Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 11 (Arts) History (Themes in World History) Chapter 15: Paths to Modernisation. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.
At the start of the nineteenth century, China held a dominant position in East Asia, while Japan, a small island nation, remained isolated. However, within a few decades, China fell victim to the exploitation of European colonial and imperialist powers. The Chinese imperial government lost control over its people and struggled to implement effective reforms. The country became embroiled in a civil war. In contrast, Japan evolved into a modern nation-state, establishing an industrial economy and a colonial empire by occupying Taiwan in 1895 and Korea in 1910. Japan defeated China in the first Sino-Japanese war in 1894 and Russia, a European power, in 1905.
The Chinese, after enduring numerous challenges, eventually saw the Chinese Communist Party emerge victorious and bring about the Communist Revolution in October 1949. The Communist Government implemented radical changes in the country’s economy. However, by the late 1970s, Communist leaders acknowledged that their ideological system hindered economic growth and development. Consequently, reforms reintroduced capitalism and a free market economy, though the Communist Party maintained political control.
Japan’s modernization was built on capitalist principles within a world dominated by Western colonialism. The rapid economic development of Japan highlighted the resilience of traditional Japanese institutions and society, their capacity for learning, and the power of nationalism.
Textual questions and answers
Very short answer type questions
1. During which period Japan was totally cut off from Europe?
Answer: For over two centuries from AD 1638 to 1853, Japan was cut off from Europe.
2. Who made the first commercial treaty with Japan?
Answer: U.S.A.’s Commodore Perry made the first commercial treaty with Japan.
3. During what period, the Meiji dynasty ruled Japan?
Answer: The Meiji dynasty ruled Japan from 1867 to 1912.
4. What was the first important achievement of Meiji rule?
Answer: The first important achievement of Meiji rule was the abolition of feudal system in the country.
5. Give the names of any four major business houses of Japan which constituted Zaibatsu.
Answer: The four major business houses of Japan which constituted Zaibatsu were: Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Yasuda.
6. What was the effect of the First World War on the industries in Japan?
Answer: The First World War stimulated industrial production in Japan as the western industrialized countries were preoccupied with the war and Japan took advantage of the situation to increase its industrial production. Japan captured markets in countries like India, East Indies, South America, and Africa, and the steel and chemical industries registered remarkable growth.
7. Give the names of some large business houses independent of Zaibatsu.
- OKURA with large interests in trade, textiles and mining
- ASANO in cement, heavy engineering, iron and steel and mining
- FARUKAWA in refinery, electric plants and copper mines
8. Name the important industries controlled by the Zaibatsu.
Answer: The Zaibatsu controlled a wide range of industries including mining, metals, mechanical engineering, textiles, paper, glass, cement, machinery and mechanical equipment, chemicals, shipping, ship building, banking, insurance, and domestic and foreign trade.
9. When did Japan initiate expansionist policy?
Answer: Japan initiated an expansionist policy after AD 1894.
10. On what date Japan surrendered to the Allied powers?
Answer: Japan surrendered to the Allied powers on August 14, 1945.
11. Who controlled the administration of Japan from 1945 to 1952?
Answer: General MacArthur was in complete control of the administration of Japan from 1945 to 1952.
12. Who was the founder of Kuomintang (KMT) party in Japan?
Answer: Dr. Sun Yat Sen was the founder of the Kuomintang (KMT).
13. Who was Chiang-Kai-Shek?
Answer: Chiang-Kai-Shek was the President of China who fled to Formosa (now known as Taiwan) along with his forces after the establishment of the Communist Government of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. He established the Nationalist Republic of China in Formosa and his government began to function in December 1949.
14. Who was the founder of the Communist Party in China?
Answer: Mao-Tse Tung was the founder of the Communist Party in China.
15. What were Sun Yat-Sen’s Three Principles?
Answer: Sun Yat-Sen’s Three Principles were:
- People’s livelihood
16. In 1924, which two political parties formed a United Front in China?
Answer: In 1924, the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China formed a United Front to bring national unity in China.
17. What was the programme of the Communist Party?
Answer: The programme of the Communist Party was socialist transformation.
18. Who led the Long March?
Answer: Mao and Chou En-Lai led the Long March.
19. When was the People’s Republic of China proclaimed?
Answer: The People’s Republic of China was proclaimed on October 1, 1949.
20. To which country Chiang-Kai-Shek escape after his defeat at the hands of the Communists in 1949.
Answer: Chiang Kai-Shek fled to Formosa (now known as Taiwan).
Short answer type questions
1. What were the results of opening ofJapan?
Answer: The results of opening ofJapan were:
- Spread of anti-foreign sentiments
- Beginning of modernization of Japan
2. What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly?
- Opening of Japan to the outside world allowed for free trade and contact with other countries, leading to the introduction of Western ideas and technology.
- Abolition of feudalism in 1871 allowed for the reorganization of the country into prefectures and the freeing of peasants from servile dues, leading to the creation of modern Japanese agriculture.
- The Meiji leaders foresaw the need for a modern economy to supply the needs of the new military forces and compete with foreign products, leading to the development of mines, factories, railways, docks, and steamships.
- Reforms in currency and banking system, including the introduction of paper currency and the decimal system, and the establishment of the Bank of Japan and Yokohama Specie Bank, promoted Japanese trade and commerce.
3. What were the effects of abolition of feudalism in Japan by the Meiji Government?
Answer: The abolition of feudalism in Japan by the Meiji Government had several effects, including:
- The surrender of feudal lords and the reorganisation of fiefs into prefectures on a French pattern.
- The disbandment of clans and the abolition of servile dues for peasants, who were made owners of the land they tilled and immediate subjects of the Empire.
- The creation of modern Japanese agriculture with unique tenant-landlord relations.
- The opening of a way for the dispossession of peasantry.
- The freedom of peasants to choose their own fate, to live or die, to remain on the land or sell out and go to the city.
12. Write a brief note on Long March in China.
Answer: The Long March was a historic retreat undertaken by the Communist forces in China in 1934. Mao Zedong and Chou En-Lai led the retreat, which involved about 140,000 Communists, including many civilians. The retreat covered a distance of 6,000 miles and lasted for 368 days. The Communists fought an average of almost a skirmish a day with the Kuomintang forces during the march. Only 20,000 Communists reached their destination in the Basrreen, improvised corner of Shansi province. The Long March was one of the epic retreats in history and was a manifesto, an agitation corps, and a seeding machine, as Mao declared.
Essay type questions
1. Describe the achievements of Meiji rule in Japan.
Answer: The Meiji rule in Japan brought about significant achievements in various spheres. One of the most important achievements was the abolition of feudalism in the country. The feudal lords surrendered their positions and offered the register of their land and people to the Emperor. Feudalism was formally abolished by an imperial decree in August 1871, and the clans were disbanded, the fiefs were abolished and reorganized into prefectures on French pattern. The peasants were freed from servile dues and made owners of the land they tilled and immediate subjects of the Empire. The Meiji leaders foresaw that Japan required a modern economy to supply the needs of the new military forces and were successful in bringing about industrial development. The advent of the West brought about the Industrial revolution in Japan. The Meiji leaders also brought about significant reforms in the spheres of banking and currency. The Meiji Government established a central bank, the Bank of Japan, in 1882, and introduced a new currency system based on the yen. The Meiji Government also made efforts to modernize the education system and established a national education system. The Meiji rule also brought about significant changes in the daily life of the Japanese people. The new concept of domestic life generated demands for new types of domestic goods, new means of family entertainment, and new types of houses. The new Middle-class families enjoyed new forms of travel and amusement, and public parks were opened from AD 1878, and departmental stores began to be set up.
2. Describe the role of Zaibatsu in the economy of Japan.
Answer: The Zaibatsu was a financial oligarchy consisting of four major groups viz Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo and Yasuda. These concerns played a vital role in the economic rise of Japan. The range of activities of the Zaibatsu comprised mining, metals, mechanical engineering, textiles, paper, glass, cement, machinery and mechanical equipment, chemicals, shipping, ship building, banking, insurance and domestic and foreign trade. In fact, there was no form of economic activity in which the Zaibatsu did not lay hands or hold any major share. The Zaibatsu earned huge profits, and in collaboration with the government, several enterprises of strategic importance were started by them both in Japan and in her colonies. A large number of large-scale industries of the country were under its control. During the financial crises when the older business houses met with a failure, the Zaibatsu usually acquired their properties. The Zaibatsu gave much financial assistance to the government. In return for it, they managed to get state properties at a low price and also obtained valuable contracts. Despite the fact that the Zaibatsu enjoyed supreme position in the economy of the country, there existed competition in the industrial sector of Japan. There were other large business houses in Japan which were independent of Zaibatsu, but they could stand no comparison with Zaibatsu. The monopolistic position of the Zaibatsu has now broken down. A Holding Company Liquidation Commission was established in April 1946, which undertook to sell out the shares of the Zaibatsu holding companies to the public. Onerous income and inheritance taxes were imposed to cut up the monopolistic concentration of the economic power exercised by the Zaibatsu. In December 1947, the Government passed a law which required the Japanese Corporations to be broken up into small units. Anti-trust laws were also passed. Though the monopolistic tendencies in the industrial sector came to an end, they gave a severe setback to the industrial production.
3. Describe the economic growth of Japan during the period 1912-1939.
Answer: During the period of 1912-1939, Japan experienced both growth and setbacks in its economy. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 had produced good economic results for Japan, and the First World War (1914-18) helped stimulate industrial production in Japan as other western industrialized countries were preoccupied with the war. Japan increased its industrial production and captured markets in countries like India, East Indies, South America, and Africa. The steel and chemical industries registered remarkable growth, and the government helped newly established industrial concerns by exempting them from paying business and income taxes. However, the upward swing in the industrial sphere came to an abrupt end in 1920 due to various causes, including the revival and reappearance of competition by western countries, the slump and depression of 1920, the devastating earthquake of 1923, the failure of a number of banks in the country in 1927, and the worldwide economic depression of 1929-32. The Japanese government made efforts to restore the growth of industries by introducing economic and financial reforms such as restoration of gold standard and the value of Yen to its pre-war parity and setting up the Industrial Rationalisation Bureau in 1930. In the following years, Japan was able to make much progress in the field of industries because of the devaluation of Yen and other measures taken by the government. Japan’s economy was restored to normalcy by the year 1936. The index of industrial production which stood at 90 in 1913 rose to 149 in 1939.
4. Describe the causes of aggressive nationalism in Japan.
Answer: The causes of aggressive nationalism in Japan can be attributed to a combination of factors, including economic, strategic, prestige, political, and militarist elements.
Economic Urge: Japan’s growing industries needed markets and raw materials to support its expanding population. They sought control over regions such as Manchuria, North China, and Inner Mongolia, which were rich in resources like iron-ore, fuel, raw cotton, and salt. Japan’s industrial output and foreign trade had increased significantly, further fueling the nation’s ambitions.
Strategic Factor: Japan’s geographical position made it crucial for them to ensure no hostile power could establish itself close to their sea-board. The recovery of Russia’s power in the Far East after World War I was a concern for Japan, and strategic requirements demanded Japan to have the ability to strike at enemy lines of communication and military strong points far inland.
Prestige Motive: Japan’s ambition to become the guardian of peace in Eastern Asia was driven by a sense of national pride and a belief in their ‘manifest destiny.’ This ambition was openly displayed in the Amau Declaration of 1934, in which Japan claimed responsibility for maintaining peace and order in the Far East.
Plan of Greater Asia Co-prosperity Sphere: Japan’s ambition grew as they aimed to dominate Eastern and Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Ocean. They sought to establish a near monopoly of arms and heavy industry in the region, subjugating other populations to serve their needs.
Patriotic Societies: Economic depression and overpopulation in Japan led to dissatisfaction with the government, and the rise of young officers and patriotic societies who advocated for aggressive, militaristic solutions to Japan’s problems. These groups were influenced by the rise of fascism in Europe.
Japanese Plans of Conquest: The world depression of 1929-1932 prompted Japan to seek new markets and raw materials, with China being an attractive target. Japanese militarists aimed to conquer China to secure these resources and establish a vast empire.
Militarist Programme: Japan’s militarists openly expressed their plan for conquest, including the subjugation of China and eventual domination of the world. They believed that a strong military was necessary for achieving these goals.
Extremists Seek Control of the Government: The rise of extreme nationalism in Japan was marked by a series of political assassinations and acts of terrorism targeting opponents of aggressive foreign policy. The army eventually gained control of national affairs, leading to more vigorous foreign policy and the eventual alliance with the Berlin-Rome Axis.
8. Describe the economic changes which have been brought about in China since 1949.
Answer: Since 1949, China has undergone significant economic changes. The Communist Government established in October 1949, was based on the principle of New Democracy, an alliance of all social classes. In 1951, China established 141 industrial units with the help of the Soviet Union. In May 1990, the Government fixed eight hours a day work for 5 days in a week for the workers. In 1958, the government launched the Great Leap Forward movement to industrialize the country rapidly. People were encouraged to set up steel furnaces in the backyards of their houses. The land reform movement started earlier continued. In 1958 there were 26,000 communes covering 98 per cent of the farm population. The Cultural Revolution set in a period of turmoil, weakened the communist party and severely shattered the economy and the educational system. After the death of Mao, many significant changes have come into the economy of China. China is now attracted towards Capitalism and has adopted some principles of capitalist economic system.
China introduced some features of the capitalist economy in 1992 which are (1) to increase production by following liberal economic policies, (2) modernization of industries, (3) development of science, education and culture and to open research and training institutions, (4) to take effective measures for the reform of economic structure of the country, (5) support to globalization in the economic sphere, (6) to receive technical and economic assistance from the capitalist countries, and (7) to establish trade relations with all the countries of the world.
China’s trade with the capitalist countries has made rapid strides. It has also become the member of the World Trade Organization. All these factors clearly indicate that China is gradually on the road to capitalism.
Passage based questions
Read the following passage and answers the questions.
The Manchu empire was overthrown and a republic established in China in 1911 under Sun-Yat-Sen (1866-1925) who is unanimously regarded as the founder of modern China. He came from a poor family and studied in missionary schools where he was introduced to democracy and Christianity. He studied medicine but was greatly concerned about the fate of China. His programme was called the Three Principles (San min chui). These were nationalism. This meant overthrowing the Manchus who were seen as a foreign dynasty, as well as other foreign imperialists: democracy or establish democratic government: and socialism regulating capital and equalising land holdings.
1. When was Manchu Empire overthrown and a republic established in China?
Answer: The Manchu Empire was overthrown and a republic established in China in 1911.
2. Who is regarded as the founder of modern China?
Answer: Sun-Yat-Sen is regarded as the founder of modern China.
3. In what institution was Sun-Yat-Sen introduced to democracy and Christianity?
Answer: Sun-Yat-Sen was introduced to democracy and Christianity in missionary schools.
4. What was Sun-Yat-Sen’s programme? What was it called?
Answer: Sun-Yat-Sen’s programme was called the Three Principles (San min chui), which consisted of nationalism, democracy, and socialism.
Objective type questions
1. The founder of the Kuomintang (KMT) was
Answer: (a) Dr. Sun Yat Sen
2. How many wars were fought between Britain and China between 1839-60?
Answer: (b) 2
3. Russian Revolution happened in
Answer: (c) 1917
Extra/additional questions and answers
1. What was the situation of China and Japan at the beginning of the nineteenth century?
Answer: At the beginning of the nineteenth century, China was a dominant power in East Asia, while Japan was a small isolated island country.
2. How did Japan become a modern nation state and establish a colonial empire?
Answer: Japan developed into a modern nation state by establishing an industrial economy. It succeeded in establishing a colonial empire by occupying Taiwan in 1895 and Korea in 1910. It defeated China in the first Sino-Japanese war in 1894 and Russia, a European power, in 1905.
3. What ultimately led to the Communist Revolution in China in October 1949?
Answer: The Chinese reacted slowly after facing numerous difficulties, and ultimately, the Chinese Communist Party came out victorious in the struggle, leading to the Communist Revolution in October 1949.
4. What changes did the Communist Government bring to the Chinese economy, and what did they realize by the end of the 1970s?
Answer: The Communist Government brought radical changes to the economy of China, but by the end of the 1970s, the Communist leaders realized that their ideological system was retarding economic growth and development. The reforms brought back capitalism and the free market economy, though the Communist Party retained political control.
5. What were the results of the opening of Japan in the middle of the 19th century?
- The opening of Japan gave rise to the spread of anti-foreign sentiments.
- The Shogunate System was abolished, and all powers were transferred to the Emperor of Japan.
- The beginning of modernization of Japan under the rule of Emperor Mikado Manshihito, also known as Meiji.
6. How did Japan establish contact with Europe in the 16th century, and why did it isolate itself in the 17th century?
Answer: In the 16th century, European merchants and Christian missionaries reached Japan, establishing contact with Europe. However, in the 17th century, due to the opposition of the Buddhist (Shinto) priests, all the Christian priests and traders were expelled from Japan, leading to Japan isolating itself from Europe for over two centuries from AD 1638 to 1853.
7. What was the role of Commodore Perry in the opening of Japan, and what treaties did it lead to?
Answer: In the middle of the 19th century, the U.S. Government sent a fleet of ships to Japan under the command of Commodore Perry. He made a commercial treaty with the Government of Japan, which paved the way for signing such treaties by Japan with Holland, Russia, Britain, and France.
219. How did the modernisation process in Japan and China reflect their respective cultural and political contexts, and what were the long-term consequences of these processes for each country?
Answer: In Japan, the modernisation process was shaped by a desire to retain independence while learning from Western practices. This led to the development of a unique form of modernisation that combined traditional skills with new methods. Japan’s modernisation was characterised by aggressive nationalism, a repressive regime, and the formation of a colonial empire. These changes left a legacy of hatred in the region and distorted internal developments.
1. Which country was a dominant power in East Asia at the beginning of the nineteenth century?
A. Japan B. Korea C. China D. Taiwan
Answer: C. China
2. In which year did Japan occupy Taiwan?
A. 1894 B. 1895 C. 1905 D. 1910
Answer: B. 1895
3. In which war did Japan defeat China in 1894?
A. Russo-Japanese War B. Second Sino-Japanese War C. First Sino-Japanese War D. Pacific War
Answer: C. First Sino-Japanese War
4. Which country did Japan defeat in 1905?
A. China B. Russia C. Korea D. United States
Answer: B. Russia
5. Which revolution occurred in China in October 1949?
A. Cultural Revolution B. Nationalist Revolution C. Communist Revolution D. Democratic Revolution
Answer: C. Communist Revolution
6. Who commanded the U.S. fleet of ships sent to Japan in the middle of the 19th century?
A. Commodore Perry B. Admiral Yamamoto C. Captain Cook D. General MacArthur
Answer: A. Commodore Perry
170. What did the Communist Party in China aim to end?
A. Imperial rule B. Poverty-ridden traditions C. Foreign interference D. Economic reforms
Answer: B. Poverty-ridden traditions
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