Processes of Social Change in India: NBSE Class 12 Sociology

PROCESSES OF SOCIAL CHANGE IN INDIA nbse 12
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Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) Sociology Chapter/unit 6 Processes of Social Change in India. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.

Introduction

The chapter discusses various sociocultural processes in India, including urbanisation, modernisation, sanskritisation, westernisation, and secularisation. Urbanisation, the process of people moving to towns and cities, is a result of industrialisation and the development of services. In Nagaland, most towns do not have industries but offer services like administration and education. Urbanisation has led to changes in family structure, caste system, and increased spatial mobility. However, it has also resulted in problems like overcrowding, slums, and environmental pollution. Modernisation, a process of social change, depends on the introduction of technology and the knowledge required to use it, along with prerequisites like increased levels of education, development of mass media, transport and communication, democratic political institutions, declining public influence of religion, and complex division of labour.

Sanskritisation is a process by which a low Hindu caste or tribal group changes its customs, rituals, ideology, and way of life in the direction of a high, frequently twice-born caste. Westernisation refers to the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, encompassing changes in technology, institutions, ideology, and values. Secularisation is the process through which the influence and importance of religion declines in public affairs. The impact of secularisation can be seen in every aspect of personal and social life, affecting the caste system, family, and village community.

Textual questions and answers

Very short answer questions

1. What is social change?

Answer: Social change means any difference in society observed over a period of time. Social change is a process because it involves a series of events over a period of time. It implies both continuity and difference.

2. What are the two major dimensions of social change?

Answer: As a process, social change has two major dimensions, namely, i) nature or content of change and ii) direction or the line in which it is moving.

3. What is meant by structural change?

Answer: Structural processes of social change are changes in structural realities. A structural reality or social structure is the network of social relationships. For example, a change from joint family to a nuclear family is a structural change because it is a change in the structure of the family.

4. What are cultural processes of change?

Answer: Cultural processes of social change are changes in the culture of society. Culture is a complex reality and includes ideas, values, beliefs, customs and traditions. Change in any of the elements of culture is a cultural change. For example, change in social customs and practices, such as language, religious practices, are cultural changes.

5. What is meant by social mobility?

Answer: Social mobility refers to the transition of individuals or groups between different social ranks or positions.

6. What is industrialisation?

Answer: Industrialisation is the process of advancement from domestic production using simple tools to factory production using technology. Industrialisation is thus a change in the industrial structure. Sociologically, the process of industrialisation implies a process of economic and social changes.

7. What is urbanisation?

Answer: Urbanisation is the process by which people start living in towns and cities instead of living in villages. Towns and cities are also known as urban centres. Urbanisation is the result of industrialisation and the development of services.

8. What is urbanism?

Answer: According to Louis Wirth, urbanism is the special way of life or social life found in an urban centre. It is characterised by formal and impersonal social relationships, complex division of labour which is contractual in nature.

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17. Who wrote the book “Social Change in Modern India”?

Answer: M.N. Srinivas wrote the book “Social Change in Modern India”.

18. What is meant by westernization?

Answer: Westernisation refers to the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term subsumes changes occurring in technology, institutions, ideology and values.

19. What is humanitarianism?’

Answer: Humanitarianism means the concern for the welfare of all human beings, irrespective of caste, economic position, religion and gender. It implies the notions of equality, freedom and secularism.

20. What is meant by secularisation?

Answer: Secularisation is the process through which the influence and importance of religion declines in public affairs. Religion is replaced by rational and scientific explanations of facts and events. Importance of religion in social life also decreases.

Short answer questions

1. Differentiate between industrialisation and urbanisation.

Answer: Industrialisation and urbanisation are interconnected processes, but they are not the same. Industrialisation refers to the process by which industries are formed and expanded in a country or a region. It often leads to the development of new occupations that are not caste-based and the rise of new classes like industrial workers and professional classes. 

On the other hand, urbanisation is the process by which people start living in towns and cities instead of living in villages. It is the result of industrialisation and the development of services. An important feature of urban centres is the dominance of non-agricultural occupations. These occupations may be in the manufacturing sector (industry) or the service sector (administration, education, and other services)

2. Distinguish between urbanisation and urbanism.

Answer: Urbanisation and urbanism are related but distinct concepts. Urbanisation refers to the process by which people start living in towns and cities instead of villages. It is often the result of industrialisation and the development of services. 

Urbanism, according to Louis Wirth, is the special way of life or social life found in an urban centre. It is characterised by formal and impersonal social relationships, complex division of labour which is contractual in nature

3. What are the problems of urbanization? 

Answer: Urbanisation in India has led to several problems. These include:

Overcrowding and High Population Density: In 1991, the density of population in urban centres was around 3,500 persons per square kilometer. This has resulted in poor housing, high rents, insufficient water supply, poor power supply, and poor transport and other services.

Slums: Slums are a major problem. A slum is an area of over-aged, neglected houses where people live in poverty without minimum civic facilities like water and power supply. The larger cities have bigger slums. It is estimated that more than 45 million people live in slums in India.

Environmental Pollution: Environmental pollution is a serious problem in Indian cities. Water pollution is caused by industrial effluents, sewage, and garbage discharging into nearby rivers. Atmospheric pollution is caused by smoke and gases from factories and emissions from vehicles. Environmental pollution causes various diseases and disorders.

4. Give the meaning of modernisation as a process of structural change.

Answer: As a process of structural change, modernisation is the structural transformation of a society in economy, polity, and social institutions. It involves a change in values and attitudes, encompassing values and norms that are universal in nature. According to Yogendra Singh, modernisation implies a rational attitude towards issues and their evaluation from a universal point of view. It also involves a commitment to a scientific world view and humanistic ideas.

5. What is modernisation?

Answer: Modernisation is understood as a change from tradition to modernity. There are two views about this change. According to one view, every society follows the same path in the process of change from tradition to modernity. Therefore, the developing countries will go through the same process as the present developed countries. Others hold the view that different societies follow different paths in their change from tradition to modernity.

6. Distinguish between ‘westernisation’ and ‘modernisation’.

Answer: Westernisation refers to the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term subsumes changes occurring in technology, institutions, ideology and values.

On the other hand modernization is the process of change which takes a country from underdevelopment to development.

7. What are some of the social and political prerequisites of modernisation?

Answer: The social and political prerequisites of modernisation include the adoption of democracy based on universal adult franchise, legislation on the family and caste, and economic planning for development.

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12. Mention three aspects of life affected by secularization.

Answer: Three aspects of life affected by secularization are:

  • In the caste system, ideas of purity and pollution have changed.
  • In the family, the importance of religion has decreased.
  • In the village community, among the weaker sections, the traditional practice of surrender before fate has been replaced by an attitude of defiance.

13.Distinguish between structural process and cultural process of social change with examples.

Answer: Structural processes of social change are changes in structural realities, such as a change from joint family to a nuclear family, which is a structural change because it is a change in the structure of the family. On the other hand, cultural processes of social change are changes in the culture of society. For example, change in social customs and practices, such as language, religious practices, are cultural changes.

14. Differentiate between industrialization and urbanization.

Answer: Industrialisation is the process of advancement from domestic production using simple tools to factory production using technology. It implies a process of economic and social changes. On the other hand, urbanisation is the process by which people start living in towns and cities instead of living in villages. It is the result of industrialisation and the development of services. An important feature of urban centres is the dominance of non-agricultural occupations.

Essay type questions

1. Explain the social and the economic consequences of industrialisation in India.

Answer: Industrialisation has brought about extensive change in Indian society. Some of the social consequences of industrialisation in India include:

Changes in Economy: Production of economic goods has been brought substantially to the factory. This has led to an elaborate division of labour, specialisation of tasks and the growth of the class of industrial workers. Industrialisation has also affected agricultural practices and land relations.

Changes in the Family Structure: The family is no more the unit of production. Women are increasingly employed in firms (offices) and factories. Because of their employment outside the family, the status of women has changed. Industrialisation has led to the dispersal of the members of the joint family employed in different places away from the village. This has led to the emergence of the nuclear family. The functions of the family have changed.

Changes in Spatial Mobility: The development of transport and communication has greatly increased the movement of the people or spatial mobility. This has led to rural-urban migration and the migration of skilled labour.

Changes in Social Stratification: Changes have taken place in the caste system. Because of new occupations, a separation of occupations from caste has taken place. The new occupations are not caste based. Many occupations have become ‘caste free’. These changes are seen in the present inter-caste power structure. There has also been the rise of new classes like the industrial workers and the professional classes.

The economic consequences of industrialisation in India are primarily seen in the changes in the economy. Production of economic goods has been brought substantially to the factory. This has led to an elaborate division of labour, specialisation of tasks and the growth of the class of industrial workers. Industrialisation has also affected agricultural practices and land relations.

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6. Explain the process of sanskritisation.

Answer: Sanskritisation is a process by which a low Hindu caste or tribal or other group changes its customs, rituals, ideology and way of life in the direction of a high, frequently twice born caste. In the process of Sanskritisation, a low caste adopts some practices of an upper caste. At the same time the lower caste gives up some of its traditional practices which are considered impure such as eating meat and consumption of alcohol. The reason for doing this is social mobility within the caste system or to raise its position or status in the caste hierarchy. The process of Sanskritisation is a process of acculturation and is a channel for vertical social mobility within the caste system. 

Initially, Srinivas called this process ‘Brahmanisation’ because he found that the low caste was adopting the practices of Brahmin caste. But Srinivas found that some low castes adopted the practices of other twice born castes like the Kshatriyas. Therefore, he preferred to use the term ‘Sanskritisation’. Such a twice born caste was usually the dominant caste in the region.

7. Discuss the impact of westernisation in India.

Answer: Westernisation brought new ideas and values and ideologies. According to Srinivas, the most important of them was humanitarianism. Humanitarianism means the concern for the welfare of all human beings, irrespective of caste, economic position, religion and gender. It implies the notions of equality, freedom and secularism. Westernisation has had considerable impact on India. Westernisation has had many consequences. Two of them are very important. They are:

  • The emergence of a middle class, which was initially made up of traders but later included professionals and educated persons.
  • The emergence of the nationalism and democracy. This began a desire for reform. Later it became the nationalist movement.

The emergence of nationalism, democratic polity and secularism are the result of Westernisation. They have been the harbingers of cultural modernisation in India.

8. What is secularization? Discuss the impact of secularisation.

Answer: Secularisation is the process through which the influence and importance of religion declines in public affairs. Religion is replaced by rational and scientific explanations of facts and events. Importance of religion in social life also decreases. The process of secularisation in India began after the establishment of British rule and became more intense after Independence.

The impact or consequences of secularisation can be seen in every aspect of personal and social life. However, the impact is not uniform. Thus, urban dwellers are more affected than the rural people. Educated people are more affected than others. Some aspects of life affected by secularisation are the following:

In the caste system, ideas of purity and pollution have changed. According to traditional ideas some kinds of food (meat, alcohol) were polluting, and some occupations were impure. These ideas were formerly supported by religious beliefs. But now they have changed.

In the family, the importance of religion has decreased. Ceremonies and rituals performed in the family (marriage ceremonies, funeral rites, and family rituals) are either shortened or assumed new meanings. For example, wedding receptions are seen as social functions and occasions for ostentation (showing off) and conspicuous consumption. Similar community festivals are now seen as social functions or events.

In the village community, among the weaker sections, the traditional practice of surrender before fate has been replaced by an attitude of defiance.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) and Problem Solving Assessment (PSA)

1. Industries in Nagaland are invisible? Discuss the problems and share constructive suggestions for progressive economic growth within and beyond.

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2. Nagas are highly westernised. Discuss.

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