Here are notes, questions, solutions, textual answers, pdf, and extras for chapter 13: Electoral Politics in a Democracy, which is a part of the social science class 9 syllabus for students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.
INTRODUCTION: India follows the indirect form of democracy also known as representative democracy. In this form of democracy, we choose a local leader who represents us in the state assemblies and parliament and makes decisions on our behalf. We follow this kind of democracy because India has a large population and direct democracy is not possible.
And it is not only for state assemblies and parliament that we choose leaders, but we also choose leaders to represent us in the panchayats, municipalities and village councils. To make democracy happen, the entire country has been divided into small parts and each part is represented by a local leader. These small parts are called constituencies. Now constituencies are also of two types- one is a reserved constituency and another is an unreserved constituency. In a reserved constituency, only a particular group of people can fight elections. In an unreserved constituency, anyone from anywhere can fight elections.
In this chapter, we will learn in detail about the various processes involved in conducting a democratic election and the different aspects of it.
I. Choose the correct answers
1. Seats are reserved for certain weaker sections, because:
Answer: b. They would never have the resources to fight an election.
2. A symbol is given to each party fighting an election because:
Answer: d. None of the above.
3. What is the total population of Nagaland as per the latest Census (2011)?
Answer: c. 19,80,602
4. How many total seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the present Lok Sabha?
Answer: a. 120
5. Door-to-door canvassing is allowed till_____hours before the polling starts.
Answer: c. 48
6. What is the minimum age required to be eligible as a Member of Lok Sabha?
Answer: c. 25 Years
7. Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner?
Answer: b. President.
8. Which state has the largest number of members in the Vidhan Sabha?
Answer: c. UP
ll. Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. What is a constituency?
Answer: A constituency is an area, based on population, from which one representative is sent to the Lok Sabha.
2. What is the Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer: Universal Adult Franchise means every adult citizen should be able to vote. One vote for one person and every vote should have the same value.
3. How do elections lead to political competition?
Answer: Elections lead to political competition by way of different ideologies, policies, etc. All this competition is very healthy. Elections without competition would become meaningless.
4. What is the expenditure limit for a candidate during a Lok Sabha election?
Answer: The expenditure limit for a candidate during a Lok Sabha election is Rs 70 lakhs per candidate.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
1. Explain the difference between:
(I) The ballot paper and EVM.
(II) General Constituency and Reserved Constituency.
|I. A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the contesting candidates and their party’s name and symbol are listed.||I. Electronic Voting Machines show the names of candidates and party symbols.|
|II. Results are known slower compared to EVM.||II. Results are known faster than ballot papers.|
|General Constituency||Reserved Constituency|
|I. In these constituencies, only those who|
belongs to a scheduled caste or tribe can stand
|I. In these constituencies, anyone belonging|
to any tribe or community can contest
2. Why have seats been reserved for weaker sections in Lok Sabha and Assemblies?
Answer: People belonging to weaker sections, such as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, would, without reservations, never get an opportunity to win an election and become members of the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabhas. If that happened, our Parliament would fail to be representative of a large section of our population. So, the makers of our constitution thought of a unique system of reserved constituencies for the weaker sections.
3. Describe the model code of conduct for an election campaign. [HOTS]
Answer: A model code of conduct is a set of rules that the Election Commission has drawn within which the political parties need to campaign, and if any party or candidate fails to adhere to the guidelines, there can be penalties. Some of these guidelines are:
I. Votes cannot be sought by an appeal to religious or caste sentiments of the voters.
II. Personal lives of opponents will not be attacked. Criticism to be limited to their policies, programmes, past record, and work.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
1. Briefly discuss the steps taken to hold elections.
Answer: The process to hold elections begins with the identification of the number of constituencies after which the following steps are taken:
I. Voters List: After the number of constituencies are decided, the voters’ list is prepared which decides who can vote.
II. The nomination of Candidates: Political parties nominate their candidates who get the party symbol and support. This is called getting the “Party Ticket.”
III. Election Campaign: In India, two weeks gap is kept between the declaration of candidates and polling of votes. This period is for candidates to contact their voters, address, election, meetings and mobilize their supporters with the help of their respective parties.
IV. Polling and Counting of Votes: The last stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or ‘poll’ their votes. Every voter, whose name is in the voters’ list, goes to the nearest polling booth to cast his/her vote.
V. Declaration of results: The results are declared when counting is over. The candidate securing the highest number of votes from a constituency is declared the winner.
4. Discuss the basic features essential for a democratic election.
Answer: The basic features essential for a democratic election are:
I. Every citizen should be able to vote. One vote for one person and every vote should have the same value.
II. There should be candidates and parties who are allowed to contest elections.
III. Elections should be free and fair. Every person chosen by the people should get elected.
IV. Elections should be held at regular intervals.
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