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Short introduction: Assam occupies 2.4 per cent of India’s land area and is home to 2.6 per cent of the country’s people (As per the 2011 census). During the years 2001 to 2011, Assam’s literacy rate and gender ratio grew. The proportion of people living in rural areas has declined yet again, while the proportion of people living in cities has climbed. According to the 2011 census, Assam has seven Class-I towns and six Class-II towns. Although the birth rate, death rate, and migration all affect population growth in Assam, migration has a substantial impact. Between 1901 and 1941, the population of Assam expanded by more than twofold. However, during the post-Independence period, from 1951 to 1971, it grew quickly.
During the period 1981-2011, the population slowly fell. Population density varies from region to region due to the uneven distribution of the state’s population. The population density of the Brahmaputra Valley rises from the upper to the middle, then from the middle to the lower. Similarly, the Barak Valley has a high population density, although the hill zone that encompasses Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao district has a low population density. The most densely inhabited district in the state is Kamrup (Metro), while the least densely populated district is Dima Hasao.
In the past, many ethnic groups have migrated to Assam, resulting in the assemblage of distinct groups of people with their diverse languages, faiths, and traditions. Assam’s unique qualities and diversity have greatly enriched Assamese society and culture. As Assam is the entrance to North-East India, the improvement of Assam’s transportation system is directly beneficial to the North-economic East’s development. Assam’s transportation systems include road, rail, water, and air travel. All of these transportation methods have issues.
Assam’s transportation sector is not developed to its full potential. Both natural and human resources are vital in the economic growth of Assam, and Assam is rich in both sorts of resources. Land, forest, mineral, and water resources are Assam’s most important natural resources.
Textual Questions and answers of Geography of Assam
1. Write briefly about Assam’s land area, population and population density with necessary data.
Answer: Assam’s entire land area is 78,438km2, accounting for 2.4 per cent of India’s total land area.
According to the 2011 census, Assam has a population of 312.05 lakh people, accounting for 2.6 per cent of India’s total population. There are 159.39 lakh men and 152.66 lakh women among them.
According to the 2011 census, Assam’s population density is around 398 people per square kilometre, up from 42 people per square kilometre in 1901. The population density in the Brahmaputra Valley, where 85 per cent of Assam’s population lives, is 1502 people per square kilometre.
2. Briefly mention how the literacy rate of Assam is increasing.
Answer: According to the 2001 census, Assam’s literacy rate was just 63.25 per cent, but by 2011, it had risen to 72.19 per cent, an increase of more than 10% in a decade.
3. According to the 2011 census, how many first- and second-class towns exist in Assam?
Answer: Assam contains roughly 7 first-class towns and 6 second-class towns, according to census statistics from 2011. A ‘first class town’ has a population of one lakh or more, whilst a second class town’ has a population of 50 thousand to one lakh.
4. Describe the trend of population growth in Assam from 1901 to 2011.
Answer: According to the census, Assam had a population of 3 million people in 1901, accounting for 1.38 per cent of India’s total population. Following then, the state’s population grew, reaching a peak of 7 million in 1941. Between 1951 and 1961, and 1961 and 1971, population growth was 34.98 per cent and 34.95 per cent, respectively. However, in the following decades, from 1971 to 1981, 1981 to 1991, 1991 to 2001, and 2001 to 2011, population growth slowed marginally, owing to a lower death rate and tighter control over migration from Bangladesh. In 2001-11, the growth rate was barely 17.07 per cent, compared to almost 30 per cent in the decades after independence. The state’s entire population has grown from 3 million in 1901 to 31 million today, a ten-fold increase.
5. Analyse the geographical region-wise distribution of population in Assam.
Answer: The distribution of population in Assam by geographical region in terms of the state and population density may be described by splitting the state into three regions: –
The Brahmaputra Valley Region is one of Assam’s most densely populated areas, accounting for over 85% of the state’s population. According to the 2011 census, the region has a population density of 1502 people per square kilometre.
The valley of the Brahmaputra can be divided into the following regions:
Upper Brahmaputra Valley: The Upper Brahmaputra Valley has a population density of 372 people per square kilometre, accounting for 21% of the total population.
Middle Brahmaputra Valley: The middle Brahmaputra Valley has a population density of 500 people per square kilometre, accounting for 27% of the valley’s total population.
Lower Brahmaputra Valley: The Lower Brahmaputra Valley has the highest population density, with around 36% of the valley’s total population and a density of 631 people per square kilometre.
Barak Valley: According to the 2011 census, this region is home to 11% of the state’s total population. According to 2011 census data, the region has a population density of 545 people per square kilometre.
Hill Region: This region is made up of the state’s two hill districts, Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao, which are situated between the Brahmaputra and Barak Valleys. With a population density of 68 people per square kilometre, it houses roughly 3.75 per cent of the state’s population.
6. Briefly discuss the causes responsible for variation in the distribution of Assam’s population with suitable examples.
Answer: According to the 2011 census, Assam’s total population is 31 million, with a population density of 398 people per square kilometre. The Brahmaputra Valley Region is home to 85 per cent of its people, while Barak Valley is home to 11 per cent. The hill region is home to 3.75 per cent of the state’s overall population. At the same time, population density varies from one location to the next. The Brahmaputra Valley region contains 1502 people per square kilometre, according to the 2011 census. While the Barak Valley and Hill regions contain 545 and 68 people per square kilometre, respectively.
The main factors responsible for this variation are given below:
i. Differences in climate.
ii. Topographic variations.
iii. Differences in the region’s economic development.
iv. Differences in transportation and communication development.
v. Disparities in the accessibility of different resources.
Because of its plain land, fertile soils, and well-developed agriculture and transportation, the Brahmaputra Valley region supports a high-density population. The high population density in the Barak Valley is due to similar circumstances. Due to unfavourable topography and other physiographic characteristics, the hill regions of Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao have few populations. According to the 2011 census, Kamrup (metro) district has the highest population density, with 2010 people per square kilometre, whereas Dima Hasao has only 44 people per square kilometre.
7. Mention the districts of Assam which have the highest population and density and lowest population and density as per 2011 census data.
Answer: Nagaon district, with a population of 2,826,006, is Assam’s most populous district, while Dima Hasao, with a population of 213,529, is the state’s least populous. The most densely inhabited district in Assam is Kamrup (metro), which has a population density of 2010 people per square kilometre. The least densely populated district is Kamrup (metro), which has a population density of 44 people per square kilometre.
8. Analyse briefly the causes responsible for the growth of the population in Assam.
Answer: The causes responsible for the growth of the population in Assam are as follows:
Natural causes: Natural causes refer to a decrease in the death rate and a rise in the birth rate. The death rate has decreased and the birth rate has increased over the last two decades as medical care has improved, the standard of life has improved, and economic development has improved.
Migration: Migration is the main reason for Assam’s population growth being abnormal. Despite the fact that migrants have been arriving in Assam since 1826, the influx peaked in the early 1900s. During the partition, a substantial number of Hindu refugees from Bangladesh came to Assam. From 1951 to 2001, the influx of Bangladeshi migrants was unstoppable.
9. Mention the different human migration streams sequentially coming to Assam from ancient times to the present.
Answer: (a) Austric Group: Austric racial stock was the first group of people to move to Assam. They were most likely from Southeast Asia. This group includes the Khasis and Jaintias who currently live in Meghalaya.
(b) Mongoloid Group: The Mongoloid Tibeto-Burman language-speaking group was the second human group to come to Assam. From Central Asia, they crossed the Himalayas and settled in various sections of Assam. This category includes all tribal communities currently residing in Assam, with the exception of the Khasis and Jaintias.
(c) Aryans: Soon after the Mongoloid people, the Indo-Aryan speaking people migrated to Assam. The Caucasoid racial stock included the Aryans. The Caucasoid racial stock is represented by the vast majority of non-tribal communities in Assam. This group includes the Kalitas, Kayasthas, Brahmins, and other Hindu groups in the state.
(d) Ahoms: The Ahoms are the largest ethnic group that has moved to Assam. Mongoloid Stock was represented by the Ahoms. They arrived in 1828 from East Mayanmar under the command of Seu-Ka-Pha. They initially settled in Upper Assam, where they founded the Ahom monarchy. They eventually took control of the entire Brahmaputra Valley.
(e) Migration during British Rule: When the British seized Assam in 1826, they needed some educated and skilled people to handle their administrative, economic, and commercial affairs. They brought qualified and competent people from Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Nepal, and other places to help with this.
10. Give the ethnic identity of the Ahoms.
Answer: During the 18th century, the Ahoms moved to Assam. They were essentially Mongoloid Stock. The Ahoms crossed the Patkai Hills from the Shan Plateau in Northern Mayanmar in 1828 under the command of Seu-Ka-Pha. They first settled in Upper Assam, where they founded the Ahom Kingdom. They eventually ruled over practically the whole Brahmaputra Valley. The Ahoms ruled for 600 years and made significant contributions to Assam’s culture and society. The Ahoms are currently concentrated in the Upper Assam districts of Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, Golaghat, Lakhimpur, and Dhemaji, as well as the Middle Assam districts of Morigaon, Nagaon, and Sonitpur.
11. Briefly state how the transport system of Assam has been helping the state’s economy.
Answer: The transportation infrastructure is one of the most essential components in a country’s or region’s economic development. Its main purpose is to develop communication and linkages between various sections of a country. It facilitates resource, knowledge, culture, and civilization exchange. As a result, a nation’s lifeline is an efficient transportation system comprised of railways, roadways, rivers, and airways. Agriculture, industry, trade, communication, and other sectors of the economy are all heavily reliant on transportation infrastructure. When it comes to a state like Assam, this is completely true. Assam is lucky to have important resources such as a large land area, good rivers, flat geography, abundant natural resources, and enormous people potential. All of these resources can be created with the assistance of well-functioning transportation infrastructure.
Assam is known as North-East India’s Gateway. Assam’s transportation system is so critical to the development of the entire North-East. Various economic items essential for these states’ economies must be transported through Assam through the transportation infrastructure. This has had a significant impact on the state’s economy. Assam is located in India’s easternmost corner. It is the system of transportation that connects the state to the rest of India. Many economic items essential for the state’s economic development must be imported from outside the country. Tea, oil, natural gas, limestone, and other locally generated items are transported to other locations using the transportation infrastructure. In other words, Assam’s transportation system has played a critical part in the state’s economic development.
12. Write a short note on water transport in Assam.
Answer: Assam’s water transportation system is primarily comprised of interior waterways. Assam is a river-rich state. The Brahmaputra, Barak, and their tributaries make for 32 per cent of India’s total water resource. There are two water transport routes in Assam, which are listed below:
Brahmaputra Inland Water System: The Brahmaputra Inland Water System spans 891 kilometres. From Sadiya in the east to Dhubri in the west, it runs. In 1988, this waterway was named India’s second-largest waterway. On the Brahmaputra River, there are 30 pairs of ferry ghats and roughly 96 ferry services.
Barak Inland Water System: The Barak inland water system spans 121 kilometres. It begins in Lakhimpur and ends in Bhanga. The Central Government designated it as India’s sixth national waterway in 2013. The waterways are anticipated to help neighbouring states like Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh grow their economies.
In the Brahmaputra and Barak rivers, there are currently 96 ferry services running. Private ferries and bhoot-bhooty are plentiful. The state of Assam’s water transportation is managed by two government bodies. The Central Inland Waterways Corporation and the Directorate of Inland Water Transport are the two organisations.
The benefits of Assam’s inland water system include lower fuel costs; playing an important role during natural disasters; no road construction, maintenance, or repair costs; effectively transporting goods and passengers; availability to people in areas where road transportation is underdeveloped; and very little air pollution.
13. Mention five major causes which are regarded as hindrances to the development of the transport system of Assam.
Answer: The five major causes which are regarded as hindrances to the development of the transport system of Assam are:
(a) In Assam, which is characterised by numerous physical features such as hills, plateaus, plains, floodplains, marshes, and so on, expanding the transportation infrastructure is extremely difficult.
(b) Assam is connected to India’s mainland by a short corridor in the west, which has hampered the expansion of the transportation infrastructure.
(c) The soil qualities of Assam are not appropriate for the construction and maintenance of roads in some regions. Furthermore, heavy rain during the summer creates easy road damage.
(d) The transportation system in the state has not developed due to a lack of a major market. Assam has largely failed to participate actively in inter-state and international trade and commerce.
(e) In order to accomplish overall transportation system development, appropriate transportation coordination across the road, rail, water, and air transport is critical. However, throughout the state, a lack of such cooperation is typical.
(f) Assam is still behind the curve in terms of industrial growth when compared to other Indian states. One of the key reasons for this is the state’s undeveloped transportation system.
14. What do you mean by the term ‘resource’? What are the major natural resources of Assam?
Answer: Resources are materials that directly or indirectly meet human desires. Assam’s key natural resources include:
Land resources: Assam’s land resource is made up of four different types of soil: piedmont soil, alluvial soil, hill soils, and laterite soils. On the Brahmaputra and Barak flood plains, alluvial soils can be found. Pulses, rice, and vegetables can all be grown in this sort of soil. Assam’s land area is cultivated to the tune of 35%.
Forest Resource: Assam is a state with a lot of forest resources. Tropical woods of all varieties can be found here, providing a diverse home for a wide range of plants and animals. There are valuable tall trees such as Nahar, Cham, Sirish, Amari, Simul, and short trees and grasses such as Bamboo, Cane, and others. About 35 per cent of Assam’s area is covered in forest, with 72 per cent of these woods being reserved. Assam has five national parks and twenty wildlife sanctuaries.
Mineral Resources: Coal, mineral oil, natural gas, and limestone are among the key minerals found in Assam. Digboi, Naharkatia, Lakoa, Amguri, and other major oilfields can be found. These areas are also rich in natural gas deposits. Makum, Dilly-Jaipur, Koliajan, Garampani, and other places have coal. Limestone may be found in the Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao hill districts. Iron ore, feldspar, quartz, and clay are some of the other minerals found in Assam.
Water Resources: Both surface and groundwater resources abound in Assam. The Brahmaputra and Barak rivers, as well as their tributaries, are present, as are numerous ponds, wetlands, and other natural features. Wetlands and marshes are home to a wide variety of fish and aquatic plants.
15. Name the major oil fields of Assam.
Answer: The Digboi oilfield, located in the state of Assam, was India’s first oilfield to be discovered and exploited. In 1889, this oilfield began producing. Naharkatia, Moran, Hugrijan, Rudrasagar, Lakoa, Geleki, Borhola, and Amguri oilfields have all been developed in the state over the years.
16. Write briefly about the water resources of Assam.
Answer: Due to significant rainfall, multiple perennial rivers, thousands of wetlands, and other factors, Assam has abundant surface and groundwater resources. The Brahmaputra River and the Barak River, the two biggest rivers, convey enormous amounts of water. These two rivers, combined with their tributaries, account for over a third of the country’s water resources. Aside from it, there are a number of large and small marshes and ponds scattered around the state.
These rivers’ surface water is used for agricultural and household purposes, as well as for industrial purposes. These rivers also serve as one of the state’s primary modes of transportation. The Brahmaputra and Barak Valleys have substantial groundwater resources as well. The subsurface water level in the plains varies by 5 metres from the surface. It is also used in agriculture, industry, and home settings. However, it should be highlighted that the state’s water resources are underutilised, and much more may be done in this respect.
17. What are the causes responsible for the degradation of Assam’s natural resources?
Answer: The causes responsible for the degradation of Assam’s natural resources are:
(a) Land misuse has resulted in erosion, loss of land fertility, soil pollution, and other issues.
(b) In order to meet increased demand for food crops, forest lands and wetlands have been cleared and converted to agricultural land.
(c) The use of artificial fertilisers to improve crop yield has resulted in the destruction of the natural qualities of farmland soils.
(d) Pollution of air, water, and land resources has resulted from unplanned urbanisation and industry.
(e) The irrational exploitation of natural resources has contributed significantly to their depletion.
18. How has the growing population of Assam impacted natural resources?
Answer: Assam has a wealth of natural resources, including land, forest, mineral, and water resources. However, these resources are depleting at an alarming rate. The main cause of this rapid depletion is the enormous strain placed on them as a result of the state’s rapidly rising population. The following are some of the ways that the growth in population has impacted natural resources:
i. The demand for more settlements has increased as the population has grown. Forests have been removed, marshes have been filled, and even good agricultural land has been seized to accommodate this demand for human settlements.
ii. A growing population necessitates the production of additional food crops. More forests and wetlands have been exploited for agriculture as agricultural land has been used for human settlements.
iii. The growing population entails concurrent development of the transportation and energy sectors, resulting in non-renewable mineral resources being depleted.
19. Is the vast population of Assam a burden (problem) on the resources of the state? Discuss.
Answer: The state’s fast-growing population has become a hardship. The state’s population problem has caused numerous issues. If the population problem is not addressed and the vast population is not developed as human resources, the problem will become more serious. According to the 2011 census, Assam’s population is 2.6 per cent, or 31 million people, accounting for 2.6 per cent of the country’s total population. The state’s overall literacy rate is 73 per cent, with male and female literacy rates of 78 and 67 per cent, respectively. Literacy rates in rural and urban areas are 70 per cent and 88 per cent, respectively.
The age group of 15-34 years accounts for almost 35% of the overall population of the state. If this youth force is provided effective education, intellect, technical know-how, and other benefits through competent management, and the weaker sectors of society, poor communities, and disabled people are also given stress, the expanding population might be a boon.
20. According to you what steps need to be followed in creating human resources in Assam?
Answer: The steps needed to be followed in creating human resources in Assam are:
(a) The literacy rate must be enhanced by expanding educational opportunities for women in rural regions.
(b) More funding should be allocated to education growth by the government.
(c) More vocational and industrial training institutes should be established by the government.
(c) The government should assist the state’s highly qualified youth in starting their own firms.
(e) The state’s bright children should be encouraged to pursue higher education. They should be provided with sufficient financial assistance for this purpose.
21. Discuss briefly the role of the agricultural sector on Assam’s economy.
Answer: Assam is primarily an agricultural state. Agriculture is the main source of income for the majority of the population. Agriculture is Assam’s economic base, and the agricultural sector is the state’s main driving force. The agriculture sector has played a significant part in the state’s economic development. More than half of Assam’s working population is employed in the agricultural sector, either directly or indirectly.
The main agricultural goods exported outside the state, such as tea, jute, rubber, and others, bring in a lot of revenue for the state. Assam produces more than half of all tea produced in the country. This also generates a significant amount of revenue for the government. Food processing industries, tea industries, paper industries, sugar industries, oil seed industries, and other agro-based sectors in the state all rely entirely on agriculture for their survival. As a result, agriculture is one of the most important cornerstones of the Indian economy. It keeps the state’s economy afloat.
22. What are the agro-climatic regions of Assam? Mention the characteristics of each of them in brief.
Answer: The agro-climatic regions of Assam are:
i. Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone
ii. North Bank Plain Zone
iii. Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone
iv. Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone
v. Barak Valley Zone and
vi. Hill Zone
Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone: Kamrup, Kamrup (metro), Nalbari, Barpeta, Baksa, Bongaigaon, Chirang, Kokrajhar, Dhubri, and Goalpara are among the 10 districts. A total of 9.30 lakh hectares are cultivated.
North Bank Plain Zone: Darrang, Udalguri, Sonitpur, Lakhimpur, and Dhemaji are among the five districts covered. The total cultivated area is 5.37 lakh hectares.
Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone: Morigaon and Nagaon districts are included. The total cultivated area is 3.28 lakh hectares.
Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone: Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, and Golaghat are among the districts covered. The total cultivated land area is 6.20 lakh hectares.
Barak Valley Zone: Cachar, Karimganj, and Hailakandi are included in this district. The total cultivated land area is 2.42 lakh hectares.
Hill Zone: Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao districts are included. The total cultivated land area is 1.54 lakh hectares.
23. What are the types of rice cultivated in Assam? Briefly write about these.
Answer: In Assam, rice is the most important crop. Autumn Rice, Winter Rice, and Summer Rice are the three types of rice grown in Assam.
Autumn Rice: Autumn rice is grown on the lush soils of the plains and the Brahmaputra Valley’s lower plains. It is planted in February-March and harvested in June-July, utilising both sowing and culture methods.
Winter Rice (Sali Rice): In Assam, winter rice (Sali Rice) is the most widely farmed type of rice. It is grown in more than 70 per cent of Assam’s total rice-growing areas. It flourishes in the Brahmaputra and Barak Valleys’ fertile alluvial soils. Plantation methods are used to grow it in July and August, and it is harvested in November and December.
Summer Rice (Boro Rice): Summer rice (Boro Rice) is grown in practically all of Assam’s districts. It is grown in low-lying locations throughout the winter months and harvested before the floods in the summer months of June-July.
24. Why is rice considered the principal crop in Assam?
Answer: Rice is Assam’s main crop due of the following reasons:
i. Rice is grown in each of the state’s six agro-climatic zones. In other words, it is grown in all of Assam’s districts. Rice is the most widely planted crop in the world.
ii. Assam has great growing circumstances for rice, including a good climate, plenty of water, fertile soil, flood plains, and so on.
iii. According to the 2011 census, Assam’s net cropped area was 37.10 lakh hectares. Rice was grown on 25.45 lakh hectares out of the total.
25. What are the pulses cultivated in Assam?
Answer: Blackgram, greengram, lentil, pea, arahar, gramme, and other species of pulses are grown in Assam. Pulses were grown on 1.32 million hectares of the cultivated land in 2011-12, resulting in a total yield of 0.76 million metric tonnes.
26. Write briefly about jhum cultivation (shifting cultivation) carried out in Assam.
Answer: Jhum cultivation is one of the most noteworthy elements of the agriculture practised in Assam’s hill districts of Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao. This type of farming is predicted to cover 5452 square kilometres in Karbi Anglong district and 2597 square kilometres in Dima Hasao district.
Methods: Jhum agriculture is a traditional method of cultivation used by tribals, in which they burn the forests on favourable slopes of hills and farm the area for two or three years until the soil loses its fertility. They then leave and relocate to another location to continue their cultivation. Jhum agriculture is inextricably linked to the hill tribes’ community, culture, and way of life. It is a mixed sort of agriculture that does not produce well.
Bad effects: It contributes to environmental issues such as deforestation, soil erosion, air pollution, and fertility loss, among others. Furthermore, it has a significant impact on nature’s ecological balance, leading to natural disasters such as landslides and other natural disasters.
27. What are the major aims of the Assam Industrial and Investment Policy, 2014?
Answer: The Assam Industrial and Investment Policy, 2014 has the following primary objectives:
i. To raise the state’s Gross Domestic Product by strengthening the industrial and service sectors, as well as diverse economic activities.
ii. To raise the state’s per capita income and employment prospects, particularly in rural areas.
iii. To stimulate and increase investment in micro, small, and medium-sized businesses.
iv. To develop a big number of skilled workers.
28. What do you mean by the term ‘service sector industries’? Briefly explain taking examples from Assam.
Answer: Industries that generate money via the provision of tangible goods and services are classified as service sector industries. The public receives goods generated by primary and secondary sector sectors through tertiary or service sector industries. The following service industries are well established in Assam:
i. Trade ii. Tourism iii. Banking and insurance services iv. Public administration v. Transportation and communication vi. Hotel industry vi. All forms of business vii. Medical services
In Assam, the trading business is quite important. Tea has had a significant influence in the growth of this sector. In recent years, the transportation and communication business has gotten a lot of praise. Assam contains over 5 national parks and 20 animal sanctuaries, as well as ancient sites, the mighty Brahmaputra, and many attractive locations, all of which contribute to the state’s tourism economy. Similarly, the state’s large population has fueled the growth of all other service industries, including business, banking, insurance, and medical administration.
29. What are the major agro-based industries of Assam?
Answer: Assam’s key agro-based industries are as follows:
i. Forestry ii. Tea industry iii. Silk industry iv. Rubber industry v. Food processing industry vi. Paper industry vii. Allied industries such as fisheries and animal husbandry
30. Write about the tea industry of Assam in brief?
Answer: Assam’s tea business is the state’s main agro-based sector. It has a substantial impact on the state’s economy. It generates a significant amount of revenue and employs thousands of people. Due to suitable climatic and topographical circumstances, tea cultivation thrives in the state. In Assam, there are around 765 tea estates and 78,901 small tea gardens. Tea is grown over 318 thousand hectares of land in Assam, which produced 590 thousand tonnes of tea in 2012. Assam is India’s leading tea producer, accounting for 51 to 53 per cent of the country’s total tea production.
31. State the present status of the fish industry of Assam.
Answer: Fishing is currently a thriving economic industry in Assam. The state has ideal conditions for the growth of the fishing sector. It has a lot of wetlands, rivers, abandoned channels, marshy lands, and a lot of tiny water bodies like pits, ponds, tanks, and so on where fish can be found. Fish can also be found in abundance in the marshes of the Brahmaputra and Barak flood plains. According to current statistics, there are around 430 government-registered wetlands covering approximately 60 thousand hectares, as well as 767 unregistered wetlands covering approximately 40 thousand hectares.
32. Mention the problems of agricultural development in Assam.
Answer: Assam’s agricultural development issues include:
i. In the plains, traditional agriculture and jhum farming are still practised using traditional ways.
ii. Farmers’ agricultural fields are fragmented into small plots, making modern agricultural instruments and techniques impossible to employ.
iii. Irrigation methods have not been established, and irrigation facilities are insufficient.
iv. Rice is widely grown in the state and has a considerable impact on the agricultural sector. However, the adoption of contemporary agricultural methods for rice cultivation improvement is not given the attention it deserves.
v. Floods and bank erosion have wreaked havoc on the state’s agriculture. Flood damages more than 25% of the state’s croplands each year, and vast amounts of fertile alluvial plains are lost each year owing to riverbank erosion.
vi. There is no effective agricultural planning in place to protect agricultural activities and farmers from severe drought.
33. Why is the industrial development in the state still slow?
Answer: The following are the reasons for Assam’s delayed industrial development:
(a) There is a lack of integrated planning for industrial growth that makes effective use of the state’s natural resources.
(b) Despite more opportunities, the development of agro-based industries is restricted and slow.
(c) A transportation and communication system that is underdeveloped.
(d) Inadequate capital.
(e) Energy supply and distribution are insufficient in comparison to demand and requirement.
(f) Inadequate planning to instil entrepreneurial passion in the local population.
(g) The state lacks a straightforward and adaptable industrial policy.
34. Mention the problems of the tourism industry of Assam.
Answer: The following are the issues facing Assam’s tourism industry:
i. Inadequate government and private sector capital investment in this sector.
ii. A transportation system that is underdeveloped.
iii. Inadequate planning and development of tourism attractions.
iv. Inadequate infrastructure outside of the capital city
v. There is very little public awareness about the state’s terrorism pathways.
vi. A lack of air travel options to various sections of the state.
35. What are the prospects for the economic development of Assam?
Answer: Assam’s different economic development opportunities include:
i. Assam has a wealth of natural resources. It has enough land, forest, mineral, and human resources to meet its needs. It has enormous plains, large rivers, vast forests, vast flood plains, numerous marshes, and lengthy stretches of low-lying mountain slopes, among other things. All of these, if correctly developed, can help the state’s economic development.
ii. Mineral resources like coal, oil, natural gas, and limestone abound throughout the state. These resources, if properly harnessed and expanded, have the potential to drive the state’s industrial development.
iii. Agro-based sectors such as tea, rubber, paper, jute, food processing, and so on have a lot of room for growth. These industries, on the other hand, can only thrive in an environment of government backing, a tranquil environment, and people’s coordination, which the state currently lacks.
iv. It is true that the state’s immense human potential has not been fully realised. Of the 31 million residents in the state, around 10 million are between the ages of 15 and 34. Their entire potential has yet to be realised. They can be made more efficient by giving skills such as employability.
Additional questions and answers on the Geography of Assam
1. What is the total geographical area of Assam?
Answer: Assam covers 2.4 per cent area of India.
2. What per cent of India’s total population does Assam have?
Answer: As per the 2011 census, Assam has 2.6 per cent of the country’s population.
3. Name the most densely and sparsely populated districts in Assam.
Answer: According to 2011 census data, the most densely populated district in Assam is Kamrup (Metro), while the least densely populated district is Dima Hasao.
4. What is the cause of Assam’s population growth?
Answer: Although Assam’s population growth is determined by the birth, death, and migration rates, migration has a significant impact.
5. Explain in brief the population fluctuation in Assam.
Answer: During the four decades i.e., from 1901 to 1941, Assam’s population increased more than twice as much. Again, the population increased rapidly between 1951 and 1971 during the post-Independence period. However, between 1981 and 2011, the population slowly declined.
15. How many types of industries are found in Assam?
Answer: The industries of Assam can be classified into five types:
i. Mining Industries.
ii. Handicraft Industries
iii. Agro-based industries
iv. Power industries and
v. Service sector industries.
16. Which is the biggest agro-based industry in Assam?
Answer: The tea industry is the state’s largest agro-based industry, and it is well-known not only in India but also around the world.
17. How many class-I and class-II towns are there in Assam?
Answer: There are 7 class-I towns and 6 Class-II towns in Assam as per 2011 census data.
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