Get here all the questions and answers and notes for chapter 16 Development of social science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: The term ‘development highlights the need and means to provide better living conditions for the people of the country. It includes not only economic growth but also human development by providing facilities for better health, nutrition, education and a clean environment for living. Thus, development is the process of developing or being developed. The emotional, social and physical development of young children has a direct effect on their overall development. Therefore, it is very important to invest in young children in the form of health and education. We should not forget that children are also a part of the human resource of the country.
Development involves the goals and aspirations of people and the ways in which they work towards achieving these goals. We know that different persons can have different developmental goals. What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other. For example, the construction of a dam may be the developmental goal for an industrialist, but the same dam can create havoc with the life of people who need to be evacuated in the catchment area.
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1. Per capita income is:
Answer: (a) income per person
2. Development of a country is generally determined by
Answer: (d) all of these
5. Which state in India has the lowest Infant Mortality Rate?
Answer: (c) Kerala
6. The most important criterion while comparing the real development of a country is
Answer: (a) Human Development Index (HDI)
II. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What is meant by Per Capita Income?
Answer: The national income of a country divided by its total population is called the per capita income of that country.
4. Define Infant Mortality Rate.
Answer: The term Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) indicates the number of living children per thousand, who die before completing one year of age.
III. Short Answer Questions
1. What is meant by Death Rate? What was the death rate in India in 2013?
Answer: The death rate is the number of people dYing Per thousand of the population during a particular year. In 2013, the death rate in India was 7.4 per thousand.
2. State two ways in which good health contributes to economic development.
Answer: Good health contributes to economic development in the following ways :
(i) It increases the efficiency of workers.
(ii) It reduces production loss caused by a worker’s illness.
5. What do you mean by Human Development Index?
Answer: Human Development Index (HDI) makes the rating of all countries on a scale of 0 to 1. Countries with an HDI value below 0.5 are considered to have a low level of human development, those between 0.5 but below 0.8 a medium level, those above 0.8 but below 0.9 high level and those above 0.9 very high human development.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1. What do you mean by the per capita income of a country? How it can be used to compare two countries?
Answer: The national income of a country divided by its total population is called the per capita income of that country, It is also known as the average national income per head of population. It can be calculated by dividing national income by total population as shown below.
For comparison between countries, national income is not a useful measure. Since countries have different populations, comparing national income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. Therefore, the size of the national income of a country cannot be considered as a good measure of economic growth, especially when the growth of population is more than its growth of real national income. Here, per capita income would be a better indicator of economic growth.
2. What is meant by sustainable development? Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Answer: Development should take place without damaging the environment and the development in the present should not compromise on the needs of future generations. Sustainable development, therefore, means development only when resources are managed in such a way that future generations do not suffer and have at least the same which present generations have.
The issue of sustainable development is important to us because non-renewable resources get exhausted after years of use. These resources cannot be replenished. Crude oil and coal are examples of non-renewable resources. If people in the world continue to use crude oil in the present manner, we would run out of stock in 43 years. Further, the present type of development has caused great damage to the environment.
5. How is education important for development?
Answer: The role of education in human development and thereby in economic development becomes evident from the following :
(i) Education produces skilled and trained workers.
(ii) It increases labour productivity. It is estimated that primary education causes an increase of 40%, secondary education 100% and higher education 300% in labour productivity.
(iii) It modifies/improves human behaviour.
(iv) It promotes science and technology.
(v) It develops personality and a sense of national consciousness among the people which are important for economic development.
In fact, expenditure on education by individuals is similar to the expenditure incurred by producers on capital goods.
Extra/additional questions and answers/solutions
1. Why is it important to invest in the health and education of young children?
Answer: It is important to invest in the health and education of young children since their emotional, social, and physical development has a direct impact on their total growth.
2. What does development mean?
Answer: Development is concerned with people’s goals and aspirations, as well as the methods by which they work toward realizing those goals.
27. What do you mean by a decent standard of living?
Answer: The fulfilment of basic minimum human needs such as food, water, shelter, education etc. can be termed as a decent standard of living. It can be measured by GDP.
28. Differentiate between Renewable and Non-renewable resources.
Answer: Renewable resources are those that can be used repeatedly and naturally replaced, whereas non-renewable resources are those that cannot be easily replaced by natural means on a level equal to their consumption.