Development

social science
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Get here all the questions and answers and notes for chapter 16 Development of social science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.

INTRODUCTION: The term ‘development’ highlights the need and means to provide better living conditions for people of the country. It includes not only economic growth but also human development by providing facilities for better health, nutrition, education and a clean environment for living. Thus, development is the process of developing or being developed. The emotional, social and physical development of young children has a direct effect on their overall development. Therefore, it is very important to invest in young children in the form of health and education. We should not forget that children are also a part of the human resource of the country.

Development involves goals and aspirations of people and about the ways in which they work towards achieving these goals. We know that different persons can have different developmental goals. What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other. For example, construction of a dam may be developmental goal for an industrialist, but the same dam can create havoc with the life of people who need to be evacuated in the catchment area.

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Per capita income is:

Answer: (a) income per person

2. Development of a country is generally determined by

Answer: (d) all of these

3. In which of the following, life expectancy rate is highest?

Answer: (c) china

4. Which of the following is the total value of Gross Domestic Product?

Answer: (b) All final goods and services produced in a particular year.

5. Which state in India has lowest infant Mortality Rate?

Answer: (c) Kerala

6. The most important criterion while comparing the real development of a country is

Answer: (a) Human Development Index (HDI)

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. What is meant by Per Capita Income?

Answer: The national income of a country divided by its total population is called the per capita income of that country.

2. State the meaning of Gross Domestic Product.

Answer: Gross Domestic Product is the money value of all final goods and services produced by all the enterprises in the domestic territory (geographical and political boundaries) of a country in a year.

3. Mention any two importance of education.

Answer: Two importance of education are:
(i) Education produces skilled and trained workers.
(ii) It increases labour productivity.

4. Define Infant Mortality Rate.

Answer: The term Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) indicates the number of living children per thousand, who die before completing one year of age.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What is meant by Death Rate? What was the death rate in India in 2013?

Answer: The death rate is the number of people dYing Per thousand of the population during a particular year. In 2013, the death rate in India was 7.4 per thousand.

2. State two ways in which good health contributes to economic development.

Answer: Good health contributes to economic development in the following ways :
(i) It increases the efficiency of workers.
(ii) It reduces production loss caused by a worker’s illness.

3. What ls National Income? Mention any one feature of National Income.

Answer: National income is the money value of all final goods and services produced in a country plus income from abroad during a financial year.

One feature of National Income is that National income can be measured both at current prices and at constant prices.

4. Mention any two conditions necessary for sustainable development.

Answer: Two conditions necessary for sustainable development are:
(i) Limiting the human population to the level within the carrying capacity of the environment.
(ii) Technological progress must be input-efficient particularly about nonrenewable resources.

5. What do you mean by Human Development Index?

Answer: Human Development Index (HDI) makes the rating of all countries on a scale of 0 to 1. Countries with an HDI value below 0.5 are considered to have a low level of human development, those between 0.5 but below 0.8 a medium level, those above 0.8 but below 0.9 high level and those above 0.9 very high human development.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. What do you mean by per capita income of a country? How it can be used to compare two countries?

Answer: The national income of a country divided by its total population is called the per capita income of that country, It is also known as the average national income per head of population. It can be calculated by dividing national income by total population as shown below.

For comparison between countries, national income is not a useful measure. Since countries have different population, comparing national income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. Therefore, the size of the national income of a country cannot be considered as a good measure of economic growth, especially when the growth of population is more than its growth of real national income. Here, per capita income would be a better indicator of economic growth.

2. What is meant by sustainable development? Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?

Answer: Development should take place without damaging the environment and the development in the present should not compromise on the needs of future generations. Sustainable development, therefore, means development only when resources are managed in such a way that future generations do not suffer and have at least the same which present generations have.

The issue of sustainable development is important to us because non-renewable resources get exhausted
after years of use. These resources cannot be replenished. Crude oil and coal are examples of non-renewable resources. If people in the world continue to use crude oil in present manner, we would run out of stock in 43 years. Further, the present type of development has caused great damage to the environment.

3. What does Human Development Index (HDI) indicate? By whom HDI is prepared?

Answer: Human Development Index (HDI) makes rating of all countries on a scale of 0 (which represents the lowest human development) to 1 (which represents the highest human development). Countries with an HDI value below 0.5 are considered to have a low level of human development, those between 0.5 but below 0.8 a medium level, those above 0.8 but below 0.9 high level and those above 0.9 very high human development.

HDI is prepared by the United Nations. To measure human development, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been presenting/constructing Human Development Index (HDI) since 1990.

4. What is sex ratio? Describe the reasons for steady decline in sex ratio in India.

Answer: Sex Ratio (SR) is defined as the number of females per thousand males.

The reasons for the steady decline in sex ratio in India are:
(i) Less care of female children as compared to male children.
(ii) Women are subject to greater risks of life, especially at the time of delivery.
(iii) Indians prefer a male child to that of a female child. This leads to female foeticide and infanticide.
(iv) Females do not get a good diet and medical care. Males, as they are supposed to be bread-earners for the family, get preference in this regard.

5. How is education important for development?

Answer: The role of education in human development and thereby in economic development becomes evident from the following :
(i) Education produces skilled and trained workers.
(ii) It increases labour productivity. It is estimated that primary education causes an increase of 40%, secondary education 100% and higher education 300% in labour productivity.
(iii) It modifies/improves human behaviour.
(iv) It promotes science and technology.
(v) It develops personality and sense of national consciousness among the people which are important for economic development.

In fact, expenditure on education by individuals is similar to the expenditure incurred by producers on capital goods.

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