Here you will find all the questions, solutions, answers, and notes of chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries of Social Science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: Manufacturing is the process of producing goods in large quantities by using machines. Manufacturing involves the processing of raw materials to produce more valuable products in large quantities. The development of manufacturing industries is a measure for assessing the economic strength of a country. It is also an important means to overcome poverty. Since India has an agrarian economy, agro-based industries have played an important role in India’s development. India is one of the largest producers of milk, sugarcane and tea, as well as rice, wheat, fruits and vegetables. These provide raw materials for the growth of agro-based industries. Agriculture and industry go hand in hand and complement each other. Both are dependent on each other for progress and survival.
Prosperity through manufacturing is a long-term strategy of our government. Manufacturing not only aids in modernising agriculture, which is crucial for creating new economic opportunities, but also provides employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors and reduces dependence on agriculture.
II. Very Short Answer Questions
1.What is manufacturing?
Answer: Manufacturing is the process of producing goods in large quantities by using machines.
2. What are tertiary activities?
Answer: All those activities that link the producers and consumers are called tertiary activities such as banks, transport, etc.
5. Where are cement plants located in India?
Answer: The various cement plants located in India are at Bokajan in Assam, Rajban in Himachal Pradesh, Adilabad in Andhra Pradesh, Bhatinda in Punjab, Khrew in Jammu and Kashmir, Pali in Rajasthan and Palghat in Kerala.
III. Short Answer Questions
1.’Agriculture and industry move hand-in-hand.’ Elucidate.
Answer: Since India has an agrarian economy, agro-based industries have played an important role in India’s development. India is one of the largest producers of milk, sugarcane and tea, as well as rice, wheat, fruits and vegetables. These provide raw materials for the growth of agro-based industries. Agriculture and industry go hand in hand and complement each other. Both are dependent on each other for progress and survival.
3. What are the prime factors in the location of aluminium smelting industries?
Answer: The location of the industry is influenced by the availability of bauxite at minimum cost and an inexpensive and assured supply of electricity.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1. Differentiate between agro-based industries and mineral-based industries. Give examples.
Answer: The difference between agro-based industries and mineral-based industries are:
|Agro-based industries||Mineral-based industries|
|I. They obtain their raw materials from agriculture.||I. They obtain their raw materials from mineral resources.|
|II. They are mainly in private and cooperative sectors.||II. They are mainly public sectors.|
|III. They provide employment in both rural and urban areas.||III. They provide employment in urban areas.|
|IV. They include cotton, jute, sugar, oil industries etc.||IV. They include iron and steel, automobiles, cement industries etc.|
2. When was the National Jute Policy introduced? What are its main objectives?
Answer: The National Jute Policy was introduced in 2005.
Its main objectives were to increase productivity, improve quality, enhance yield/ production and also ensure supportive prices to the jute farmers. Today, the Indian jute industry is facing stiff competition from synthetic substitutes which are easily available at cheaper rates. It also faces tough competition from jute products from Bangladesh, Brazil, the Philippines, Egypt, and Thailand.
5. Classify industries on the basis of (i) Capital investment (ii) Ownership
Answer: (i) Based on capital investment, industries can be classified as large scale industries and small scale industries.
Large scale industries: lnvestment in such an industry is more than one crore. Labour employed is large.
Small scale industries: lnvestment in such an industry is less than one crore. Labour employed is less.
(ii) Based on ownership, industries can be classified as Public Sector, Private Sector, Joint Sector, and Cooperative Sector.
Public Sector: Owned and operated by government agencies such as BHEL, SAIL, etc.
Private Sector: Owned and operated by individuals or a group up of individuals, such as Bajaj Ltd., Dabur, etc.
Joint Sector: Run jointly by the state and individual or group of individuals, such as Oil India Ltd. (OIL).
Cooperative Sector: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both, such as the coir industry in Kerala.
6. How do industries pollute the environment?
Answer: The contribution of manufacturing industries to the economic development of India is significant. However, the side effects, such as increased pollution and environmental degradation cannot be ignored. Five kinds of pollution, namely air, water, land, thermal, and noise, are associated with industries.
Air: This is caused due to the presence of a high proportion of gases that are undesirable, e.g., sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Factories, brick kilns, refineries, and smelting plants that do not follow pollution norms cause this pollution.
Water: When organic and inorganic affluents are discharged into water bodies, it causes water pollution. Major polluting agents are paper, pulp, petroleum refineries, tanneries, textile and dyeing, fertilisers, electroplating industries.
Land: Dumping of wastes from nuclear power plants, glass plants, industrial effluents, garbage, salts, etc., cause soil and land pollution.
Thermal: lf hot water from thermal plants and factories is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling, it causes thermal pollution. This affects the aquatic life which soon dies
Noise: Noise pollution is caused during industrial and construction activities due to the running of machinery and factory equipment.
7. Explain the factors that determine the location of industries.
Answer: Locating an industry is a complex issue. Many factors play an important role in the location of industries, such as the availability of raw material, labour, capital, power, market, etc. It is very difficult to find all the factors in one place. Hence, the industry is set up or located at a place where most of the factors are present naturally or can be made available easily and at a reasonable cost.
10. Briefly describe any four measures of controlling industrial pollution.
Answer: Four measures of controlling industrial pollution are:
I. Smokestacks must be made compulsory in factories with fabric filters, scrubbers, inertial separators, and electrostatic precipitators.
II. Coal to be utilised to the minimum and oil or gas should be used in factories.
III. Noise pollution can be reduced by fitting silencers on machines and generators. Machines must be maintained, serviced and redesigned to increase efficiency, reduce energy consumption and noise.
IV. Hot water and effluents should be treated before they are released into water bodies.
Extra/additional questions and answers/solutions
1. Why is the manufacturing sector considered the central dynamic force of economic development?
Answer: The manufacturing sector is considered as the central dynamic force of economic development for the following reason:
a. Manufacturing aids in modernising agriculture, which is crucial for creating new economic opportunities. It also provides employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors and reduces dependence on agriculture.
b. Industrialisation is a powerful method of conquering poverty and providing employment.
c. Manufacturing enables the country to utilise its resources optimally, diversify the economic base, raise the living standard of people, expand trade and commerce and bring in the much needed foreign exchange.
d. The prosperity of a country lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries at a fast and steady pace and transforming its raw materials into a diverse variety of finished goods of higher value.
2. Write a note on the textile industry in India?
Answer: The textile industry is the only industry that is self-reliant and competes in the value chain.
The main contributions of the textile industry are:
a. It contributes almost 14 per cent to industrial production.
b. It directly employs almost 35 million people.
c. It contributes to almost 24.6 per cent of the foreign exchange earnings.
d. Its contribution to GDP is 4 per cent.
20. What is a slag?
Answer: It is a non-metallic waste matter obtained when the ore is melted.
21. What is a refinery?
Answer: A refinery is a place or plant for purifying substances such as crude oil, gas etc.
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