Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam

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Here are the notes/solutions/answers to the questions for history chapter 4 Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam of class 10 (HSLC) for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA). These notes/answers, however, should only be used for references and modifications/changes can be made wherever possible.

Indian freedom movement and national awakening in assam
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INTRODUCTION: By the mid-nineteenth century, Assam, like the rest of India, had seen the rise of an English-educated middle class. The middle class’s exposure to western education caused them to look back on their society. On the one hand, the class worked to reform their society; on the other, they banded together to speak out against colonial exploitation. As a result, a slew of new associations and organisations sprouted up. By 1920 Assam had fully integrated into national politics thanks to a strong link with the National Congress, which was formed in response to the regional aspirations of various organisations. As a result, Assam contributed to the national movement for independence.

On the eve of independence, Assam faced not only the issue of immigrants but also the issue of economic and infrastructural backwardness. Gopinath Bordoloi and his ministry were confronted with such pressing issues and made a concerted effort to bring about the region’s inclusive development.

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Very short answer type questions of Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam

1. When was the Treaty of Yandaboo signed?

Answer:
The Yandaboo Treaty was signed on 24th February 1826.

2. Which period is known as Company Raj in Assam?

Answer: The period from 1826 to 1858 is known as Company Raj in Assam.

3. When was the Bengali Language introduced in Assam?

Answer: The Bengali Language was introduced in Assam in 1836.

4. When was the Bengali language replaced by the Assamese language?

Answer: the Bengali Language was replaced by the Assamese language in 1873.

5. What was the mouthpiece of Assam Chatra Sanmilan?

Answer: MILAN was the mouthpiece of Assam Chatra Sanmilan.

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13. On what crime Kushal Konwar was hanged?

Answer: Kushal Konwar was hanged in connection with the derailment of a train at Sarupathar.

14. When was Gauhati University established?

Answer: It was established on January 26, 1948.

15. When the name Assam Medical College was formally introduced?

Answer: On 3rd November 1947 the name of Assam Medical College was formally introduced.

16. When was Gauhati Medical College formally started?

Answer: On 20 September 1960, the Gauhati Medical College was formally inaugurated.

Short answer type question of Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam

1. Write a brief note on Assamese Literary Society.

Answer: The Assamese Literary Society, founded in 1872 by Devicharan Barua and Gangagovinda Phukan, was the first known association formed in Calcutta. The society’s stated goal was literary, but it also served a political purpose. In 1872, two of its illustrious members, Jagannath Barua and Manik Chandra Barooah, wrote to the Viceroy, Lord Northbrook, pleading with him to take the necessary steps for the development of Assam’s natural resources and the construction of a railway connecting Assam and Bengal. The Society was in operation until 1885.

2. Give a brief trace of important nationalist rise in the Jonaki Age.

Answer: Jonaki, the ABUSS’s mouthpiece, played an important role in Assam’s literary and cultural regeneration. Jonaki never dabbled in politics, but the articles and poems it published reflected the authors’ nationalistic views. One of Jonaki’s recurring themes was the decline of indigenous commerce and industries in Assam following British annexation, as well as the importance of regenerating economic self-sufficiency. Jonaki was successful in reviving Assamese cultural and social consciousness.

3. Write briefly on the political demands of Ahom Sabha.

Answer: The Sabha’s main goal was to demand privileges for the Ahoms in the British administration, as well as to revive their traditional religion, language, and social customs, thereby re-establishing the Ahoms’ cultural identity. A significant political goal of the Sabha was to obtain recognition for the Ahoms as a minority community, as well as reservation of seats in the Assembly and a separate electoral system for the Ahoms.

4. What were the issues raised by Assam Association before the British Government?

Answer: Some of the issues raised by the Association were:

i. It criticised the dominance of government officials on the Municipal Committee and tea planters on the Local Boards.
ii. It called for the democratisation of local governments.
iii. It was opposed to the government’s increased taxes and excise policy, and it demanded the complete prohibition of opium.
iv. It was concerned about the province’s development in the field of education. As a result, it negotiated Assam’s representation in the Calcutta University Syndicate, the appointment of Assamese teachers at Cotton College, and the establishment of technical institutions.

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8. Write a brief history of the establishment of Assam Agriculture University.

Answer: The Assam Agricultural University was founded in 1913 with the establishment of an agricultural research station in Karimganj, followed by another in Titabar in 1923. Though the stations continued to conduct research and training, it became necessary to establish an agricultural and veterinary college, which resulted in the establishment of the Assam Agricultural College in Jorhat and the Assam Veterinary College in Nagaon in 1948. The Assam Agricultural University was founded in 1969, incorporating both of these colleges and relocating the Veterinary College from Nagaon to its current location in Khanapara, Guwahati.

9. Write a brief history of the establishment of Assam Medical College.

Answer: The Assam Medical College in Dibrugarh was the first medical college in northeast India. The college’s history can be traced back to the Berry White School of Medicine, which was founded in 1900 with a Rs 50,000 donation from Doctor John Berry White, Civil Surgeon of the East India Company. Following WWII, the college was relocated to nearby hospital grounds that had previously been used by the US Army. On November 3, 1947, after independence, the college was formally renamed Assam Medical College.

Long answer type questions of Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam

1. Discuss the role and activities of Asomiya Bhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha?

Answer: With the increasing attacks on the Assamese language in the Bengali press, Assamese students in Calcutta felt compelled to form an association to promote the Assamese language and literature. As a result, the Asomiya Bhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha was formed in 1888, and it quickly matured into a literary organisation.

Unnati Sadhini Sabha instilled in Assamese a sense of unity and national awareness. To establish a solid scientific foundation for the Assamese language, the Sabha took the initiative to implement a correct and standardised grammatical system in all Assamese vernacular schools. It also decided to compile a comprehensive Assamese social history and to translate important Sanskrit works into Assamese.

The government published Hemkosh, Hemchandra Barua’s magnum opus, on the initiative of the Asomiya Bhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha. The AsomiyaBhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha used to hold scholarly discussions on a variety of topics on a regular basis. It also aimed to open branches in various parts of Assam. After finishing their studies in Calcutta, several Assamese students returned to Assam and established branches in Kohima, Tezpur, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Nowgong, Golaghat, Barpeta, Goalpara, Jorhat, and Guwahati. The Asomiya Bhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha’s most significant contribution was the publication of their journal, Jonaki, which ushered in a new era in Assamese literature.

2. Write about the contribution of Assam Chatra Sanmilan.

Answer: The rise in national consciousness also prompted the formation of the Asam Chatra Sanmilan, whose first session was held on December 25, 1916, in Guwahati, under the presidency of Lakshminath Bezbarua. Chandranath Sarma was the first secretary. The Sanmilan’s main goal was to enrich the mother tongue by contributing to its development and preservation. The Chatra Sanmilan also attempted to exchange ideas with all Assam students from schools and colleges. Although the Sanmilan initially avoided politics, many of its leaders supported student participation in national politics. Despite the fact that it was not a political organisation, it aided in the development of a conscious group of Assamese students.

Eminent figures from various fields such as education, politics, and literature used to attend the Sanmilan’s annual sessions. Lakshminath Bezbarua, Padmanath Gohain Baruah, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray, and Krishna Kanta Handique were among them. MILAN was Assam Chatra Sanmilan’s mouthpiece. The Sanmilan made significant contributions to the development of Assam’s educational, cultural, and literary institutions, as well as to the development of national consciousness.

3. Give an account of the objectives and role of the Ryot Sabhas.

Answer: The Congress leaders attempted to mobilise the peasants under the banner of Ryot Sabha. Ryot Sabhas were established in the districts of Sibsagar and Darrang. Between 1930 and 1939, the Ryot Sabha of Naduar and Chayduar was extremely powerful. The most important demand of the Ryot Sabhas during the Civil Disobedience period was a 50% reduction in land tax. The All Assam Ryot Sabha was formed to direct all the Ryot Sabhas towards a common goal or objective, and its first session was held near Tilikiyam in Jorhat on 8 April 1933 under the presidency of Congress leader Nabinchandra Bordoloi. Around 3000 peasants attended the second session in Dergaon. Between 1934 and 1939, approximately 300 Ryot Sabhas were established throughout Assam. By the end of 1940, the Ryot Sabhas had gradually lost their vigour, and in many Earts, the Ryot Sabhas were incorporated into Provincial Congress Committees.

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8. Give an account of the role of Assam in the Non-cooperation movement.

Answer: With the formation of the Assam Provincial Congress Committee in June 1921, the Assam movement quickly merged with the national stream. The non-cooperation movement in Assam reached a climax with Gandhi’s visit to the state in August 1921. All of Gandhi’s meetings in major cities were attended by a large number of people. Responding to Gandhi’s appeal, people joined the boycott movement by igniting massive bonfires of British goods. The youth of Assam participated in the movement by boycotting government educational institutions under the leadership of Chandranath Sarma, Hemchandra Barua, Omeo Kumar Das, and Muhibuddin Ahmed. Lakhidhar Sarma, Rohinikanta Hatibarua, Bimalakanta Barua, Kanak Chandra Barua, Benudhar Sarma, Tilak Sarma, and others were among the movement’s prominent youth leaders. Many lawyers, including Nabin Chandra Bordoloi, Kuladhar Chaliha, Tarunram Phukan, Kamini Kumar Chanda, and Bishnuram Medhi, joined the movement after the students. Many government officials and teachers also resigned.

One of the most significant effects of the movement in Assam was a decrease in opium consumption. Another important constructive work was popularising khadi and increasing khadi production. Tea garden labourers provided unprecedented support to the movement. The large population of tea garden labourers took advantage of the opportunity to speak out against colonial exploitation of them.

9. Give an account of the role of Assam in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Answer: Gandhi, who had returned to active politics in 1928, called for a Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In Assam, young leaders such as Omeo Kumar Das urged students to join the Civil Disobedience Movement, but the response was lukewarm. Students, on the other hand, went on strike in large numbers to protest the arrests of Nehru on 14 April and Gandhi on 5 May 1930. To protest, students in the Brahmaputra valley boycotted their institutions on May 6 and 14, 1930. Meanwhile, the situation became more sensitive when R. J. Cunningham, Director of Public Instruction, issued a circular in May 1930, popularly known as the Cunningham Circular, requesting that students and their parents provide a written undertaking guaranteeing that the students would not engage in any kind of political activity. Those found guilty would face fines, loss of scholarships, and expulsion in the case of serious ‘crimes.’ The students reacted angrily to the humiliating diktat, igniting a civil disobedience movement in the region.

The Assam Chatra Sanmilan held a special session in Gauhati to discuss its action plan. They decided to picket government offices. Between July and August 1930, approximately 3,117 out of 15,186 students left their institutions. Picketing soon spread to opium and liquor stores. Peasants joined the movement as well, demanding a 50% reduction in land revenue. In some areas, forest laws were also broken. Surma Valley experienced student unrest as well.

10. Write about the Quit India Movement in Assam.

Answer: In Assam, the movement began with nonviolent methods such as hartals, processions, demonstrations, and picketing. However, with leaders imprisoned and police atrocities on the rise, the movement devolved into rebellion. People sabotaged military supply lines, attacked government buildings, and destroyed railway tracks. Government buildings, particularly in Nagaon and Darrang districts, were regularly attacked, and officers were assaulted. Railway sabotage occurred near Shahabibazar in Habiganj, Sarupathar in Golaghat, Panbari and Rangiya in Kamrup, and Suffrai in Sibsagar.

The British responded to the movement with mass arrests and public floggings across the country. In Assam, too, the government began to take harsh measures to suppress the movement. Kushal Konwar was hanged in connection with a train derailment in Sarupathar. Parallel governments were formed in a few rural areas of Assam during the Quit India Movement. Village panchayats were formed in Bajali, Hatisung, Dhakuakhana, Raha, Jamuguri, and Bahjani. No revenue campaign was also vigorously carried out. Despite the active participation of the leaderless people in the movement, it was quickly extinguished. Even though the Congress leaders were still imprisoned in 1944, the government had seized control of the movement with overwhelming force. Many nationalists were disappointed by the failure of the Quit India Movement.

11. Give a brief description of the institutions established in Assam under the leadership of the Bordoloi Ministry.

Answer: The Indian National Congress emerged as the majority party in the post-World War II elections in 1946, winning 58 of the 108 seats. As a result, Congress formed a government with Gopinath Bordoloi as Prime Minister (Chief Minister) of Assam.

Under his ministry, the region focused on infrastructure development as well as overall socio-economic growth. Another critical task was to develop the company’s human resources. Here, we will briefly discuss a few post-independence developments in Assam, as well as the establishment of a few institutions under the leadership of Gopinath Bordoloi’s ministry.

Assam Agricultural University: The Assam Agricultural University was founded in 1913 with the establishment of an agricultural research station in Karimganj, followed by another in Titabar in 1923. Though the stations continued to conduct research and training, it became necessary to establish an agricultural and veterinary college, which resulted in the establishment of the Assam Agricultural College in Jorhat and the Assam Veterinary College in Nagaon in 1948. The Assam Agricultural University was founded in 1969, incorporating both of these colleges and relocating the Veterinary College from Nagaon to its current location in Khanapara, Guwahati.

Gauhati University: The University of Gauhati, also known as Gauhati University, is North-East India’s first and oldest public university. It was founded on January 26, 1948. The Gauhati University Act 1947 of the Government of Assam established the university. On its inception, it had 17 afflicted colleges and eight post-graduate departments. In 1955-56, the university relocated from the City Centre to its current campus. Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar is the new name for the university area.

Assam Medical College: Located in Dibrugarh, Assam Medical College was the first medical college in northeast India. The college’s history can be traced back to the Berry White School of Medicine, which was founded in 1900 with a Rs 50,000 donation from Doctor John Berry White, Civil Surgeon of the East India Company. Following WWII, the college was relocated to nearby hospital grounds that had previously been used by the US Army. On November 3, 1947, after independence, the college was formally renamed Assam Medical College.

Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions of Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam

1. What is the name of the Calcutta-based organisation dedicated to Assamese literature and language promotion?

Answer: Asomiya Literary Society is the name of a Calcutta-based organisation dedicated to the promotion of Assamese literature and language.

2. When was Jnan Pradayaini Sabha formed?

Answer: Jnan Pradayaini Sabha was formed in 1857.

3. When was the Yandaboo Treaty signed?

Answer: The Yandaboo Treaty was signed on 26th February 1826.

4. Who was the author of the dictionary ‘Hemkosh’?

Answer: The author of the dictionary ‘Hemkosh’ is Hem Ch. Baruah

5. Silchar Medical College was founded in what year?

Answer: Silchar Medical College was established in 1968.

6. Where was the first medical college established in North-East India?

Answer: The first medical college in North-East India was established in Dibrugarh.

7. In which year was the Assam Medical College established? 

Answer: The Assam Medical College was established on 3rd November 1947.

8. When did the Indo-china conflict begin?

Answer: the Indo-china conflict began in the year 1962.

9. Why did Sir Stafford Crips travel to India?

Answer: Sir Stafford Crips travelled to India to meet with political leaders to gain India’s support for the British during the European war

10. Name the oldest and the first public university 

Answer: Guwahati University is the oldest and the first public university.

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21. Who presided over the Ryat Sabha meeting?

Answer: Dr Harekrishna Das presided over the Ryat Sabha meeting

22. What was the main objective behind the formation of the Ahom Sabha?

Answer: To uphold the political, Economic, Educational and cultural aspects of the Ahoms, the Ahom Sabha was formed.

23. What was the name of Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha’s first president?

Answer: King Naranarayan Singha.

24.  In 1910, the Ahom Sabha was renamed. What was it called?

Answer: Ahom Sabha was renamed as the All Assam Ahom Association.

25. When did the British take over the administration of India?

Answer: British took over the administration of India in 1858. 

26. What was the name of Asom Chatra Sammilan’s mouthpiece magazine?

Answer: The name of the Asom Chatra Sammilan’s mouthpiece magazine was Milan.

27. Who was the first president of the Assam Pradesh Congress Committee? 

Answer: The first president of the Assam Pradesh Congress Committee was Kuladhar Chaliha.

28. After the partition of Bengal, who was the first Lieutenant-Governor of the new province?

Answer: John Bamfield Fuller.

29. Where was the first session of the Assam Chatra Sanmilan held? Who presided over it?

Answer: The first session of the Assam Chatra Sanmilan was held in Guwahati. Lakshminath Bezbarua presided over it.

30. During the Civil Disobedience campaign, what demand did the Ryat Sabha make?

Answer: During the Civil Disobedience campaign, the Ryat Sabha demanded to decrease land revenue by 50%. 

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41.  Name the first and only professional university of the Northeast

Answer: Assam Agricultural University was the first and only professional university of the Northeast

42. When did Guwahati Medical College commence?

Answer: Guwahati Medical College started on 20th September 1960.

43. What was the main cause of the Civil disobedience movement? 

Answer: The non-representation of Indians in the Simon Commission, established by the British government, was the main cause of civil disobedience.

44. What was the goal of the Lahore Congress? 

Answer: Purna Swaraj or complete independence was the goal of the Lahore Congress.

45. Write in brief about the August revolution

Answer: The Quit India movement was started by the Indian National Congress in August 1942. The proposal was approved in August. As a result, this movement was called the August Revolution.

46. Who gave the slogan ‘Do or die’?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi gave the slogan ‘Do or die’.

47. At present what is the premise of Guwahati University known as?

Answer: At present, the premises of Guwahati University is known as Gopinath Bardaloi Nagar.

48. What policy did the British implement that resulted in Bengal’s partition?

Answer: The British implemented the Divide and Rule policy that resulted in Bengal’s partition.

49. Where was the first session of Ahom Sabha held? 

Answer: The first session of Ahom Sabha was held in Sivasagar.

50. What was the formal name of the Assam Charta Sanmilan’s preface? What was the organization’s contribution?

Answer: The Assam Chatra Sanmilan’s formal preface was known as the “Milan.” The organisation was fundamental in the advancement of education, literature, and culture, as well as the preservation of social peace and nationalism.

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56. What was the central committee of Ryat Sabha known as?

Answer: The central committee of Ryat Sabha was known as All Assam Ryat Sabha.

57. Name two prominent founders of Jnan Pradayini Sabha.

Answer: Anandaram Dhekial Phukan and Gunabhhiram Barua

58. Mention two effects of the Yandaboo Treaty. 

Answer: Two effects of the Yandaboo Treaty are as follows:

(1) Assam was taken over by the British from the Burmese.
(2) Assam came under the rule of the East India Company.

59. When was the Asomiya Literary Society founded, and why?

Answer: In 1872, the Asomiya Literary Society was founded. This organisation was founded by students who travelled to Calcutta for higher education to promote the Assamese language and literature.

60. What caused the formation of the Jana Pradayini Sabha?

Answer: Assam saw the emergence of a newly educated Assamese middle class by the middle of the nineteenth century. There was also a rise in national consciousness among them. They desired to self-organize. As a result of this, the ‘Jnan Pradayani Sabha’ was established.

61. Mention two important effects of English education in Assam. 

Ans: Two important effects of English education in Assam were:

(1) Indians were exposed to Western civilisation and culture.
(2) Nationalism emerged in India.

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