New Architecture (Hampi): NBSE Class 12 (Arts) History answers

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New Architecture Hampi

Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) History (Themes in Indian History) chapter 7 “New Architecture: Hampi”. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.

Summary

The chapter presents a thorough and detailed examination of the history and architecture of the Vijayanagara Empire, a prominent power in South India from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Organized into several sections, the chapter delves into various aspects of the empire, providing a rich understanding of its magnificence and significance in the context of South Indian history.

The narrative begins with the captivating discovery of Hampi, the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire, by two 19th-century British officials who were astonished by the city’s magnificent ruins. The chapter also highlights the cultural significance of rituals associated with the city, such as the Mahanavami Dibba festival, offering insights into the customs and traditions of the empire.

Detailed descriptions of the Vitthala temple at Hampi are provided, including its architectural features and the exquisite frescoes that decorate its walls. The chapter delves into the architectural traditions that influenced Vijayanagara architects and how they ingeniously adapted and transformed these styles to create distinctive and iconic structures. Additionally, the chapter examines the city layout of Vijayanagara, offering insights into the lives of its ordinary citizens, the various buildings, and the palaces constructed by the rulers. It provides a glimpse into the daily lives, living conditions, and social dynamics of the people who once resided in this remarkable city.

Furthermore, the chapter investigates the impressive fortifications of the Vijayanagara Empire, describing how they captivated the Persian ambassador Abdur Razzak during the 15th century. It also discusses the expansion and consolidation policies of Krishnadeva Raya, one of the empire’s most celebrated rulers, delving into his strategies and accomplishments during his reign.

The chapter explores the Nayakas, successors of the Vijayanagara rulers, and their continuation of the building traditions established by their predecessors. It also examines the reasons why the rulers of Vijayanagara adopted earlier traditions of spiritual architecture and how they integrated these elements into their own constructions.

Textual questions and answers

I. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. Who was the founder of Vijaynagar empire?

Answer: The Vijayanagara Empire was founded by two brothers Harihara and Bukka Raya in AD 1336.

2. Who wrote Hampi Ruins?

Answer: Archeologist A.H. Longhurst in 1925 wrote the Hampi Ruins.

3. Write the name of first dynasty of Vijaynagara.

Answer: The first dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire was known as the Sangama dynasty.

4. Who was the greatest ruler of Vijaynagar empire?

Answer: The greatest ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire was Krishnadeva Raya of Tuluva Dynasty.

5. Who was the founder of Saluva and Tuluva dynasty?

Answer: The founder of the Saluva dynasty is Narasimha and the founder of the Tuluva dynasty is Narasa Nayak.

6. Famous ruler Krishnadeva Raya belongs from which dynasty?

Answer: Krishnadeva Raya belongs to the Tuluva Dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire.

7. Who destroyed the city of Vijaynagar?

Answer: The city of Vijayanagara was destroyed by the armies of the Bahmani Sultans.

8. Who were Nayakas?

Answer: Nayakas were military chiefs who usually controlled forts and had armed supporters. They often moved from one area to another, and in many cases were accompanied by the peasants looking for fertile land on which to settle. The Nayakas usually spoke Telugu or Kannada. Many of them submitted to the authority of the kings of Vijayanagara. But often they rose in revolt against the kings (Rayas) and had to be subdued by military action.

II. Multiple Choice Questions

(i) Which one of following is called ‘City of Victory’?

Answer: (i) Vijaynagara

(ii) The most famous ruler of Vijaynagara is:

Answer: (iii) Krishnadev Raya

(iii) Deccan Sultans are termed as:

Answer: (iii) Lord

(iv) Krishnadev Raya belongs to:

Answer: (i) Tuluva dynasty

(v) The Amar Nayaka was:

Answer: (iii) Military commander

(vi) Vijayanagara kings claimed to rule on behalf of:

Answer: (i) Virupaksha

III. Short Answer Type Questions-l

1. In which state of India is Vijaynagar situated?

Answer: Vijayanagara is in the state of Karnataka.

2. Name the first British antiquarian who visited Hampi in 1799 A.D.

Answer: The first British antiquarian who visited Hampi in 1799 A.D. was Colin Mackenzie.

3. Name the agencies which are making excavations at Hampi.

Answer: The Archaeological Survey of India is the agency responsible for the excavation and preservation of the ruins of Hampi.

4. Give the names of any two temples found at Hampi.

Answer: Two temples found at Hampi are Hazara Rama and Virupaks

5. What do you know about the granite chariot of the Sun god outside the Vitthal temple at Hampi?

Answer: The granite chariot of the Sun god is located outside the Vitthala temple in a central courtyard. Its stone wheels could still be tuned by hand till a few years ago when the authorities sealed them to prevent damage. The architecture of the Vitthala temple strikes a fascinating balance between delicate craftsmanship and awesome presence.

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8. What was the main purpose of building forts at Vijaynagar?

Answer: The rulers of Vijayanagra Empire created the cities with the main object of protection against invasions. The city itself was a fortress and designed as such in every manner with massive stone and earthen walls, hilltop fortresses and watch towers scattered across the length and breadth. Visitors to the city, irrespective of their guilds and intention had to travel through a heavily fortified and protected environs before reaching the main urban core, giving the visitors an ample view of the might that protected the empire.

IV. Short Answer Type Questions-II

1. How was the city of Vijayanagara ruined?

Answer: The city of Vijayanagara was ruined by the decisive battle of Talikota in 1565, where Muslim invaders seized, pillaged, and reduced the city to ruins amidst scenes of savage massacre and horrors begging description. The city was reduced to a heap of unhabitable ruins.

2. Describe the Vijayanagara or Hampi style of architecture.

Answer: The Vijayanagara or Hampi style of architecture is characterized by impressive mandalas, delicate craftsmanship, and awesome presence. Most palaces and buildings are approached through a sequence of courts with passageways and doorways requiring high tapering walls made of stone and/or layered earth. The Vitthala temple, a 15th century temple in the greater Vijayanagara metropolitan area, is a prime example of this style, featuring delicate flowers, fearsome beasts, fluid dancers with sensuous curves, and mesmerizing paintings. The architecture strikes a fascinating balance between delicate craftsmanship and awesome presence.

3. What does the Portuguese traveller Paes tell about the Hampi Bazaar in the mid-15th century?

Answer: According to the Portuguese travellers Paes and Nuntiz, who visited Hampi in the mid-1500s, the Hampi Bazaar was a street where many merchants lived and sold various goods, including rubies, diamonds, emeralds, pearls, seed pearls, and cloths. They also describe the life of some of the inhabitants of the city and how they are laden in all their finery. “Who is he that could tell of the costliness and the value of what each of these women carries on her person? So great is the weight of the bracelets and gold and jewels carried by them that many of cannot support themselves, and other women accompany them assisting by supporting their arms.”

4. What do you think was the significance of the rituals associated with Mahanavami Dibba?

Answer: The rituals associated with Mahanavami Dibba were significant as they coincided with the Mahanavami festival, which was an occasion for the Vijayanagara kings to display their prestige, power, and suzerainty. Many ceremonies were performed during the festival, including worship of the image, worship of the state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals. The occasion was marked by dances, wrestling matches, and processions of caparisoned horses, elephants, chariots, and soldiers, as well as ritual presentation before the king and his guests by the chief nayakas and subordinate kings. These ceremonies carried deep symbolic meanings.

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7. Describe the features of the forts built by the Vijayanagara rulers. 

Answer: The forts built by the Vijayanagara rulers were designed as massive stone and earthen walls, hilltop fortresses, and watch towers scattered across the length and breadth of the city. The city itself was a fortress and designed as such in every manner with massive fortifications made on every possible entry into the main metropolitan area and other crucial locations. Other defensive features were watch posts, bastions along roads, gates, and hilltops that allowed for maximum visibility. Visitors to the city, irrespective of their guilds and intention, had to travel through a heavily fortified and protected environs before reaching the main urban core, giving the visitors an ample view of the might that protected the empire. Literary sources of this period, however, testify to the presence of large military encampments in the forts on the city’s outskirt.

8. How were the water requirements of Vijayanagara met?

Answer: Virtually all available cultivable land was used for irrigation in Vijayanagara. A variety of innovative methods of irrigation were used, and numerous canals were dug out to provide perennial water supply to a narrow strip of fertile land bordering the Tungabhadra river. Many tanks (bunds) were created for water storage purposes, and many of them are still in use, such as the Kamalapura tank. Additionally, the region had 60 water reservoir embankments, check dams, erosion control walls, and wells to meet the water requirements.

V. Long Answer Type Questions-l

1. Describe the story of discovery of Hampi.

Answer: The first British antiquarian, Colin Mackenzie, visited the ruins of Hampi in 1799 and collected some manuscripts, had some water colours painted on monuments and made the first map of the site. Though the report was never published, the site continued to be known. As early as 1836, the epigraphists had begun collecting inscriptions found at this place and other temples at Hampi. During the course of the 19th century, there was a steady flow of visitors, including the first photographers in the 1850s and 1860s. Among these were Alexander Greenlaw, whose about 60 waxed-paper negatives have miraculously survived. These masterpieces of early photography show the site before any clearing work was started. 

The interest of the foreign rulers in India grew, and the local authorities made efforts to study and preserve the ruins of Hampi. As a result, they eventually came under the protection of the Archaeological Survey of India, the officers of which begun to clear and repair the various structures. After the publication of “A Forgotten Empire” written by Sewell, the Collector of Bellary District in which the site was now situated, interest in Vijayanagara gained strength. The site was much improved with access roads, signboards and local bungalow to stay in.

2. Describe the features of the temples built by Vijayanagara rulers.

Answer: The temples built by the Vijayanagara rulers can be broadly classified into religious, courtly, and civic architectures. The Vijayanagara style is a combination of Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya, and Chola styles which evolved earlier in the centuries when these empires ruled and is characterized by a return to the simplistic and serene art. The local hard granite was preferred in the Badami Chalukya style, although soapstone was used for a few reliefs and sculptures. While the use of granite reduced the density of sculptured works, granite was a more durable material for the temple structure. In order to cover the unevenness of the stone used in sculptures, artists employed plaster to give the rough surface a smooth finish and then painted it with lively colors. The delicate flowers, fearsome beasts, fluid dancers with sensuous curves, and mesmerizing have lost nothing of what their creators ought to communicate. Outside, the granite chariot of the sun god proudly stands in a central courtyard. Its stone wheels could still be tuned by hand till a few years ago when the authorities sealed them to prevent damage.

3. Write an essay on the Vitthala temple at Hampi.

Answer: The Vitthala temple is one of the most famous and impressive temples at Hampi, the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. This temple is known for its stunning architecture, delicate craftsmanship, and mesmerizing sculptures. The temple was built during the reign of King Devaraya II in the 15th century and was dedicated to Lord Vitthala, a form of Lord Vishnu.

The temple is located in the eastern part of Hampi and is surrounded by a high wall made of stone and layered earth. The temple complex is approached through a series of courtyards, passageways, and doorways that require visitors to pass through a sequence of spaces before reaching the main shrine. The temple complex also includes several smaller shrines, mandapas, and halls that are intricately carved and decorated.

One of the most impressive features of the Vitthala temple is the famous stone chariot located in the central courtyard. This chariot is dedicated to the sun god and is made entirely of stone. The wheels of the chariot could be turned by hand until a few years ago when they were sealed to prevent damage. The chariot is a masterpiece of sculpture and engineering and is a testament to the skill and craftsmanship of the Vijayanagara architects and artisans.

The temple is also known for its intricate carvings and sculptures. The walls of the temple are covered with delicate flowers, fearsome beasts, fluid dancers with sensuous curves, and mesmerizing figures. The sculptures and carvings are a testament to the artistic and creative genius of the Vijayanagara artisans. The temple also has a yali balustrade, which is a decorative railing that is carved with the image of a mythical creature called a yali.

The Vitthala temple is a fascinating example of the architectural traditions that inspired the architects of Vijayanagara. The architects of Vijayanagara transformed these traditions by incorporating new techniques and materials into their designs. They also created new forms and styles that were uniquely their own. The Vitthala temple is a testament to their creativity, skill, and ingenuity.

4. Discuss whether the term “Royal Centre” is an appropriate description for the part of the city for which it is used.

Answer: The term “Royal Centre” is used to describe the fortified area in the center of Vijayanagara, which was the residence of the royal family and the location of important administrative and ceremonial buildings. It was also the site of many temples, including the famous Virupaksha temple.

It seems that the term “Royal Centre” is an appropriate description for this part of the city. It was the center of power and authority in Vijayanagara, and the location of many important buildings and institutions. The presence of temples also suggests that it had a religious significance as well.

However, it is important to note that there were other parts of the city that were also important and influential, such as the commercial and residential areas. So while the term “Royal Centre” accurately describes a specific part of the city, it does not necessarily capture the full complexity and diversity of Vijayanagara as a whole.

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7. What are the architectural traditions that inspired the architects of Vijayanagara? How did they transform these traditions?

Answer: The architects of Vijayanagara were inspired by a combination of architectural styles from the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya, and Chola empires that had ruled earlier in the centuries. The Vijayanagara style can be broadly classified into religious, courtly, and civic architectures.

The architects of Vijayanagara transformed these architectural traditions by creating a unique style that combined elements of these earlier styles while also introducing new features. For example, the use of hard granite was preferred in the Badami Chalukya style, and the Vijayanagara architects continued to use granite for temple structures. However, they also employed plaster to cover the unevenness of the stone used in sculptures, giving the rough surface a smooth finish, and then painted it with lively colors.

The Vijayanagara architects also introduced new features to the traditional architectural styles, such as the use of monolithic pillars and the creation of intricate carvings and sculptures. They also incorporated water features, such as tanks and fountains, into their designs, which were not commonly seen in earlier architectural styles.

Overall, the architects of Vijayanagara transformed the earlier architectural traditions by combining them into a unique style that incorporated new features and techniques. Their designs were characterized by a return to simplistic and serene art, and their use of hard granite and plaster gave their structures a durable and polished finish.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions-II

1. Explain why Abdur Razzak, a Persian Ambassador, was greatly impressed by the fortification of Vijaynagar Empire during the 15th century.

Answer: Abdur Razzak, a Persian Ambassador, was greatly impressed by the fortification of Vijayanagara Empire during the 15th century because the Vijayanagara Empire was known for its extensive fortifications that were designed to protect against invasions. The cities themselves were built as fortresses with massive stone and earthen walls, hilltop fortresses, and watchtowers scattered across the length and breadth. Visitors to the city had to travel through heavily fortified and protected environs before reaching the main urban core, giving them an ample view of the might that protected the empire.

Massive fortifications were made on every possible entry into the main metropolitan area and other crucial locations. Other defensive features included watch posts, bastions along roads, gates, and hilltops that allowed for maximum visibility. The fortifications have been lost due to the inhabitation of these places by modern-day settlers, but literary sources of this period testify to the presence of large military encampments in the forts on the city’s outskirts.

In the constant struggle for power, forts and fortified settlements were potent symbols of authority. The rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire created cities with the main object of protection against invasions. The fortifications were not simply defensive structures, but also served as a means of projecting power and authority. The empire’s focus on fortifications was evident in the fact that many of the rulers built forts at strategic locations, such as Chandragiri and Vellore.

2. Explain expansion and consolidation policies of Krishnadeva Raya 

Answer: Krishnadeva Raya, the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire, implemented expansion and consolidation policies during his reign. His policies aimed to strengthen the empire and promote its cultural and intellectual growth.

Krishnadeva Raya was a great warrior and expanded the empire’s territories through military conquests. He waged wars against neighboring kingdoms and regained Raichur Doab from Adil Shah of Bijapur. He also occupied a part of the Mysore kingdom and extended his sovereignty over the whole of modern Tamil land. His military campaigns were successful, and he was able to establish the Vijayanagara Empire as a dominant power in South India.

Apart from military conquests, Krishnadeva Raya also implemented consolidation policies to strengthen the empire. He was an able administrator and built dams for irrigation, which helped in agricultural production and provided water for the growing population. He built magnificent palaces and temples, which not only served as centers of religious worship but also as symbols of the empire’s power and prosperity. He added impressive gopurams to many famous South Indian temples, which enhanced their architectural beauty.

Krishnadeva Raya also founded a suburban township near Vijayanagara called Nagalapuram after his mother. This township served as a center of trade and commerce, which contributed to the empire’s economic growth. He patronized learned men and gave liberal grants to the Brahmans, which helped in the promotion of literature, art, and culture.

Krishnadeva Raya’s expansion and consolidation policies were successful, and his reign was marked by conditions of unparalleled peace and prosperity. The foreign travelers who visited India in the beginning of the 16th century highly praised the glory and splendor of the Vijayanagara Empire. However, after his death in 1529, weak and incompetent rulers succeeded him, and the empire was troubled by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs. In 1565, the empire suffered a major defeat in the battle of Talikota, which marked the beginning of its decline.

3. Why did the Nayakas continue with the building traditions of the rulers of Vijayanagara? 

Answer: The Nayakas were military chiefs who often submitted to the authority of the kings of Vijayanagara. They were given some territories to govern by the Vijayanagara rulers and were empowered to collect taxes and other dues from the peasants, craftsmen, and traders in their areas. They were also allowed to retain a part of the revenue collected by them for personal use and for maintaining a stipulated number of horses and elephants. The Amara-nayakas provided the Vijayanagara rulers with a fighting force with which they conquered the whole of southern peninsula and brought it under their control. The rulers also used a part of the revenue for the maintenance of temples and irrigation works.

It is likely that the Nayakas continued with the building traditions of the rulers of Vijayanagara because building temples and other structures was an important part of the culture and religion of the region. The rulers of the Pallava, Chalukya, Hoysala, and Chola dynasties who encouraged building temples in this area often granted land and other resources for the maintenance of these temples. The very choice of the site of Vijayanagara was inspired by the existence of the shrine of Virupaksha (a form of ShivA. and Padmadevi (the local mother goddess). The kings of Vijayanagara claimed to rule on behalf of god Virupaksha. Therefore, building and maintaining temples was an important aspect of the cultural and religious identity of the region, and the Nayakas likely continued this tradition to maintain the cultural and religious significance of the area.

4. How and why did the rulers of Vijayanagar adopt earlier traditions of spiritual architecture?

Answer: The rulers of Vijayanagara adopted earlier traditions of spiritual architecture for various reasons. Firstly, the Vijayanagara style is a combination of Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya, and Chola styles, which evolved earlier in the centuries when these empires ruled. Secondly, the Vijayanagara architects were influenced by the Dravidian style of architecture, which was prevalent in South India. Thirdly, the Vijayanagara architects wanted to revive the ancient Indian architectural traditions, which had been lost during the Muslim invasions.

The Vijayanagara style of architecture can be broadly classified into religious, courtly, and civic architectures. During the Vijayanagara period, the local hard granite was preferred in the Badami Chalukya style, although soapstone was used for a few reliefs and sculptures. While the use of granite reduced the density of sculptured works, granite was more durable material for the temple structure. In order to cover the unevenness of the stone used in sculptures, artists employed plaster to give the rough surface a smooth finish and then painted it with lively colors.

The Vijayanagara architects also incorporated the principles of Vastu Shastra, an ancient Indian science of architecture, in their designs. They believed that the proper alignment of the temple with the cardinal directions and the placement of the deities in the right positions would bring peace, prosperity, and happiness to the people.

Additional/Extra questions and answers

1. What event crippled the great kingdom of Vijayanagara?  

Answer: The decisive battle of Talikota in 1565.

2. Who was the first British antiquarian to visit the ruins of Hampi?  

Answer: Colin Mackenzie.

3. Which empire was founded by brothers Harihara and Bukka Raya in AD 1336?  

Answer: The Vijayanagara Empire.

5. What was the importance of horse trade during the Vijayanagara Empire?  

Answer: Horse trade was important for the rival kingdoms during the Vijayanagara Empire because warfare depended mainly upon powerful cavalry. The import of fine breed horses from Arabia and Central Asia was crucial for maintaining military strength.

6. Describe the activities undertaken to study and preserve the ruins of Hampi.  

Answer: The activities undertaken to study and preserve the ruins of Hampi include the collection of inscriptions, photography in the 1850s and 1860s, clearing and repairing structures under the Archaeological Survey of India, and the publication of works such as A Forgotten Empire by Sewell. In the late 1970s, a National Project further stimulated clearing work and extensive excavation of the palace area by central and state archaeologists.

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35. What evidence has been found regarding the urban life in Vijayanagara?  

Answer: Archaeological field surveys have indicated the presence of numerous shrines and small temples in the urban areas, pointing to the existence of a variety of cults supported by different communities. Fine Chinese porcelain found in the north-eastern corner of the urban area suggests that these areas might have been occupied by rich traders, including a Muslim residential area with tombs and mosques that resembled the Mandapas built in the temples of Hampi. Additionally, wells, rainwater tanks, and temple tanks might have served as water sources for the common people living in the towns.

36. What are some unanswered questions about the Vijayanagara Empire that require further research?  

Answer: Despite the available information about the Vijayanagara Empire, there are many unanswered questions. For instance, we do not know much about the ordinary men, women, and children who lived in the city and its suburbs, their thoughts about the magnificent buildings, or whether they had access to any areas within the king’s enclosure. We also do not know who possessed the specialized knowledge required for the construction of large projects, who drew the plans for the buildings, and who were the masons, stone cutters, and sculptors who did the actual building work. Questions about the wages given to these workers, the transportation of building materials, and their sources remain unanswered as well. To fully understand these aspects of the Vijayanagara Empire, more information needs to be gathered through continued research and archaeological exploration.

Additional/extra MCQs

1. In which year was the Battle of Talikota fought?

A. 1526 B. 1565 C. 1598 D. 1645

Answer: B. 1565

2. What was the main reason for the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire?

A. Economic crisis B. Natural disasters C. Battle of Talikota D. Internal conflicts

Answer: C. Battle of Talikota

3. Who were the founders of the Vijayanagara Empire?

A. Harihara and Bukka Raya B. Krishnadevaraya and Achyuta Raya C. Vira Narasimha Raya and Sadashiva Raya D. Ramaraya and Tirumala Raya

Answer: A. Harihara and Bukka Raya

4.  Which river flows near the city of Vijayanagara?

A. Kaveri B. Godavari C. Tungabhadra D. Krishna

Answer: C. Tungabhadra

5. Who visited the ruins of Hampi and made the first map of the site?

A. Alexander Greenlaw B. Colin Mackenzie C. A.H. Longhurst D. Robert Sewell

Answer: B. Colin Mackenzie

6. Which foreign traders arrived in India in 1498 and impacted the trade and politics of the Vijayanagara Empire?

A. Dutch B. French C. Portuguese D. British

Answer: C. Portuguese

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50. Which group of people is not known to have had access to the areas within the king’s enclosure?

A. Ordinary men B. Women C. Children D. All of the above

Answer: D. All of the above

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