Get class 10 Foundations of Information Technology (FIT) notes for Chapter 2 Services Available on Internet of Unit I Basics of Information Technology for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE).
INTRODUCTION: Internet is a sea of information. You think and ask and it will provide a multitude of information. Various services are available on the Internet which is from a personal level to business level. On a personal level, you can make. good use of e-mail service, chatting, learning, finding people on the Internet and on a business level, you can make use of e-business or e-commerce activities and online bookings.
The Internet can be used for many things. You can browse the Internet to research various topics. You can use the Internet to discover new music or even discuss some of your favourite things with others. More and more businesses are using the Internet to communicate with employers and clients all over the world. With the Internet, you can create an “always on” connection to others that are not near you. The Internet allows computer users to connect to other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world There is a number of services available on the Internet. Some of the important and most used services are E-mailing, Online Chat, Video Conferencing, Remote Access, Social Networking etc.
I. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Which of the following statements about search engines is true?
Answer: (d) Search engine is a program designed to search for information on the web using keywords
2. Services available on the Internet include……………….
Answer: (b) i, ii, iii, iv, v
3. A search engine is a program to search………..
Answer: (d) Web pages for information using specified search terms
4. In which of the following logic, both of the search terms are present?
Answer: (a) AND
5. Which of the following is a social networking site?
Answer: (d) Facebook
II. SHORT ANSWER QUESTION
1. What do you mean by search engine?
Answer: A search engine is a service which allows users to search for content via the World Wide Web (WWW). In a search engine, a user enters keywords or key phrases and receives a list of web content results in the form of websites, images, videos or other online data.
2. What is Indexing Software?
Answer: The indexing software catches everything the spider can throw at it. The index makes sense of the mass of text, links and URLs using what is called an algorithm – a complex mathematical formula that indexes the words, the pairs of words and so on.
3. Discuss OR logic in brief.
Answer: The ‘OR’ logic in Boolean searching is utilized to associate at least two comparable ideas (equivalent words). It expands our outcomes, telling the database that any of our search terms can be available in the subsequent records. The OR logic examines the outcomes to recover all the interesting records containing one term, the other term or the two.
4. Who is the founder of Boolean Logic?
Answer: Boolean logic refers to the logical relationship among search terms and is named for the British-born Irish mathematician George Boole.
5. How can you find people on the Internet?
Answer: There are numerous sites on the Internet and search engines that can be used to help find people on the Internet. Social Networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace etc. lets us search for people by name, filtering results by age, location and interests.
III. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. Explain three basic elements of search engine.
Answer: A search engine is a web-based tool that enables users to locate information on the World Wide Web. Popular examples of search engines are Google, Yahoo!, and MSN Search. The three basic elements of a search engine are as follows:
i. Spider or WebCrawler: It is a program that automatically fetches Web pages. Spiders are used to feed pages to search engines. It’s called a spider because it crawls over the Web. Another term used for these programs is WebCrawler. Since most Web pages contain links to other pages, a spider can start almost anywhere. As soon as it sees a link to another page, it goes off and fetches it.
ii. Indexing Software: The index makes sense of the mass of text, links and URLs using what is called an algorithm – a complex mathematical formula that indexes the words, the pairs of words and so on. The indexing software catches everything the spider can throw at it. Essentially, an algorithm analyzes the pages and links for word combinations to figure out what the web pages are all about – in other words, what topics are being covered.
iii. Search Engine Algorithm: A search engine algorithm is a set of rules or a unique formula, that the search engine uses to determine the significance of a web page and each search engine has its own set of rules. A search engine algorithm uses keywords as the input problem and returns relevant search results as the solution, matching these keywords to the results stored in the indexed database.
2. Explain the following in detail: (a) OR logic (b) AND logic (c) NOT logic
Answer: (a) AND logic: With AND logic when we combine search terms in a full-text search our results contain everything in which both terms we searched for appears. This way of combining search terms make our search results more accurate. AND logic can be denoted in the following way: horse AND cow.
OR logic: With OR logic, when we search two terms in a full-text search, we find all the items that contain one of the two terms or both the terms. OR logic can be denoted in the following way: horse OR cow.
NOT logic: When we search using NOT, we only find items that exclude the search term following it. This way, if we search two words, say horse and cow, and put NOT between horse and cow, we get all the items with the word horse that do not contain the word cow. The NOT logic can be denoted as horse NOT cow.
3. How can AND and OR logic be combined?
Answer: Parentheses allow was to combine AND and OR logic by determining the order in which terms are combined. For instance, if we search “horse” AND (“cow” OR “donkey”), we will get results that contain the item “horse” and either “cow” or “donkey.” If we do not group this way, the search is interpreted as “horse” AND “cow” OR “donkey” which then returns items containing either both horse and cow or containing donkey. By using parentheses, we are able to control the grouping of search terms.