Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) Political Science Chapter 15 “Security in Contemporary World”. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.
The chapter provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of security, its traditional and non-traditional notions, and the new threats to security in the contemporary world.
Traditionally, security was understood as the security of the state, ensuring it remained free from invasion by a foreign enemy. The chapter discusses the balance of power as a traditional mode of protection against threats to security. It highlights the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, and the Triple Entente of France, Russia, and Great Britain before the First World War as examples of this balance of power.
The chapter then transitions to non-traditional notions of security, emphasizing human security over state security. It underscores the importance of freedom from fear, freedom from poverty, and global security against environmental degradation, terrorism, and epidemics. The chapter mentions the dangers of global warming, as pointed out by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the rapid spread of diseases like HIV/AIDS and SARS as significant threats to global security.
The chapter also differentiates between ‘displaced persons’ and ‘refugees.’ Displaced persons are those forced to move within their own country, while refugees are those forced to leave their country due to war, armed conflict, or their political or religious beliefs.
Textual questions and answers
A. Long answer questions
1. Explain the traditional notion of Security. Discuss any four traditional modes of protection against threat to Security.
Answer: The traditional notion of Security, as mentioned in the document, is primarily concerned with states’ security from external threats or attacks. This concept has existed for a long time and is therefore viewed as a traditional notion. An invasion on a State was regarded as an attack on the core or central values, such as sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity. World leaders, therefore, thought only of such methods that could prevent a war from breaking out. The League of Nations was founded in 1919, after World War I. Similarly, the United Nations Organisation was set up in 1945 after World War II. The first objective of the United Nations is to save succeeding generations from the “scourge of war”.
Four traditional modes of protection against threats to security:
a. Balance of Power: The traditional relations among nation-states are often explained in terms of ‘Balance of Power’. It rests on the idea that peace is more likely where two groups of nations are of equal military and political power. For a very long period, Europe remained divided into two armed camps, The Triple Alliance (Prussia, Italy, and Austria) and the Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia). According to some historians, the balance of power system prevented seven wars between 1871 and 1914. When this delicate balance was disturbed, it led to the First World War in 1914. After the Second World War, balance came to be maintained through the techniques of Alliances.
b. Alliances: Cold War rivalry between the United States and Soviet Union (Russia) involved security arrangements, called Alliances. In Europe, the creation of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) in 1949 was very quickly followed by the Warsaw Treaty Organisation in 1955.
c. Security Council’s Responsibility: The Security Council’s responsibility to maintain peace and security is another traditional mode of protection against threats to security.
d. Confidence-Building Measures: Traditionally, ‘Security’ also implied ‘Confidence-building Measures’ which would give “a feeling that what national leaders or rulers are saying is correct”. Some such measures are as follows: The Nuclear states should agree not to target their nuclear missiles at each other. This is the way of telling others that they would not be the victims of a surprise attack. In August 1999, India made public her Nuclear Doctrine. It stated that “India would not be the first to initiate a nuclear war”. Such an assurance from other nations could be a real good measure towards confidence-building.
2. What is the Non-Traditional notion of Security? Explain any four things that the Non-Traditional notion of Security included.
Answer: The Non-Traditional notion of Security has emerged in response to the realization that more people have died in local or internal conflicts than in wars between states over the last 70 years. This has led to a shift in the understanding of what is being secured, with a focus on ‘Human Security’. The Non-Traditional notion of security suggests that “human security is more important than security of governments or states.” There are instances when the states themselves have been a source of threat to the security of those people who belonged to a particular religious or ethnic group (Page 3).
The Non-Traditional notion of Security includes several elements:
a. Human Security: The territory of a state is considered inviolable. If a country invades other nations, all states have a collective duty in counteracting that aggression. But the non-traditional notion of security suggests that “human security is more important than security of governments or states.” There are instances when the states themselves have been a source of threat to the security of those people who belonged to a particular religious or ethnic group.
b. Freedom from Fear: The Government has to employ ‘instruments of coercion’ such as police, magistrates, and even militia for a number of purposes. But there is no justification for deaths in police custody or brutal treatment of political prisoners. Torture, genocide, and discrimination between peoples on grounds only of religion or race are viewed as crimes against humanity.
c. Freedom from Want, i.e., Poverty: Mention may be made of hunger, want of shelter, extreme poverty, diseases, and total lack of medical care which cause a large number of deaths in many countries. We have to be concerned about the security of people from all such hardships.
d. Global Security: It is a notion that emerged in the 1990s. It warned us of dangers like Environmental Degradation, International Terrorism, and Epidemics like HIV/AIDS. The good environment is man’s first right. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), set up by the United Nations, in its Report said, “temperatures would rise by at least 1.8 degrees Celsius this century.” Because of Global Warming glaciers could melt. There would be an increase in the intensity of floods. “The less-developed countries like India, Bangladesh, and Maldives are “likely to experience more upheaval than developed ones.” There is a need to check environmental degradation. Sustainable development requires that “present needs are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
3. Discuss some new threats to Security of persons and States.
Answer: Some new threats to the security of persons and states:
a. Global Poverty: The world population estimates indicated that by the year 2050 there could roughly be a 50 per cent increase in human population. But bulk of the increase in human population would be in developing countries where the incidence of poverty is already very acute. Though there have been impressive gains in a few emerging economies, especially in China and India, there is virtual stagnation in the economy of most of the African nations. Conflicts and ethnic violence usually took place in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the poorest region of the world. Conflicts taking place in this region are manifestations of distress that is caused by not having enough food or other necessary things.
b. Migration: Migration is caused by a number of factors, including poverty, lack of employment opportunities, episodes of violence and political repression. Migration may be more common from poor to richer nations. But episodes of violence or genocide also turned countless persons into refugees. They did not leave their towns or their country voluntarily. Instead, they were forced to leave their hearths and homes. We know how thousands of innocent persons, mostly Hindus and Sikhs, fell victims to the militants’ bullets in Kashmir Valley from 1980 onwards. As a result, nearly three lakh Kashmiri Pandits were forced to flee the Kashmir valley.
4. What Cooperative measures need to be taken to meet new threats to Security?
Answer: Some cooperative measures that need to be taken to meet new threats to security are:
a. Measures to combat Terrorism: Cooperation among National and International Law Enforcement Agencies. Terrorist threat can be met the following way: ‘intelligence activities’ so that information could be gathered by the government and the armed forces about terrorists and their activities. Cooperation among national and international ‘Law Enforcement Agencies’, such as Interpol and Europol in catching and arresting terrorists. Cutting the ‘Sources of Funds’ of the terrorist groups.
b. Measures to combat Poverty, Hunger, Diseases: Governments are now increasingly relying upon NGOs for aid programmes (provision of food, clothing and medical aid to the needy), and the Private Sector efforts.
c. Protecting Human Rights: Besides the UN Agencies, the NGOs (such as Amnesty International, the Human Rights Watch, the International Red Cross, etc.) have long been active in fostering regard for human rights. In case there is the evidence of ethnic cleansing or state’s failure to protect its own citizens, the international community would be justified to use force. As Kofi Annan, the former UN Secretary-General, remarked, “there are times when the use of force may be legitimate in the pursuit of peace”.
B. Short answer questions
5. What is Security?
Answer: Traditionally, “security meant the security of the state”, i.e., the state should remain free from invasion by a foreign enemy
6. How does Balance of Power provide Security?
Answer: The traditional relations among nation-states are often explained in terms of ‘Balance of Power’. It rests on the idea that peace is more likely where two groups of nations are of equal military and political power. For a very long period Europe remained divided into two armed camps, The Triple Alliance (Prussia, Italy and Austria) and the Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia). According to some historians, the balance of power system prevented seven wars between 1871 and 1914. When this delicate balance was disturbed, it led to the First World War in 1914.
7. Write brief notes on:
(a) Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963.
Answer: The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 prohibits nuclear test in the atmosphere or under water. But it does not prohibit underground nuclear tests.
(b) Chemical Weapons Convention, 1993
Answer: The Chemical Weapons Convention, signed in 1993, banned the production, stockpiling or usage of chemical weapons. It came into force in 1997.
8. Mention any two Confidence-Building measures.
Answer: The two Confidence-Building measures are:
(i) The Nuclear states should agree not to target their nuclear missiles at each other. This is the way of telling others that they would not be the victims of a surprise attack.
(ii) All member-nations should give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes to maintain peace and security in the world.
9. Mention any two dangers that the concept of Global Security covers.
Answer: The concept of Global Security covers dangers like Environmental Degradation and International Terrorism. Environmental Degradation includes issues like global warming, melting of glaciers, and increase in intensity of floods. International Terrorism involves the use of violence, including murder and bombing, to achieve political or other objectives.
10. What is the difference between ‘Displaced Persons’ and Refugees?
Answer: When people are forced to leave their hearths and homes and they moved from one place to another within their own country, they are called ‘displaced persons’. But those forced to leave their country because of war or armed conflict or because of their political or religious beliefs, are called ‘refugees.’
11. Mention any two political rights and any two civil rights.
Answer: The main political rights mentioned in the document are:
(i) Right to take part in the government of his country
(ii) right to access to public or state services
The main civil rights are:
(i) freedom of thought, speech and assembly
(ii) right to life, liberty and security of person.
12. How are health-related issues a threat to human security?
Answer: Diseases like AIDS, SARS, and Bird Flu spread very fast across countries. Over 42 million persons are suffering from HIV/AIDS at present. Remedial drugs are costly. In America and the European countries the governments distributed drugs to everyone who needed them free of cost. But the developing countries in Africa and Asia could not meet all the public health needs of their citizens. Unless international organisations, such as WHO, UNICEF and the World Bank, become actively involved, AIDS would continue to pose a great challenge to the peace and stability of the poor nations.
C. Very short answer questions
13. Name the European countries which formed the Triple Alliance before the First World War broke out.
Answer: The European countries which formed the Triple Alliance before the First World War broke out were Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
14. Name the European Countries which formed the Triple Entente before the First World War broke out.
Answer: The European countries which formed the Triple Entente before the First World War broke out were France, Russia, and Great Britain.
15. Mention any one effect of Global Warming pointed out by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).
Answer: One effect of Global Warming pointed out by the IPCC is that “temperatures would rise by at least 1.8 degrees Celsius this century.” Because of Global Warming, glaciers could melt and there would be an increase in the intensity of floods.
16. What is the full form of a severe disease called SARS?
Answer: The full form of SARS is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.
D. Multiple Choice Questions: Tick (✔) the correct answer.
17. Which among the following is not a new threat to Security?
Answer: (c) External Attack
18. Which among the following is not a health-related issue?
Answer: (c) Terrorism
19. Which among the following was not a Military Alliance?
Answer: (c) Chemical Weapons Convention
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