and merchants, women looked after the business when male members went to other places for work. Widows of merchants played a more important public role than in the case of aristocratic families. In the field of literature, some women did creative work and were sensitive about humanist education. Women scholars like Cassandra Fedele and Marchesa of Mantua questioned the idea that women were incapable of achieving the qualities of a humanist thinker and revealed their conviction that they should have economic power, property, and education to show their worth in a world dominated by men.
7. Write a careful account of how the world appeared different to seventeenth-century Europeans.
Answer: Seventeenth-century Europeans perceived the world differently than their medieval predecessors. The period from the 14th to 17th century marked a transition from medieval Europe to modern times. During the medieval age, people were guided by the idea of otherworldliness, which meant that their main concern was to prepare themselves for the next life. The Christian Church taught that life on earth was of secondary importance.
However, during the seventeenth century, Europe underwent significant changes that broke narrow geographical bonds and opened up new trade routes and opportunities for exploration. European colonists and traders traveled all over the world, discovering new continents and cultures. This period of change altered the whole tone of life in Europe as men became anxious to discover new scientific truths and make new inventions.
As a result, there was a shift in outlook towards life in which people eagerly welcomed change. The static quality of the medieval age gave way to a new perspective on life that embraced progress and innovation. Therefore, seventeenth-century Europeans saw the world as full of possibilities for exploration, discovery, and advancement in science and technology.
11. What were the features of humanist thought?
Answer: Humanist thought was primarily interested in the affairs of humanity, in the beauties and opportunities of life here on earth. Humanists believed that man should live a full life, one packed with new experiences. They turned away from the otherworldliness of the Middle Ages and attacked influential religious ideas such as the virtue of poverty and contempt for man’s physical body. Humanists taught that man should solve his problems in this world rather than accept bad conditions here and wait for a better life in the next world. They believed that the individual should live a free and happy life here on earth. Christian humanists like Thomas Moore in England and Erasmus in Holland said that the Church, instead of being a thing of heart, had become a matter of ceremonies. The spiritual life of the Church had sunk to a low ebb. Popes had become notorious for their loose and luxurious living.
IV. Passage based questions
Read the following passage and answer the questions.
By 1500, many classical texts, nearly all in Latin, had been printed in Italy. As printed books became available, it was possible to buy them, and students did not have to depend solely on lecture-notes. Ideas, opinions and information moved more widely and more rapidly than ever before. A printed book promoting new ideas could quickly reach hundreds of readers. This also made it possible for individuals to read books, since it was possible to buy copies for oneself. This developed the reading habit among people.
1. Who made the first printing press?
Answer: Johannes Gutenberg.
2. Name the book which was first printed in 1455.
Answer: The Gutenberg Bible.
3. What was the advantage of the printed books to the students?
Answer: The advantage of printed books for students was that they no longer had to rely solely on lecture notes. They could now buy their own books, which allowed them to access ideas, opinions, and information more easily and efficiently.
4. What were the benefits of printing to the general readers.
Answer: The benefits of printing for general readers included wider and more rapid dissemination of ideas, opinions, and information. Additionally, the availability of printed books allowed individuals to purchase their own copies, which in turn helped develop a reading habit among people.
V. Objective type questions
1. What is the literal meaning of word ‘Renaissance’?
Answer: (d) Both (a) and (b)
2. When did Truks capture Constantinople?
Answer: (b) 1453
3. Who is Petrarch?
Answer: (a) An Italian scholar
1. On the map of Italy, locate the city of Venice. Look carefully on the paintings of artists of Venice. How would you describe the city. In whatway wasVenice different from the cathedral towns.
Answer: Looking at the paintings of Venetian artists, such as Canaletto, Bellini, and Titian, I would describe Venice as a city filled with breathtaking architecture, vibrant colors, and an enchanting atmosphere. The cityscape is dominated by the presence of water, with the Grand Canal acting as the main artery, and gondolas navigating the canals. The buildings reflect a mix of Gothic, Byzantine, and Renaissance styles, and many feature ornate facades and intricate details.
Venice was different from the typical cathedral towns in several ways:
- Geography: Unlike other towns that were built on solid ground, Venice was constructed on a lagoon, making it a unique city with a strong connection to water. This environment influenced the city’s development, architecture, and transportation system.
- Political System: Venice had a unique political system, as it was a powerful maritime republic, ruled by the Doge, who was elected for life. This allowed the city to develop a strong sense of independence and a distinct cultural identity.
- Economy: While many cathedral towns relied on agriculture and trade, Venice’s economy was based primarily on maritime commerce, which contributed to its wealth and prominence in Europe.
- Architecture: The architecture in Venice was influenced by various styles, including Byzantine, Gothic, and Renaissance, due to its extensive trade connections with the East and the rest of Europe. This resulted in a distinctive architectural style that can be seen in iconic buildings such as St. Mark’s Basilica, the Doge’s Palace, and the Rialto Bridge.
- Art: Venice was an important center for art during the Renaissance, fostering the careers of famous artists like Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese. The city’s artistic output was heavily influenced by its maritime culture and the unique light and colors that characterized the cityscape.
4. Discuss the issues on which the Protestants criticised the Catholic Church.
Answer: In 1517, Martin Luther launched an attack on the sale of indulgences, which he argued was unnecessary for people to establish contact with God. He believed that faith alone could guide people to live a righteous life and enter heaven. This movement, known as the Protestant Revolution, spread throughout half of Europe, with churches in Germany and Switzerland breaking their connection with the Pope and the Catholic Church. The Protestants criticized the Catholic Church for its practices such as selling indulgences, which they believed were corrupt and unnecessary for salvation. They also criticized the Church’s hierarchy and its emphasis on tradition over scripture.
Extra/additional questions and answers
1. What was the main concern of people during the Medieval Age?
Answer: The main concern of people during the Medieval Age was to prepare themselves for the next life, with their focus on otherworldliness.
2. Why was there little progress in the field of science during the Middle Ages?
Answer: There was little progress in the field of science during the Middle Ages because people’s thoughts were focused on the afterlife, and practically all education, art, and literature served only the church.
3. How was the life of a serf in Medieval Europe?
Answer: In Medieval Europe, a serf’s status of life and vocation were fixed at birth. They were born as serfs bound to the soil and were supposed to fill their accustomed place in the community all their life, despite their own desires.
4. What characterized the Medieval Age as a static world?
Answer: The Medieval Age was characterized as a static world due to its resistance to change, the emphasis on group activities and group control, and the lack of individual interests and personal freedom.
5. What changes occurred during the transition to modern times from the 14th to 17th century?
Answer: During the transition to modern times, people started paying more attention to the world around them and sought the right to live their life in their own way. City life became more important than agriculture and manorial society. Powerful national governments emerged, replacing the feudal system. Europe broke its geographical bonds, with explorers discovering new continents and trade routes. A distinct urban culture developed, and the Renaissance movement brought about a rediscovery of individualism.
46. What were some significant changes that occurred during the Renaissance period?
- The public and private spheres of life began to become separate, with the public sector representing government and formal religion, and the private sector representing family and personal religion.
- The different regions of Europe tried to establish their separate identities based on language, dividing Europe into states united by a common language, after having been united by the Roman empire, Latin, and Christianity.
1. What was the primary focus of people during the Medieval Age?
A. Science B. Art C. Otherworldliness D. Politics
Answer: C. Otherworldliness
2. Which occupation was most admired in the Middle Ages?
A. Doctor B. Inventor C. Merchant D. Cloistered monk
Answer: D. Cloistered monk
3. What aspect of life did Medieval thought emphasize?
A. Individualism B. Group activities C. Personal freedom D. Scientific discovery
Answer: B. Group activities
4. What geographical discovery challenged the belief that the Mediterranean Sea was the center of the world?
A. Americas B. Africa C. Asia D. Australia
Answer: A. Americas
5. Which movement marked the end of the Medieval Age and the beginning of the Modern Age?
A. Reformation B. Renaissance C. Enlightenment D. Industrial Revolution
Answer: B. Renaissance
6. Which country was the center of the Renaissance movement?
A. France B. England C. Germany D. Italy
Answer: D. Italy
7. What was the primary cause of the religious Reformation?
A. Political conflict B. Economic crisis C. Renaissance D. Scientific revolution
Answer: C. Renaissance
60. Besides Greek and Roman civilizations, which region was not mentioned as a source of learning for the European Renaissance men?
A. India B. Arabia C. Australia D. Central Asia
Answer: C. Australia
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