Population

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Get here are the solutions, questions, answers, and notes of chapter 17: Population which is a part of social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.

INTRODUCTION: Population is the total number of persons in a political or geographical area at a particular time. This chapter deals with the human population which is an important topic in the world. It is estimated that the world has about 753 crores people right now and out of these more than 121 crores are living in India. India is the second most populous country in the world, the first one being China.

India has a huge number of people and it is both good news and bad news for the country. It is good news in the sense that we have a large labour force which can improve our economy rapidly. On the other hand, it is also not good for the country because we are running out of resources. In India states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have the highest number of population.

In this chapter, you will learn about the impacts of population growth, how it is affecting our society, and what are the different aspects of it.

I. Choose the correct answer

1. Which of the following is not a factor in determining the population change?

Answer: (a) Economic Status

2. Which Union Territory has the highest density of population as per Census 2011?

Answer: (b) N.C.T. of Delhi

3. Which state has the lowest density of population as per Census 2011?

Answer: (b) Arunachal Pradesh

4. As per the latest Census (2011), Life expectancy has gone up to

Answer: (b) 66.8 years

5. As per the Census 2011, Sex Ratio in India is

Answer: (b) 940

6. As per the latest Census (2011), Kerala has the Sex Ratio of

Answer: (c) 1084

7. According to NPP 2000 who have been identified as one of the most important sections of the population who need priority attention?

Answer: (c) Adolescents

8. According to Census 2011, the average density of population in India was

Answer: (d) 382

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is population?

Answer: Population is the total number of persons in a political or geographical area at a particular time.

2. Define ‘Demography’.

Answer: Demography is the statistical analysis and study of the population.

3. What is overpopulation?

Answer: Overpopulation is a situation when the resources are too few for the size of the population.

4. List the factors that determine the population change.

Answer: Three major factors that determine the population change are:
(i) birth rate
(ii) death rate
(iii) migration.

5. What is meant by internal migration?

Answer: When migration of people takes place within the country, it is called internal migration.

6. What is meant by working population?

Answer: The working population is that group of population which is involved in productive work and also has the required qualifications for the work.

7. Which activities are included in the secondary sector?

Answer: The activities through which raw materials are converted into finished products in the manufacturing industries are included in the secondary sector.

8. Who are included in the adolescent population?

Answer: Boys and girls between 10 – 19 years are included in the adolescent population.

9. What problems of adolescents is NPP 2000 aiming at?

Answer: The problems of adolescents NPP 2000 is aiming at are:

(i) protection from unwanted pregnancies.
(ii) protection from sexually transmitted diseases (STD).

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. What change has been observed in population in the last 100 years?

Answer: In the last 100 years, the population of India has increased manifolds. It grew from 23.84 crores in the year 1901 to 121.01 crores in 2011. The main reason behind the high growth rate of India’s population is the ever growing gap between the birth rate and the death rate.

2. Differentiate between the working population and dependent population.

Answer: A person becomes a member of the working population when he becomes involved in productive work and also has the required qualifications for the work.

On the other hand, the people either in the age group of below 15 years or in the age group of over 64 years are called the dependent population. They depend on the working population for their needs.

3. What has caused internal migration in India?

Answer: Internal migration in India are caused by vast and various employment avenues, good education and better living standards lure the rural folks to the towns and cities causing internal migration.

4. How does migration influence population growth?

Answer: Migration is the movement of people from one area to another. Migration (emigration) of people from rural to urban areas also led to a steep growth in the urban population in India. Migration (immigration) of people from India to Europe, Middle East, Canada led to a decrease in the population of India.

5. What do you mean by optimum population?

Answer: Optimum population of a country refers to the size of population which produces the maximum amount of goods and services with the help of its resources.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. How is the development of the economy related to the occupational structure?

Answer: Economy and its development and occupational structure arc closely related. When a larger number of the population are involved in secondary and tertiary activities in a country, that country has a higher level of income. Lower levels of income are observed in countries where people are mostly engaged in agriculture. In India, the proportion of the population dependent on agriculture was around 61% in 2000. The proportion of the population that is engaged in secondary and tertiary sectors was around 18% and 2I% respectively. People have now become increasingly engaged in secondary and tertiary activities and this has led to faster growth of our economy.

2. Write about the type of population found in the Northern Plains, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Why is there a sparse population in some parts of India?

Answer: High density of population is observed in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the Northern Plains. This is because these states have plain terrain along with rich, fertile soil, moderate climate and a lot of rainfall.

There is a sparse population in some parts of India due to unfavourable climatic conditions and rugged terrain in these states.

3. What problems occur when the population in cities grow faster than the capacity of the economy to support them? [HOTS]

Answer: When the population in cities grow faster than the capacity of the economy to support them, the following problems occur:

I. Overpopulation leads to the collapse of infrastructure in the cities.
II. Overpopulation leads to high density, which results in a shortage of living space and other resources.
III. Often, high population leads to scarcity of jobs available and this causes a problem of unemployment.
IV. Unemployment and fight for resources sometimes lead to petty crimes in the cities.

4. Summarise the National Population Policy 2000.

Answer: Government of India announced in February 2000, the National Population Policy (NPP) with the following objectives:

(i) The immediate objective was to address the needs for contraception, healthcare infrastructure, and basic reproductive and child health.
(ii) The medium-term objective was to bring the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to replacement levels of 2.1 by 2010.
(iii) The long term objective was to achieve a stable population by 2045.

The National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 is now working towards stabilising the population by 2045. According to the NPP 2000 this is to be done by :

(i) raising the marriageable age.
(ii) making school education free and compulsory up to the age of 14 years.
(iii) reducing drop-outs at primary and secondary levels.

5. Explain the following terms :
(i) Density of population (ii) Birth Rate (iii) Death Rate

Answer: (i) The average number of people who live in a fixed area is called population density or density of population.

(ii) Birth Rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.

(iii) Death Rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

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