Here, you will find summaries, questions, answers, textbook solutions, pdf, extras etc. of (Nagaland Board) NBSE Class 11 Education Chapter 5: Constitutional Provisions Relating to Education. These solutions, however, should be only treated as references and can be modified/changed.
India, with its rich history as a centre for learning and education, has always prioritized the development of its educational sector. The Indian Constitution, in its essence, is a testament to this commitment, with numerous provisions addressing various aspects of education.
One of the most significant provisions is the mandate for free and compulsory education. The Constitution directs the state to provide free and compulsory education for all children until they attain the age of fourteen years. This directive, however, faced numerous challenges, including lack of adequate funds, a rapidly growing population, and resistance against girls’ education. Despite these hurdles, the dream of universal primary education continues to be pursued vigorously.
The Constitution also addresses the educational rights of minorities. It allows all minorities, whether based on religion or language, to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. The state is prohibited from discriminating against any educational institution on the grounds that it is under the management of minorities.
In terms of language, the Constitution recognizes the diversity of India and provides for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education. It also enshrines the right of every section of citizens to preserve their distinct language, script, or culture.
The Constitution also safeguards the educational interests of the weaker sections of the Indian community, including the socially and educationally backward classes of citizens and scheduled castes and tribes. It mandates the state to promote the educational and economic interests of these weaker sections and protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
The Constitution ensures secular education by providing equal treatment of all religions by the state. It guarantees all citizens the right to have freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practice, and propagate the religion of their choice. It also prohibits the state from discriminating on grounds of religion, race, caste, or language in granting aid to educational institutions.
Textual questions and answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. Name the Article that guarantees free and compulsory education.
Answer: Article 45.
2. Which were the factors taken into consideration while formulating educational provisions for education?
Answer: Our political, social , economical and cultural needs have been taken into consideration.
3. What is the content in Article 30 (1)?
Answer: All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
4. What Act was passed by the Parliament in August 2009?
Answer: The Parliament passed the “Right to Education” act in August 2009.
5. What is ‘RTE’?
Answer: RTE stands for “Right to Education”.
Short Answer Type Questions
1. What does Article 350(A) stand for?
Answer: Article 350(A) directs, “It shall be endeavour of every state and every local authority to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups.”
2. What do you understand by the term secular education?
Answer: The term “secular education” is understood in the context of India being a secular country which means equal treatment of all religions by the state. Under the Constitution, minorities, whether based on religion or language, are given full rights to establish educational institutions of their choice.
3. Why greater stress is given on the education of backward classes?
Answer: Greater stress is given on the education of backward classes because Article 46 of the Constitution of India makes the government responsible for the economical and educational development of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
4. Do you think Hindi should be promoted as national language of India?
Answer: The Indian Constitution makes provision for the development and promotion of Hindi as national language. I think it is important to respect the linguistic diversity of India and to avoid imposing any one language on the entire country. I believe that Hindi should be promoted as a national language, but not as the only national language. This would allow people from all over India to communicate with each other and to participate in the national conversation.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. What are the hindrances which stand in the way of Universalisation of Primary education?
Answer: Hindrances which stand in the way of Universalisation of Primary education include:
Lack of adequate funds: The government was not able to pay attractive salaries to teachers due to lack of funds. To fulfill the much cherished dream of free education, huge funds were required, but the government was in financial strain.
Growing population: Fast growing population was a big problem that free India had to face. The development in the area of education could never be proportionate as compared to the demand due to rapid growth of population.
Resentment against girls education: Many parents were illiterate and were against the education of girls. They were of the opinion that girls were meant to cook, clean and look after the children, so there was hardly any need to educate girls.
Poor financial position of parents: The condition of the general public was such that they could not afford to send their children to schools due to their poor financial position. Poor parents were eager to send their child to places of work from where they could earn. For them, education was non-productive and an additional burden.
Opposition to universalisation of education: Some people were of the view that the girls might go out of control after getting educated in schools. They openly criticized the idea of universalisation of education. That is why this idea of universalisation slowed down.
Problems in opening schools in villages: The government faced many problems, like many villages were too small for opening a school and they were scattered too. The number of children in some villages was less than required for opening a school. If a school was opened for many villages then there was the problem of bridging the distance from school to village.
Indifference of illiterate parents towards opening schools: Illiterate parents were indifferent towards opening schools in the villages. Often they even opposed the idea of a school in the village. They preferred the presence of their children in fields for doing agricultural work rather than sending them to school.
Child labor: Young children were sent to fields for working there so that they might render financial help to their parents.
2. Explain the contents in Article 45 of the Constitution.
Answer: The Constitution makes the following provisions under Article 45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy that, “The state shall endeavour to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory Education for all children until they attain the age of fourteen years.”
The expression ‘State’ which occurs in this Article is defined in Article 12 to include “The Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.”
It is clearly directed in Article 45 of the Constitution that the provision of Universal, Free and Compulsory Education becomes the joint responsibility of the Centre and the States. In the Constitution it was laid down that within 10 years, i.e., by 1960, universal compulsory education must be provided for all children up to the age of 14. But unfortunately, this directive could not be fulfilled. Vigorous efforts are needed to achieve the target of 100 percent primary education.
The Central Government needs to make adequate financial provisions for this purpose. At the present rate of progress it may, however, be expected that this directive may be fulfilled by the end of this century.
3. Discuss the contents in Article 28.
Answer: Article 28(1) prohibits religious instruction in educational institutions maintained by the state fund. Article 28(2) states that nothing mentioned in clause (1) shall be applicable to educational institution which are administered by the state but has been established by any trust or society, which requires to impart religious instructions. Article 28(3) says no person attending an educational institution recognised by the state, shall be required to take part in any religious instruction or attend any religious workshop unless consent is given. Article 28 accommodates the religious interest of minorities, the educational institutions run by them and receiving aid from state can impart religious instruction to those willing to attend.
4. Explain the content in Article 351.
Answer: According to Article 351, it shall be the endeavour of the Union Government to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression of all the elements of the composite culture of India. In practice, Hindi is already largely in use as a link language for the country. The educational system should contribute to the acceleration of this process in order to facilitate and strengthen national unity.
5. Discuss any four major constitutional provisions of education in India.
Answer: Four major constitutional provisions of education in India are:
Free and Compulsory Education: Article 45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy states, “The state shall endeavour to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory Education for all children until they attain the age of fourteen years.”
Education of Minorities: Article 30 of the Indian Constitution relates to certain cultural and educational rights to be established and administered in educational institutions. It lays down that all minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
Instruction in Mother Tongue: Article 350 (A) directs, “It shall be endeavour of every state and every local authority to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups.”
Promotion of Hindi: Article 351 enjoins the Union government, the duty to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Hindi has been accepted as the Official Language of India.
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions
1. How does the Constitution in secular fabric address the concern of religious minority?
Answer: The Indian Constitution, with its strong base of secularism, shows special concern for the minorities. Article 30(1) of the Constitution states, “All minorities whether based on religion or language shall have the right to establish and administer educational institute of their choice.” A precautionary note is added to make the government aware of its educational duties i.e., “The government shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institutions on the ground that it is under the management of minorities.” The educational institution can be established by minorities and they can also administer these institutions for educational upliftment of their community.
2. How does the constitution try to make education more secular?
Answer: The Constitution of India ensures secular education by providing equal treatment of all religions by the state. Article 25 (1) of the Constitution guarantees all the citizens the right to have freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practice and propagate religion of their choice. Article 30 states, “The state shall not, in granting aid to educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds, discriminate on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.” Furthermore, Article 28(1) prohibits religious instruction in educational institutions maintained by the state fund, ensuring that education remains secular.
Additional/extra questions and answers
1. What is the historical significance of India as a center for learning and education?
Answer: The uniqueness of India lies in its reputation as a centre for learning and education since ancient times. There is ample evidence that foreigners used to travel to India for educational purposes long before British colonization. Even in free India, education is deeply rooted in the Constitution and can be studied as a separate branch, reflecting the importance it has held throughout history.
2. Who was Shri Gopal Krishna Gokhale and what was his contribution to Indian education?
Answer: Shri Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a prominent figure during the Indian independence movement. In 1910, while India was still under British rule, he attempted to pass a bill to make education compulsory. Although he was not successful at the time, his dream was fulfilled in free India with Article 45 of Directive Principles of State Policy, which mandates free and compulsory education for all children until they reach the age of 14.
3. What does Article 45 of Directive Principles of State Policy state?
Answer: Article 45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy states, “The state shall endeavour to provide within a period of 10 years from the commencement of the Constitution for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years.”
4. What were the challenges faced by India in achieving universalization of Primary Education by 1960?
Answer: Universal primary education in India faced several obstacles including lack of adequate funds, a fast-growing population, and social resistance to girls’ education. The rapid growth of the population meant that the demand for education far outstripped the available resources. For example, when the government opened schools for 2000 children, there were 4000 students waiting to be admitted. The financial condition of the general public was such that many could not afford to send their children to school. Poor parents preferred to send their children to work to earn money, viewing education as non-productive and an additional burden. There was also strong resistance against the education of girls, which further slowed down the universalization of education.
5. Why was there resentment against girls’ education?
Answer: Many parents, especially those who were illiterate, opposed the education of girls. They held the view that girls were meant for household chores like cooking, cleaning, and looking after children, and therefore, there was no need to educate them. There was a fear that girls might go out of control after getting educated in schools. This traditional mindset openly criticized the idea of universal education and greatly hindered the progress of girls’ education.
6. How did the geographical conditions of villages in India pose a challenge to the establishment of schools?
Answer: The geographical dispersion of villages in India posed a significant challenge to the establishment of schools. Many villages were too small and scattered to justify the opening of a school. The number of children in some villages was less than the minimum required for opening a school. If a school was opened to serve multiple villages, the long distances that children had to travel became a problem. Additionally, the indifference or even opposition of illiterate parents towards the establishment of schools in the villages further complicated the issue.
41. Discuss the views of the Secondary Education Commission and the Kothari Commission on the use of mother tongue as the medium of instruction.
Answer: The Secondary Education Commission and the Kothari Commission both support the use of mother tongue as the medium of instruction in schools. The Secondary Education Commission states that in most schools, the medium of instruction is either the mother tongue or the regional language, especially where minorities exist. It also mentions that provision is made for instruction in the mother tongue if a minimum number of pupils are available.
The Kothari Commission, on the other hand, emphasizes that the medium of instruction should facilitate students to acquire knowledge easily and express themselves with clarity, precision, and vigour. This could be interpreted as supporting the use of mother tongue for instruction because fluency and comfort in language facilitate effective communication and comprehension, promoting better learning outcomes.
Both commissions underscore the value of using the mother tongue in instruction to enhance learning experiences and outcomes for students. The linguistic diversity of India necessitates such an approach to ensure inclusivity and equality in educational opportunities.
1. What is the directive that provides for free and compulsory education in the Indian Constitution?
A. Article 14 B. Article 45 C. Article 60 D. Article 30
Answer: B. Article 45
2. Who tried to pass a bill for compulsory education in India in 1910?
A. Mahatma Gandhi B. Jawaharlal Nehru C. Gopal Krishna Gokhale D. Subhash Chandra Bose
Answer: C. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
3. Until what age does the Indian Constitution provide free and compulsory education for all children?
A. 12 years B. 14 years C. 16 years D. 18 years
Answer: B. 14 years
4. Which of the following was not a challenge in the Universalization of Primary Education by 1960 in India?
A. Lack of funds B. Fast-growing population C. Support for girls’ education D. Poor financial condition of parents
Answer: C. Support for girls’ education
5. What was a common perception among some illiterate parents about girls’ education?
A. It was necessary B. It was beneficial C. It was non-productive D. It was encouraged
Answer: C. It was non-productive
60. Do educators worldwide agree that mother tongue is the right means to educate?
A. No B. Yes C. Not Sure D. Depends on the Country
Answer: B. Yes
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