The Growth of Indian Nationalism

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Here are the notes/solutions/answers to the questions for history chapter 2 The Growth of Indian Nationalism of class 9 for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA). However, these solutions can be modified/changed according to needs as these are only for references.

INTRODUCTION: The Mughal Empire started disintegrating after the death of Aurangzeb (1658-1709), Taking advantage of the situation the English East India Company started interfering in the politics of India and by a gradual process established their undisputed sway over the whole of India, Trade interests necessitated political control. Within a short span of time, the East India Company transformed itself from a mere trading body to a paramount political power. The defeat of Siraj-ud-daulah, the Nawab of Bengal in the battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of British political control over India, just hundred years later in 1857, the people of India rose in revolt against the British rule.

The Revolt of 1857 was, to a great extent, a bid of the Indians for political freedom. The rebels wanted to drive away from the British from India and make Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II their actual ruler. Though the revolt failed, its results were far-reaching. The revolt of 1857 marked the beginning of national awakening in India.

Short Answers Questions

1. What was the main factor responsibile for the growth of Indian Nationalism?

Answer: The Revolt of 1857 was the main factor responsibile for the growth of Indian Nationalism.

2. Who was the writer of ‘Anandamath’?

Answer: The writer of Anandamathwas Shri Bakim Chandra Chatterjee.

3. Who composed the song Sare Jahan Se Achha?

Answer: Iqbal composed the song Sare Jahan Se Achha.

4. When and where was the first Railway line in India constructed?

Answer: The first Railway line in India was constructed connecting Bombay and Thana in 1853.

5. When and where was the first Telegraph line in India constructed?

Answer: The first Telegraph line in India was constructed in 1839 between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour.

6. When and where was the first printing press established in India?

Answer: The first printing press was established in SreeramporeMission in 1797.

7. When was the Calcutta Presidency College established? By what name was it known earlier?

Answer: The Calcutta Presidency College was established in 1855.  It was earlier known as Hindu College.

8. Mention two important social reforms of Lord William Bentinck.

Answer: The two important social reforms of Lord William Bentinck are to abolish Sati permanently and suppressing female infanticide.

9. Name the first newspaper published in India.

Answer: The first newspaper published in India was Bengal Gazette.

Long Answer Questions

1. Write briefly how the Revolt of 1857 led to the growth of Indian Nationalism.

Answer: The Revolt of 1857 was to a great extent, a bid of the Indians for political freedom. The rebels wanted to drive away from the British from India and make Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II their actual ruler. Though this revolt failed its results were far-reaching. The Revolt of 1857 marked the beginning of National awakening in India. British administration introduced into India Western education and learning. Western education aroused among the Indians a new spirit of awakening. Reason replaced blind faith and a change in outlook took place. They not only acquired the capability to judge the exploitative nature of the foreign rule but at the same time developing a sense of responsibility towards their society race and country. This new consciousness gave birth to a new India in the nineteenth century just as a new Europe was born as a result of the Renaissance during the sixteenth century.

2. Write the main objectives of ‘Wood’s Despatch.’

Answer: In 1854, Sir Charles Wood, President of the Board of Control presented the first comprehensive plan for the spread of the modern system of education in India. The Wood’s Despatch presented a systematic educational hierarchy from primary through the high school and college to university. He encouraged vernacular at the school level and English at the university level. Scholarships were to be presented to meritorious students by the government. A system of grant-in-aid was laid down to encourage the growth in a number of educational institutions. Wood also recommended the establishment of the Education Department in all the provinces. The British administrators had conceived this new system of education to create a permanent class of humble, subservient Indians, always ready to serve the interest of the British administration.

3. Write about six important reasons for the growth of Indian Nationalism.

Answer: The six important reasons for the growth of Indian Nationalism were:

i. The influence of western education was a potent factor for the birth of Indian nationalism. The British opened the gates of Western education to the Indians which strengthened the Indian minds to face the challenges of British imperialism.
ii. The development of the modern means of transport and communication, like roads, railways, post and telegraph services helped in the growth of nationalism. The modern means of communication broke the isolation and forged a link between the people living in distant areas.
iii. The birth of the Indian National Congress in 1885 gave a form to the growing Indian nationalism. The foundation of the Indian National Congress was laid with a pledge to work for the interest of the people and the country.
iv. As a result of western education, India witnessed the growth of modem political ideas and organisations. During the latter half of the nineteenth century, there was the growth of political associations in India.
v. The Aligarh College established by Sir Syed Ahmed raised the level of political consciousness among the Indian Muslims. After the INC, the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College was the next national organisation which made commendable contributions towards the growth of nationalism in India.
vi. The latter half of the nineteenth century witnessed the rapid growth of vernacular newspapers in India. These newspapers voiced the sufferings of the native people and exposed the evils of British imperialism and the newly developed nationalism reached the common people throughout the country.

4. Write at least four effects of the introduction of Western education in India.

Answer: The four effects of the introduction of Western education in India were:

i. Western education opened to the newly educated Indians the flood gates of new ideas. They began to convey their ideas of liberty and equality to the masses through their writings.
ii. They came in contact with the liberal and radical thoughts of great political thinkers like Rousseau, Voltaire, Burke, Macaulay, Spencer, Locke, Bentham, Mill etc.
iii. They were inspired by the ideas of nationalism, democracy and self-government, which profoundly affected their thinking.
iv. Their morale was boosted by the heroic stories of the American War of Independence, the French Revolution, Unification of Germany, and Unification of Italy.

5. Discuss the impact of Western education on the growth of Indian Nationalism.

Answer: western education opened to the newly educated Indians the flood gates of new ideas. They came in contact with the liberal and radical thoughts of great political thinkers like Rousseau, Voltaire, Burke, Macaulay, Spencer, Locke, Bentham, Mill etc. They were inspired by the ideas of nationalism, democracy and self-government, which profoundly affected their thinking. Their morale was boosted by the heroic stories of the American War of Independence, the French Revolution, Unification of Germany, and Unification of Italy. Inspired by the ideas of Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour, the educated Indians became ready to work for national unity and the liberation of the country. They began to convey their ideas of liberty and equality to the masses through their writings. The patriotic poems of Ishwar Chandra Gupta, the slogan of Bande Mataram in Bankim Chandra’s Anandamath, Iqbal’s Sare Jahan Se Achha rouses a strong sense of nationalism amongst the people.

6. How did the development of transport and communication lead to the growth of  Nationalism in India?

Answer: The development of the modern means of transport and communication, like roads, railways, post and telegraph services helped in the growth of nationalism. The necessities of administrative convenience, military defence and commercial exploitation, particularly dumping of British manufactured goods in the Indian market and the supply of raw materials from India to feed the British industries, prompted the British to initiate plans for the improvement of the means of transport and communication in India. In 1839, the British constructed the Grand Trunk Road between Calcutta and Delhi which greatly facilitated road transportation in India. In 1853, the British started the railways in India. In 1883, railway lines were started in Assam connecting Sadiya and Dibrugarh. The development of transport and communication expanded the mental horizon of the Indian people and led to the growth of the feeling of nationalism in India. The modern means of communication broke the isolation and forged a link between the. people living in distant areas.

7. Discuss the contribution of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the growth of Indian Nationalism.

Answer: The contributions of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the growth of Indian Nationalism were:

i. He was the forerunner of Indian Nationalism. He practically laid the foundation of all principle movements- social, religious and political etc. in India to fight for the advancement of the country.
ii. He sought to affect a cultural synthesis between the East and the West.
iii. He founded the BrahmoSamaj to purge Hinduism of the abuses that crept into it. He deeply studied and reinterpreted the ancient Hindu scriptures and vehemently attacked polytheism and idol worship.
iv. He did not confine himself only to the reformation of the Hindu religion but contributed equally towards the social reformation and spread of Education.
v. He denounced casteism, child marriage, purdah, polygamy and gave social recognition to widow remarriage and intercaste marriage. His campaign for the abolition of Sati is of great significance in Indian social history.
vi. He approached the British to bring about liberal reforms in the administration and advocated for the separation of the Judiciary from the Executive and also the codification of civil and criminal laws.

8. Discuss the contribution of Dayanand Saraswati in the growth of Indian Nationalism.

Answer: Arya Samaj was founded in Punjab in the year 1875 by the great Sanskrit scholar Swami Dayanand Saraswati. The Arya Samaj criticised child marriage, casteism, and polygamy as social ills. Swamiji was a strong advocate of equal status between men and women. He pleaded for widow re-marriage and spread of education among women. Arya Samaj supported sea voyages and discouraged all types of superstitions associated with it. Swamiji considered the Vedas as the true source of Hinduism. He gave the slogan, “Go back to the Vedas”. Arya Samaj also began the Sudhi Movement to convert non-Hindus to Hinduism by which they could not only preserve the identity but also take the nation to the path of progress. Later branches of Arya Samaj were established in many other parts of India thereby facilitating the growth of nationalism by their programmes and activities.

9. Discuss the contribution of Keshav Chandra Sen in the growth of Indian Nationalism.

Answer: Keshav Chandra Sen started the Prathana Samaj in Maharashtra in 1869 on the model of Brahmo Samaj. Prarthana Samaj chiefly devoted its attention to social reforms. The influence of Prarthana Samaj extended to the whole of south India. It’s most important reformer was Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade. He worked hard for the upliftment of his people and the progress of society. The untiring efforts of Ranade materialised in the establishment of the Widow Remarriage Association and Deccan Education Society. The Widow Remarriage Association not only encouraged remarriage among widows but also extended employment opportunities by establishing cottage industries for them. The Deccan Education Society did a lot of work for the spread of education amongst people, particularly among the orphans. They also established many orphanages for the homeless and night schools for the illiterate and unprivileged. The activities of the Prarthana Samaj promoted the spirit of nationalism in minds of the people of southern India.

10. Discuss the contribution of Ramkrishna Paramhansa in the growth of Indian Nationalism.

Answer: Ramkrishna Paramhansa was a simple and pious man. His teachings attracted a large number of followers towards him. His disciple, Swami Vivekananda later founded the Ramkrishna Mission and took the ideals and philosophies of Ramkrishna Paramhansa to the masses. Swami Vivekananda wanted to spread the true message of Hinduism far and wide. He wanted to unite the Indians as well as to prove the fact that Indian philosophy and spiritual ideas were the best in the world. Through his speeches, Vivekananda infused among the people a sense of pride in India’s culture and heritage. His learned interpretations of Hindu culture and India’s glorious past made a great impression on Indian minds. It prepared them to face the challenges of British imperialism.

11. Discuss the contribution of Anne Besant in the growth of Indian Nationalism.

Answer: The Theosophical Society was an international society founded in New York and opened its branch in Madras. Mrs. Anne Besant was an Irish lady who came and settled in India in 1893. It was she who reorganised and popularised the movement in India. Through social service, she wanted to revive among the Indians a sense of self-respect and pride for India’s past. She reminded the Indians about the richness of Indian Philosophy, culture and heritage. By reviving ancient ideals and institutions, she was convinced that she could help the people to regain their lost faith and overcome their inferiority complex. She instilled among the educated Indians a new spirit of awakening and national sentiment. In 1916 Besant started the Home Rule League and spread the message of self-rule among the Indians. She was the first lady president of the Indian National Congress.

12. What is Aligarh movement?  To what extent did it infuse modern outlook among the Indian Muslims?

Answer: The spread of modern education and the development of Nationalism among the Indian Muslims centring around the Aligarh College came to be known as Aligarh Movement. The Aligarh College established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan raised the level of political consciousness among the Indian Muslims. After the Indian National Congress, the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College was the next National Organization which made commendable contributions towards the Nationalism in India. This College played a leading role in opening the flood gates of Western ideas, western culture and literature to the Indian Muslims. This newly educated class tried to remove the social abuses within the Muslim Community.

13. How did the Printing Press in India lead to the growth of Indian nationalism? Discuss.

Answer: The first newspapers published in India was the Bengal Gazette.  During the next few decades, many English newspapers made their appearances.  Indian public opinion was hardly reflected in the newspapers. The newly educated Indians gradually realised the importance of the printing press as a  powerful means of communication. The latter half of the nineteenth century witnessed the rapid growth of vernacular newspapers in India. These newspapers voiced the sufferings of the native people and exposed the evils of British imperialism. It was due to the efforts of the vernacular press that the newly developed nationalism didn’t remain confined to the intelligentsia and reached to the common people throughout the country. The Government became convinced of the role played by the Press towards Indian Renaissance and growth of Indian Nationalism.  Hence, they decided to increase their control over the vernacular press leading to the Vernacular Press Act and Arms Act which provoked a strong wave of reaction and prepared the Indians for a fight to preserve their self-respect.

14. Discuss briefly the factors that led to the birth of the Indian National Congress.

Answer: Governor-General Lord Rippon appointed Sir Ramesh Chandra Mitra as the Chief Justice of the Calcutta Supreme Court. The European Community in India disliked this appointment. Around this time, Mr Ilbert, Law Minister of the Viceroy’ s Council, moved a Bill in the Legislative Assembly which enabled the Indian judges to try the Europeans in criminal cases. The Europeans sharply reacted to this. They began a movement against the Bill. On the other hand, the educated Indians led by Surendranath Banerjee started a movement in its support. Although the movement began to gain support for the Ilbert Bill, it gradually intensified the spirit of Nationalism. In 1883, Surendranath Banerjee convened the Indian National Conference in Calcutta. Representatives from different parts of India came to attend the Conference. This was the first All India Conference which provided a base for the foundation of the Indian national Congress. During the tenure of Lord Dufferin, Allan  Octavian Hume took the initiative to organise an all India organisation of the Indians. With the support of 50 students, he organised a meeting under the banner of Indian Union and came to the conclusion to form a permanent organisation in the interest of the nation.

15. Give a brief account of the working of the Indian National Congress during the early years of its formation.

Answer: The foundation of the Indian National Congress was laid to pledge to work for the interest of the people and the country. During the early years, Congress adopted a moderate policy of working through prayers and petitions. Maintaining friendly relations with the government, it aimed at securing Indian representation in the administrative machinery. The Indian Council Act of 1892, greatly disappointed the Congress when it failed to give any concessions to Indians. In the Banarsi session of the Congress, Pal urged the Congress to abandon the policy of ‘political mendicancy’ and make Swadeshi their goal. The Calcutta session of Congress (1906) presided over by DadabhaiNaorojilaunched the Swadeshi Movement.

At the Surat session of the Congress in 1907, presided over by Rash BehariGhosh, Congress split into two groups- the Extremists and the Moderates.The Extremists were led by the trio- Lal Bal Pal. The Extremists remained out of the Congress till 1916.

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