Economic Geography: SEBA Class 10 Social Science (Geography)

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Get summary, textbook solutions, questions, answers, notes, extras, pdf for Social Science (Geography) Chapter 1: Economic Geography—Subject Matter and Resources which is a part of the SEBA (Assam Board) class 10 syllabus.

economic geography

Introduction: To reduce the usage of raw resources with limited reserves, usable discharged garbage can be repurposed through the recycling process. For example, the consumption of raw materials for such items can be decreased to some extent by recycling old polythene bags, plastic bottles, paper, iron scraps, and so on. Whereas, required research and studies will be conducted in order to produce innovation in turning natural resources into usable forms. This also helps to reduce the waste of raw materials while increasing resource production.

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Textual questions and answers

1. What is “economic geography”? What is its main subject matter? Mention the important branches of economic geography.

Answer: Economic geography is a field of geography that studies human activities related to the production, distribution, consumption, and exchange of resources in relation to space and time.

The primary focus of economic geography is human economic activity, which includes:

i. Production of resources 
ii. Distribution of resources 
iii. Consumption of resources 
iv. Exchange of resources  

The following are the main branches of economic geography:

i. Agricultural Geography 
ii. Industrial Geography 
iii. Geography of Marketing 
iv. Transport Geography 
v. Geography of Tourism 
vi. Geography of Marketing 
vii. Geography of Planning and Development  

2. Write in brief about the scope of Economic  Geography.  

Answer: Economic Geography is primarily concerned with the distribution of human economic activities, as well as the variables and processes that influence them. The study’s scope is mostly based on the following fundamental questions:

i. Where is the economic activity located? 
ii. What are the characteristics of economic activity?
iii. To what other phenomenon is economic activity related? 
iv. Why is the economic activity located where it is? 
v. Would it not be better if located elsewhere?  

The traditional economic geography is linked to the first three of the five questions outlined above. The latter two questions, on the other hand, have created the groundwork for current economic geography.

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5. Why is “resource geography” known as an important branch of economic geography?

Answer: Economic geography and its various subdivisions are inextricably linked to resource geography. It is because a country’s economic development is heavily reliant on the quality and availability of its resources. Because every economic activity or development process is inextricably linked to the environment, a greater emphasis is placed on sustainable development.

6. What is meant by ‘Resource’? Mention its main characteristics.  

Answer: All of the components required for human survival are referred to as resources. Because air, water, sunlight, soil, plants, animals, fruits, minerals, and so forth are all beneficial to man, they are all resources.

According to renowned economist Zimmermann, any material that wants to become a resource must possess two characteristics: functionality and utility. Because of these two characteristics, resource utilisation has been able to result in human welfare and socioeconomic growth.

7. ‘Resource is Dynamic’. – Explain.  

Answer: The resources are ever-changing. Even if a product is not used by man now or is harmful to man, it may be used for human wellbeing in the future. Because of this dynamic property of resources, materials or phenomena that are useful today may be converted into a resistive or neutral materials over time. It indicates that as society changes, so does the concept of resources, resulting in changes in resource collection and utilisation.

8. Briefly discuss the necessity of resources with examples.  

Answer: The usage of resources and their availability are inextricably linked to the advancement of human civilization. Human welfare and socioeconomic growth have resulted from resource exploitation. The resources received from nature are exploited by man, who employs his or her own energy, knowledge, wisdom, and talent. Apart from meeting man’s basic necessities of food, housing, and clothes, as well as many other requirements, the availability of these resources has allowed for an improvement in man’s living conditions. Aside from natural resources, many resources, such as technology, housing, roads, industries, schools, offices, agro-farm equipment, automobiles, and so on, are created by humans to meet their own needs.

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11. Write about the classification of resources with examples.  

Answer: Natural resources, man-made resources, and human resources can be roughly classified based on their origin. Furthermore, resources can be classified as biotic or abiotic; renewable or nonrenewable; and individual, national, or international.

Natural, man-made and human resource 

Natural Resources are defined as resources that, after natural formation, remain scattered on the earth, such as sunlight, air, water, soil, plants, animals, minerals, rivers, and so on.

Man-made resources are materials that are created via human labour. For example, bamboo paper, cotton cloth, soap, plastic, and so on.

It is important for men to have appropriate talent, knowledge, technology, and drive in order to make natural resources useful to man. Because of these characteristics, the population is referred to as a human resource.

Biotic and abiotic resource  

Biotic Resources are those that have life and have a physical structure or composition, whereas abiotic Resources are those that do not have life. Plants, animals, fish, crops, and so on are all examples of biotic resources. 

Abiotic resources, on the other hand, include soil, rock, water, air, minerals, coal, and so on.

Renewable and non-renewable resources

Some of the earth’s abundant natural resources are not exhausted after consumption, while others are steadily depleted. Renewable or inexhaustible resources are those that may be retained unexhausted after use through the process of regeneration. For example, air, water, plants, animals, humans, crops, and so on.

Non-renewable or exhaustible non-renewable resource Resources are those that cannot be replenished after usage and are entirely depleted. For example, coal, mineral oil, minerals, and so on.

Individual, national and international resource 

Individual or personal resources are the possessions of an individual man, such as land, household items, and good self qualities, among other things.

National resources include all resources within a country’s obligation or possession, such as transportation networks, land, rivers, bridges, wildlife sanctuaries, and so on.

International resources are resources that belong to all countries and are the property of the entire world, such as oceans and seas and their mineral and biological resources, the atmosphere, forests, and so on.

12. What is meant by “natural resources”? Write briefly, with examples.  

Answer: Natural resources are defined as resources that, after natural formation, remain scattered on the earth, such as sunlight, air, water, soil, plants, animals, minerals, rivers, and so on. Natural resources can be found in solid, liquid, or gaseous forms, as well as metallic or non-metallic forms. Many of these natural resources are used as raw materials by various industries. Furthermore, coal, mineral oil, natural gas, and other natural resources are employed as energy sources by mankind.

13. What is a man-made resource? Write in brief about its use with examples.  

Answer: Many materials obtained from nature are changed into more useable forms as needed by utilising various technologies. For example, bamboo paper; cotton cloth; many sorts of dyes, paints, synthetic cloth, chemical fertiliser, pesticides, soap, plastic, synthetic rubber, wax, and so on; and various forms of food, medicine, timber, and house construction materials are all derived from plants. Man-made resources are materials that are created via human labour.

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16. Write in brief about the methods of resource conservation.  

Answer: For the successful execution of a resource conservation programme, the following strategies must be used:

a. Search for alternative resources: Even when the production of a highly used resource is ongoing, it is vital to conduct the appropriate research and surveys in order to identify potential sources of alternative resources.
b. Recycling: To reduce the usage of raw resources with limited reserves, usable discharged garbage can be repurposed through the recycling process.
c. Innovation: To develop innovation in turning natural resources into usable forms, necessary studies and research will be conducted. This also helps to reduce the waste of raw materials while increasing resource production.
d. Waste control: A significant amount of resources can be saved if proper measures are made to reduce waste material generation through recycling and reuse while transforming raw materials into valuable resources.
e. Expansion of knowledge and education: Knowledge and education must be expanded in order to properly manage production and resource utilisation. People’s awareness needs to be raised in order to reduce wasteful resource use.
f. Execution of conservation-related acts: For the appropriate implementation of resource conservation programmes, conservation acts must be strict and clear, and they must be efficiently enforced.
g. Proper assessment of resource reserve: A precise estimate of any resource’s available reserve is required for future resource use planning. This, in turn, aids in reducing the needless use of specific resources and emphasises the importance of exploring other resources.
h. Assessment of future requirement of resources: It is critical to calculating the future requirement of a resource by taking into account the degree of current consumption and the rate of population increase. 

17. Write in brief about the organisations associated with resource conservation and their role.  

Answer: At the international, national, regional, and local levels, a large number of governmental and non-governmental agencies and organisations have been established.

In this regard, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), a United Nations Organisation-sponsored international environmental conservation organisation, is worth mentioning. In fact, the IUCN was founded in 1948 on the proposal of British biologist Julian Huxley, the first Director-General of UNESCO. The primary goal of this organisation is to conduct research and study on the conservation of the global natural environment and natural resources, especially biodiversity, and to take appropriate action. The IUCN spearheaded the establishment of two new international organisations, WWF for Nature (Worldwide Fund for Nature) and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

India’s government has established the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change. These government institutions are also in charge of developing laws pertaining to environmental protection and natural resource conservation. In 1986, the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education was established as an autonomous institute under this Ministry. A number of non-governmental groups, such as the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), Greenpeace India, the Wildlife Trust of India, and others, are also trying to safeguard the environment. In Assam, a number of non-governmental groups, such as the Assam Science Society and Aaranyak, are trying to protect the environment and conserve biodiversity.

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20. Choose the correct answer:  

(a) Which of the following is a man-made resource?  

Answer: (3) Irrigation canal  

(b) Which one of the following is an abiotic resource?  

Answer: (1) Air  

(c) Which one of the following is a non-renewable resource?  

Answer: (4) Coal  

(d) Which one of the following animals is about to be extinct?  

Answer: (1) One-horned rhino

(e) The organisation IUCN is under which of the following organisations?  

Answer: (1) UNESCO  

Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions

1. What are the qualities a resource must possess?

Answer: Functionality and utility are the qualities a resource must possess.

2. What do you mean by resistance?

Answer: Resistance refers to elements or events that are damaging to humans. For example, unproductive soil, highly flooded areas, and so on.

3. What is sustainable development?

Answer: Sustainable development is defined as development that does not endanger future production.

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9. Differentiate between natural and man-made Resources.

Answer: Natural resources are those resources derived from nature, such as sunlight, air, water, soil, plants and minerals.

Man-made resources are materials collected from nature that are converted into resources using various technologies, human skills and effort which include paper, cloth, dyes, paints, Naphtha, synthetic cloth, chemical fertiliser, insecticides and soap.

10. Why is man referred to as a human resource?

Answer: Natural resources are collected from nature by man. Man applies his skill and effort to the materials obtained from nature and turns them into resources. As a creator of resources man is also a kind of resource. Hence, it is known as human resource.

11. What is wealth? What are its characteristics?

Answer: “Wealth” is a term used in economics to describe materials that have a monetary value.

Its characteristics are:

(a) Wealth has monetary value.
(b) Wealth is transferable.
(c) Humanity can benefit from wealth as well as suffer from it.
(d) Wealth has a market value.
(e) All resources are wealth.

12. In how many stages do natural resources exist? Name them.

Answer: Natural resources exist in three stages: solid, liquid, and gas.

13. What is resource conservation? Briefly explain the methods of resource conservation.

Answer: The concept of conservation of resources refers to the possibility of fully utilising any resource without any destruction or misuse. Some important methods that can be used for the purpose of conservation:

(a) Search for alternative resources: Even in the midst of producing highly used resources, it is important to conduct the necessary research and surveys in order to identify possible sources of alternative resources. For example, using synthetic fibre in place of cotton fibre and synthetic rubber in place of natural rubber.
(b) Recycling: In order to reduce the use of raw materials which is limited, usable disposed garbage can be reused through the method of recycling.
(c) Innovation: Necessary studies and research need to be undertaken to develop innovation in converting natural resources into usable forms. This contributes to the reduction of raw material waste.
(d) Imparting knowledge and education: Imparting knowledge and education is critical for proper production, resource management, and utilisation.
(e) Implementing conservation-related acts: The provisions of conservation acts must be observed strictly and implemented effectively in order for resource conservation programmes to be carried out properly.
(d) Proper assessment of resources: It is critical to determine the future requirement of a resource by analysing the rate of population growth and the current consumption of natural resources. A correct assessment of the available reserve of any resource is required for future resource planning.

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2 thoughts on “Economic Geography: SEBA Class 10 Social Science (Geography)”

  1. Ashraful Amin

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