Grammar Worksheet I: NBSE Class 10 English

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Determiners

A determiner is a word that introduces a noun or gives information about a noun. The different types of determiners are:

i. Articles
ii. Possessives
iii. Demonstratives
iv. Distributives
v. Quantifiers.

Articles

Articles are determiners that indicate whether a noun is specific/definite (using the) or general/indefinite (using a/an). While this appears to be simple in theory, in practice it can be a little more difficult due to some confusing rules to follow.

Rules:

Indefinite/unspecific

  • The indefinite article is used before a singular countable noun when it is mentioned for the first time. Eg. I bought a new computer.
  • When expressing ‘quantity’ or ‘certain numbers,’ use the indefinite articles a and an. Eg. I gave him a lot of work.
  • To identify an unknown person or to express a special meaning, use the indefinite articles a and a before a proper noun. Eg. A Rahul phoned me in the morning.
  • Use the indefinite articles a and a before nouns in exclamations. Eg. What a beautiful place!
  • The sound of the first letter of a word determines whether to use “a” or “an”. If the word begins with a vowel sound, use “an”. If it begins with a consonant sound, use “a”. Concentrate on sounds, not just the beginning letter. Eg. A horse can do the work of many men in an hour.
  • The indefinite articles a and an are singular, which means they can be used with singular countable nouns.

Definite/specific

  • To refer to something that has already been mentioned, we use the definite article “the.” Eg. I met a woman yesterday. The woman is a foreigner.
  • When both the speaker and listener understand what is being referred to, even if it has not been mentioned previously, we use the definite article “the.” Eg. I have seen the video you sent.
  • In sentences or clauses where we define or identify a specific person or object, we use the definite article “the.” Eg. The man who wrote the book is no more.
  • To refer to objects that are unique, we use the definite article “the.” Eg. The sun.
  • Before superlatives and ordinal numbers, we use the definite article “the.” Eg. He is the best player in the team. / He came on the first day of the month.
  • When referring to a large group of people, nationalities, or races, we use the definite article “the.” Eg. The Indians. / The Mongoloids.
  • With decades or groups of years, we use the definite article “the.” Eg. The 90s was a difficult time.
  • The definite article “the” is used for both singular and plural countable nouns. It is also appropriate for some uncountable nouns.
  • “The” is generally not used before proper or abstract nouns unless it is necessary to identify those nouns in a specific context.
  • “The” is also not used before plural countable nouns when they are referred to in general. Eg. Children these days are really smart.

A. Fill in the blanks with articles where necessary. Insert a cross (x) where an article is not needed.

1. I invited my dance group for ____ dinner.

2. ____ British are known for their wit.

3. ____ Dr Longkumer is ____ best doctor in our town.

4. My sister teaches in _____ university in the USA.

5. He is ____ brightest student in the class.

6. She is not only ____ honest person but also ____ dedicated worker.

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B. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences given below.

1. I like listening to ____

2. Anu is studying Sanskrit at _____

3. He was sent to ____ for theft.

4. She lives in ____ that overlooks the park.

5. I like ____ food that is served in this restaurant.

6. I spoke to ____ of the hotel.

7. Do you like ____ cheese?

8. ____ is the second longest river in the world.

9. I’m going to ____ this weekend.

10. I don’t go to ____ very often.

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Possessives

Possessive determiners are used to show who owns or “possesses” something. The possessive determiners are as follows my, yours, his, hers, its, ours, and theirs.

Rules:

  • Use “my/our” for first person singular/plural. Eg. I am a student and study is my priority.
  • Use “your” for second person. Eg. Where are you? Your parcel has come.
  • Use “his” for singular third person musculine. Eg. He needs to come here. I have his books.
  • Use “her” for singular third person feminine. Eg. She is a bright student. I like her ambitions.
  • Use “their” for third person plural. Eg. The birds are here. I can hear their sounds.
  • Use “its” for singular non-living, animal, bird, insect, child. Eg. The dog knows its owner.

C. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessives.

1. Mr Dhoni has bought a new car ____ colour is blue.

2. ‘Where is Neena?’
‘She is washing ____ hands.’

3. Robin is doing ____ homework.

4. My sister and I are settling ____ cupboard.

5. They are going to the cricket match today ____ tickets are for the VIP enclosure.

6. I sometimes help ____ friends with ____ homework.

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Demonostrative

Demonstratives show where things are located and how many of them there are. This, that, these, and those are demonstratives.

Rules:

  • ‘This’ and ‘that’ are used before singular nouns.
  • ‘These’ and ‘those’ are used before plural nouns.
  • ‘This’ refers to something close to us, while ‘that’ refers to something far away.
  • ‘These’ refers to things close to us, while ‘those’ refers to things far away.

D. Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with suitable demonstrations.

1. ____ glass here is mine, but ____ one over there is his.

2. ____ books are hers, but ____ ones are mine.

3. She can’t eat all of ____ popcorn.

4. Look at ____ mess!

5. ____ kind of selflessness is rare.

6. I found ____ earrings under the bench. Is it yours?

7. ____ pastries are delicious, Shanta. May I have another?

8. I can’t finish ____ projects today. I’ll work on them tomorrow.

9. ____ picture here was taken in India. ____ mountains in the background are the Himalayas.

10. I think ____ nightingale is back. I can hear it singing in the garden.

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Distributives

When we talk about a particular person or thing out of a group of persons and things, we use distributive like ‘each’, ‘every’ etc.

  • When we think of people or things seperately, we use ‘each,’ and when we mean everyone together in group, we use ‘every’. Eg. Each apple in the basket has been wrapped. / Every person in this room has read this book.
  • When two persons or things are referred together, we can use ‘both’. Eg. I have met both the brothers.
  • When we point to only one out of two, we can use ‘either’ but when we want to refer to none out of the two, we use ‘neither’. Eg. Either her or his friend did this. / Neither of them came to the party.
  • ‘All’ describes the complete group to mean that nothing has been left out. Eg. All of them were present.
  • ‘Half’ is used to talk about a whole group divided in two. Eg. Half of the class was present.

Quantifiers

Quantifiers are used when we want to indicate the number of a noun or the quantity of a noun.

Rules:

  • Only countable nouns are used with the quantifiers ‘few’ and ‘many’.
  • ‘Many’ indicate the majority of the countable noun, while ‘few’ indicates the minority of the countable noun. Eg. Many were invited. / Only few people came.
  • Quantifiers like ‘little’ and ‘much’ are used only with uncountable nouns.
  • ‘Little’ indicates small amount of uncountable noun, while ‘much’ indicates a large amount. Eg. I need little milk. / I have much respect for him.
  • There are some quantifiers which can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. They are ‘some’, ‘any’, ‘enough’, ‘most’, ‘no’, and ‘all’.

E. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate quantifiers, possibly modified by an article.

1. I’m having ____ trouble with my new computer.

2. ____ books by this author are very interesting. Have you read ____ one of his latest books?

3. ____ the information proved to be outdated.

4. It’s close to the project’s deadline, but there is still ____ work left.

5. Although there are ____ brilliant students in this country, possibly ____ lakhs, only ____ will choose to remain in the country after graduation.

6. We were able to feed ____ of the people, but ____ of them had to remain hungry.

7. ____ a student has passed through these doors.

8. Although ____ of the lawn is open to the sun, there are ____ shady trees to make it comfortable.

9. I think he drank too ____ coffee last night.

10. ____ of the jewellery was stolen from the bank safe last night.

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F. Fill in the blanks with one of the following quantifiers-much, many, few, little, or most.

1. The school playground looks unkempt after the vacation. There are too ____ weeds.

2. The gardener didn’t use ____ fertiliser last spring, and that has made a difference.

3. Also, he’s paid ____ attention to how rain there has been.

4. It’s rained ____ times this year, and the grass is fresh and green.

5. ____ experts say you should fertilise your lawn in autumn.

6. But it didn’t seem to do our lawn ____ good.

7. ____ advice you get from experts doesn’t seem to help.

8. ____ neighbours of mine neglected their lawns.

9. Do you think ____ people will come?

10. There’s not ____ green grass left on the pavement now.

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G. Fill in the blanks with one of the following quantifiers- a little, little, a few or few.

1. Take ____ time off for exercise.

2. They say ____ knowledge is a dangerous thing.

3. I know ____ instances that prove this saying to be true.

4. ____ people know as much about computers as Jacob does.

5. But it does him ____ good when the whole system goes down.

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Mixed exercise

H. Fill in the blanks with the correct determiners.

1. I always keep ____ money in my wallet for an emergency.

2. I don’t have ____ pictures in my room.

3. She is the girl ____ book was missing.

4. I have ____ best brother in the world!

5. ____ students were absent today as it was raining heavily.

6. ____ dress do you like?

7. You will get only ____ hour to complete the test.

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I. Look at this picture of a railway station. Write a paragraph on it. Underline the determiners used by you. There must be at least one determiner in each sentence.

One of the busiest places on the planet is a railway platform, which is being depicted in the picture. It teems with an unprecedented amount of activity 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Every hour, every day, a large number of trains arrive and depart, bringing and carrying thousands of passengers. When a train arrives, the hustle and bustle die away for a brief moment. The swarm of people, on the other hand, is unimaginable when a train arrives. When people are waiting for their trains, the majority of them can be seen eating snacks from various stalls. Frequent announcements about train arrivals and departures can be heard. It is impossible to become bored at a railway station.

Subject-Pronoun agreement

A sentence’s parts must be in agreement. If the subject is singular, the verb and any pronouns referring to it should also be singular; if the subject is plural, the verb and any pronouns referring to it should be plural.

Rules:

  • In both the singular and plural forms, ‘you’ is used for the second person.
  • ‘They’ can be used to refer to a group of third-person pronouns.
  • When two or more singular subjects are combined, a compound subject is formed, and a plural verb is used. Eg. You and I are not yet old enough to vote.
  • ‘It’ can be applied to a baby whose gender is unknown, as well as an animal or plant.

A. Fill in the blanks with suitable pronouns.

t. ‘The Principal has asked to meet ____,’ said the child’s parents.

2. ‘Whenever ____ do something, make sure that it is done well,’ said the old man to the little girl.

3. When my friends saw the Taj Mahal, ____ were amazed.

4. Salma doesn’t know about them. We must warn ____.

5. Whenever the Indian team plays on home soil, ____ wins by a huge margin.

6. Who do Javed and Jimmy think ____ are?

7. ‘It is ____, not you, who got the idea first,’ argued Yitachu.

8. The people surrounded the thieves and gave ____ a thrashing.

9. Julie saw Manik at the fair. ____ waved out to ____, but ____ didn’t see ____.

10. Zara and I plan to visit Mysore. ____ are looking for companions, but nobody wants to accompany ____.

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Reflexive Pronouns

Words like myself, myself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves are reflexive pronouns. They’re referring to someone or something. A reflexive pronoun is one that is used in place of the object when the subject and object of a verb are the same person.

B. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate pronouns and/or adjectives.

1. The baby smiled at ____ on seeing ____ reflection in the mirror.

2. ‘Please don’t shift any of ____ papers when you do the dusting,’ said the master to the new maid.

3. Some people like to scare ____ by watching horror films.

4. ‘Razia has brought a huge shopping bag with her. Let’s look into ____ bag and examine its contents,’ whispered the children to each other.

5. ‘Why don’t you do the dishes ____?’ suggested the angry wife.

6. ‘I’ve bought you and Riya a new dress each,’ said mother to me. ‘This is ____ dress and that is ____ dress.’

7. When we had to do things by ____, we learned our lesson.

8. ‘These are ____ seats,’ snapped Amenba when a couple tried to occupy his family’s seats.

9. ‘Help ____,’ said the cook to the hungry children.

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C. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate pronouns and/or adjectives.

1. ‘____ has to read next?’ asked the tired teacher.

2. The game ____ we invented was nothing really new.

3. The footage of the accident, ____ horrified her, kept playing in her mind.

4. The person to ____ I spoke on the phone that day tried bluffing me again today.

5. ____ juice do you prefer-apple or mango?

6. I am going to the airport to meet my father, ____ is returning from Spain.

7. These are the children ____ Transfer Certificates are being prepared.

8. He is delivering a lecture ____ is very interesting.

9. ____ of your childhood hobbies do you still pursue?

10. ____ kind of agreement did the Prime Minister sign?

11. These are the people ____ supported us during the agitation.

12. ____ pretty baby is this?

13. These are the people ____ we supported during the agitation.

14. I’m going to meet the Alongs ____ son just got transferred.

15. That is Mr Dutt, to ____ many of us owe our everlasting gratitude.

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Finite and Non-Finite verbs

Finite and non-finite verbs are the two types of verbs.

Finite verbs are those that change their form depending on the subject. They indicate time (tense) and are limited by the subject’s number, person, and gender. In some cases, a finite verb is the only main verb in a sentence.

Eg. I gave her a book. [Here, reading the verb ‘gave’ gives us the idea that the tense of the sentence is past. So, it’s a finite verb.]

Person, number, and tense are not shown in non-finite verbs. They don’t say anything about the subject’s actions.

Eg. I wanted to give her a book. [Here, although the sentence is past, we’ve used ‘to give’. ‘Give’ here doesn’t tell us anything about tense. However, ‘wanted’ indicates the sentence is in past tense. So, ‘wanted’ is a finite verb and ‘to give’ is a non-finite verb.

A. Underline the verbs in the sentences, Write I for non-finite verbs and F for finite verbs.

1. Dancing is Tina’s favourite hobby.

2. My sister and I loved playing with dolls when we were younger.

3. When the meeting was over, the people began to leave the venue.

4. I want to buy fresh flowers for my house.

5. I forgot to write my name on my answer script.

6. My brother likes strawberry-flavoured cornflakes.

7. Kapil makes us laugh every weekend with his comedy show.

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B, Identify whether the underlined verb is a gerund, participle or infinitive.

1. Checking the answers is a good idea.

2. I want to see the Taj Mahal this vacation.

3. Reading increases knowledge.

4. They plan to build a new house soon.

5. An examination is going on. Stop talking.

6. Is this an insured house?

7. Feeling sleepy, Tanu went to bed.

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C. Complete the sentences with words from the box.

1. Tongpang’s behaviour was ____.

2. ____ completed some housework, I went out to play.

3. ____ attentively is as important as speaking.

4. Seema gave her doll and skipping rope to the ____ child.

5. When did you begin ____ karate?

6. Nikhil loves ____ photographs of sportspersons.

7. The tall man ____ near the shop knows me.

8. Kajol enjoys ____ songs from old Hindi movies.

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