State, Economic Development and Social Change: NBSE Class 11

State, Economic Development and Social Change
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Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) Sociology Chapter/unit 7 State, Economic Development and Social Change. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.


“State, Economic Development and Social Change” delves into the intricate relationship between the state, economic development, and social change. The unit explores several key themes, including land reforms, the Green Revolution, globalization and liberalization, and the Panchayati Raj system.

Land reforms are discussed in terms of their meaning and objectives in India. These reforms aim to regulate rent, provide security for tenants, and establish a ceiling on land holdings. Despite some success, the performance of these measures has been modest to disappointing, leading to agrarian tensions and conflicts.

The Green Revolution, a fundamental change in Indian agriculture, is also examined. This revolution led to a phenomenal increase in food grain production through the intensive application of science and technology. However, it has not been uniform across the country, leading to negative consequences in some areas.

Globalization and liberalization are presented as catalysts for rapid social change in India. Globalization is defined as the integration of world economies in conditions of free markets, facilitated by technological advancements and the role of multinational corporations. Despite its potential advantages, such as promoting competition and efficiency, it also has its drawbacks.

The unit also discusses the Panchayati Raj system, which is aimed at decentralizing power to the local level. This system is seen as a key component of India’s democratic structure, ensuring justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity for all citizens.

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Textual questions and answers

Very short answer questions

1. What is a state?

Answer: A state is a community of persons occupying a definite territory, independent of external control and having an organised government.

2. What is a welfare state? 

Answer: A welfare state is a system in which the government assumes basic responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. The state ensures that people have access to essential resources like food, housing, health care, education, employment and so on.

3. Which is the largest democracy in the world?

Answer: India is the largest democracy in the world.

4. What is meant by Panchayati Raj?

Answer: The establishment of Panchayati Raj is, at present, considered as the process of democratic decentralisation. It is understood as giving power to the people.

5. When was Panchayati Raj introduced in India?

Answer: 1959.

6. What are the three tiers of a Panchayati Raj?

Answer: They are: i) Gram Panchayat at the village level, ii) Panchayat Samiti at the Block level, iii) Zila Parishad at the district level.

7. What is democratic decentralization?

Answer: Democratic decentralization means giving power to the people.

8. Which Amendment to the Constitution deals with Panchayati Raj system?

Answer: 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India (1993).

9. What is Article 40 of the Directives Principle of State Policy?

Answer: Article 40 says: “The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.”

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17. What are called Multinational or Transnational Corporation (MNCs)?

Answer: Multinational or Transnational Corporations (MNCs) are referred to as those corporations which have their production units in more than one country. They are also known as Transnational Corporations (TNCs). They have their headquarters in one country (home country) and their operations extend to several other countries (host countries).

18. What is meant by liberalisation?

Answer: Liberalisation is defined as the process under which a highly regulated economy is deregulated and decontrolled. It is the process under which a regulated economy is transformed into an outward looking economy.

19. What does the slogan “less state, better state” mean in the context of liberalisation?

Answer: The slogan less state, better state” in the context of liberalisation means that “state involvement and intervention in the economy should be minimum. Therefore, under liberalisation, the dominance of the state in the economy gives way to private enterprise. The privatisation of public sector units takes place.

Short answer questions

1. List the aims of Panchayati Raj.

Answer: The main aim of Panchayati Raj is democratic decentralisation or to give power to the people. This implies people’s participation in the decision making process and in self-governance at the grass root level. It also includes the promotion of social and economic development in the rural areas. In order to ensure that all the people share this power, there are other special aims. These aims include empowering social groups which traditionally have been weak and deprived such as Scheduled Castes and Tribes. Another aim is to empower women. Ultimately the aim is to promote the development of all the rural people.

2. What are the main objectives of land reforms?

Answer: The main objectives of land reforms are:

  • To remove motivational and other impediments or obstacles in the agrarian structure of the past in order to promote development in agriculture.
  • To remove inequality and injustice in the agrarian structure and to end exploitation in order to ensure equality of status and opportunity to all sections of the population.

3. What was the main strategy adopted by the government for land reforms?. List the two primary objectives of land reforms after Independence.

Answer: The main strategy adopted by the government for land reforms included:

  • The abolition of all forms of intermediaries, especially the zamindars, between the tillers of the soil and the State. Thus, abolition of zamindari system was a major objective.
  • Conferment of ownership rights on cultivating tenants. Thus, tenancy reform was a major component.
  • Imposition of ceiling on agricultural land holdings.
  • Consolidation of land holdings so that fragmentation was removed in order to make the application of modern agricultural techniques easier.
  • Rationalisation of land records so that records of rights over land were maintained.
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6. Discuss the positive impact of globalization.

Answer: The positive impacts of globalization include:

  • The free market is the basis of globalization which promotes competition and efficiency.
  • Globalization promotes the flow of foreign investment which helps those countries which face shortages of internal resources.
  • Globalization guarantees increased employment opportunities.
  • Economic development under globalization will take care of issues of social justice and thus provide hope for disadvantaged groups.
  • Globalization increases cooperation at the international level and will usher in an era of world peace and amity.
Essay type questions

1. Discuss the structure of the Panchayati Raj.

Answer: The Balwantrai Mehta Committee recommended three tier Panchayati Raj institutions. They are:

i) Gram Panchayat at the village level: The Gram Panchayat evolves from the Gram Sabha which is the general body of the Panchayat. The Gram Sabha elects the Gram Panchayat members but the number varies from state to state. The members of Panchayat are called Panch. Each Panchayat has a Sarpanch who is elected by the people directly or by the Panch. The Gram Panchayats constitutes the most important governing body in the village.

ii) Panchayat Samiti at the Block level: Panchayat Samiti is the intermediate tier in the Panchayati Raj system. The Samiti comprises of the Sarpanch of Panchayats that falls within the jurisdiction of a given Samiti which resembles a block of community development. In addition to the Sarpanchs, representation to scheduled caste, scheduled tribes, weaker sections and others can be co-opted for inclusion in the Panchayat Samiti. The Panchayat Samiti is headed by the President/Chairman who also is the chairman of all standing committees. The Block Development Officer is the chief executive officer of the Samiti.

iii) Zila Parishad at the district level: The Zila Parishad is the apex body in the Panchayati Raj system. The President/Chairman of all the Panchayat Samitis are members of the Zila Parishad. However, in many instances reservations are not only given to women, STS, SCs but, though unreserved, even some state MLAs, MPS etc., are co-opted as members of the Zila Parishad. President /Chairman of the Parishad is elected from amongst the members of the Zila Parishad.

2. What is meant by land reforms? What are its main objectives?

Answer: Land reforms in India are those measures undertaken by the Government to remove structural obstacles in the agrarian system. These include abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms, ceiling on landholding and consolidation of holdings. The main aims or objectives of land reforms are to modernise agriculture and to reduce inequalities in the agrarian economy. These aims can be specified as follows:

  • To remove motivational and other impediments or obstacles in the agrarian structure of the past in order to promote development in agriculture.
  • To remove inequality and injustice in the agrarian structure and to end exploitation in order to ensure equality of status and opportunity to all sections of the population.

3. Explain briefly the consequences of land reforms.

Answer: The following are some of the social consequences of land reforms:

  • Abolition of zamindari and intermediaries: All the States have abolished zamindari system. As a result, there has been a remarkable transition to modern agrarian structure.
  • Tenancy reforms: Tenancy reforms aimed at regulation of rent, security of tenure and the right of purchase for the tenants. As a consequence, a large number of tenant farmers acquired ownership rights. This has encouraged them to improve agriculture. However, many small tenant farmers have lost their land and have become agricultural labourers.
  • Ceiling on land holdings: This aspect of land reforms has not been very effective in many States. However, in many States the Government has acquired the land held by land owners above the ceiling and distributed such land to landless labourers. A large number of landless labourers have benefited from this. Many of them are Scheduled Castes and Tribes.
  • Consolidation of holdings: Consolidation of holdings was aimed at consolidating small and scattered holdings. However, this has not been successful.

4. Discuss the socio-economic consequences of the Green Revolution in India.

Answer: Following are some of the consequences:

  • The impact of the Green Revolution has not been equally favourable for all sections of the agrarian population. While big farmers have benefited, small farmers were unable to benefit because they could not get the required inputs like seeds and fertilisers because they could not get institutional credit. This had a destabilising effect on small and marginal farmers.
  • The affluent farmers are enjoying the fruits of the Green Revolution. But the agricultural labourers have not benefited because real agricultural wages have not risen. Also, many share croppers have become landless labourers because they could not get land for share cropping.
  • Economic inequality in agrarian sector has widened. This has increased agrarian unrest resulting in a large number of instances of tensions and conflict, including violence.
  • The Green Revolution has not been uniform. It has taken place in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In these areas, there have been other negative consequences like the emergence of capitalist farmers, and sex ratio unfavourable to women.
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9. Write a brief essay on liberalisation.

Answer: Liberalisation is the process under which a highly regulated economy is deregulated and decontrolled. It is the transformation of a regulated economy into an outward-looking economy. The idea of liberalisation is based on the thinking that state involvement and intervention in the economy should be minimum. It is popularised by the slogan “less state, better state”. Therefore, under liberalisation, the dominance of the state in the economy gives way to private enterprise. The privatisation of public sector units takes place.

Liberalisation is closely related to globalisation. Liberalisation is the economic content of globalisation. Globalisation stresses on the free market, competition and efficiency. In order to achieve these, liberalisation is essential.

In India, the policy of liberalisation was adopted in 1991 because of various economic problems faced by the country. Since then an inward-looking regulated economy has been gradually transformed into an outward-looking liberalised economy. During the first phase of liberalisation (1991 – 1994), there was a dismantling of the old “quota permit raj”. There was a dismantling of controls and regulations in trade and industry. During the second phase (1995-2000), two important developments took place. These were the encouragement given to direct foreign investmentand downsizing the public sector. From 2001, all restrictions on imports have been removed and disinvestment in public sector has been accelerated.

The consequences of liberalisation have been both positive and negative. The negative consequences include the concentration of economic power in the hands of the MNCs, implying the convergence of political and social power. As a result, the power of the nation states has decreased and the rights of the common citizens are restricted.

Despite the negative consequences, there is increasing resistance to the conditions imposed by the international financial institutions. The positive aspects of liberalisation include promoting competition and efficiency, promoting the flow of foreign investment which helps those countries which face shortages of internal resources, and guaranteeing increased employment opportunities.

In conclusion, while liberalisation has brought about significant changes in the economic landscape, it is crucial to balance the benefits with the potential drawbacks to ensure equitable growth and development.

10. What is liberalization? Highlight the implications of liberalisation.

Answer: Liberalisation is the process under which a highly regulated economy is deregulated and decontrolled. It is the process under which a regulated economy is transformed into an outward looking economy.

The following are some of the important consequences:

  • There has been rapid economic growth especially in the recent past. There has been a general growth in industry, particularly in the IT (Information Technology) sector. However, the benefits of growth are not spread evenly. Poverty continues to be a serious problem and about 26% of the population is still below the poverty line (BPL).
  • Industry is becoming more efficient and competitive. But there has been a retrenchment of workers and unemployment is becoming more serious.
  • While economy is growing, the privatisation of public sector undertaking is reducing the role of the state. This has led to the decline of social sectors like education and health care.
  • Privatisation has introduced sophisticated technology. This has seriously affected women who were employed in the unorganised sector, household industry and handicrafts.
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) and Problem Solving Assessment

1. Most development projects in Nagaland have land implicated problems and obstacles. Discuss some remedial measures.

Answer: Development projects in Nagaland often face land-related problems and obstacles. To address these issues and ensure smoother implementation of development projects, the following remedial measures can be considered:

a. Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation Policies: The government can formulate and implement comprehensive land acquisition and rehabilitation policies specific to Nagaland. These policies should consider the unique land ownership patterns, customary laws, and tribal rights prevalent in the region. They should also include provisions for fair compensation, resettlement, and rehabilitation of affected communities.

b. Stakeholder Engagement and Consultation: It is crucial to involve all stakeholders, including local communities, tribal leaders, civil society organizations, and government agencies, in the decision-making process. Transparent and participatory mechanisms such as public hearings, consultations, and awareness campaigns can help address concerns, obtain consent, and build trust among the local population.

c. Land Mapping and Documentation: Conducting thorough land surveys, mapping, and documentation can help establish clear land ownership records and prevent disputes. Modern technologies like Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be utilized for accurate and efficient land mapping, ensuring transparency and minimizing conflicts related to land acquisition.

d. Strengthening Local Institutions: Strengthening local governance institutions, such as village councils and district administration, can enhance their capacity to address land-related issues effectively. These institutions should be provided with adequate resources, training, and support to handle land disputes, ensure fair compensation, and monitor the implementation of development projects.

e. Mediation and Dispute Resolution Mechanisms: Establishing mediation and dispute resolution mechanisms can help resolve land-related conflicts in a timely and amicable manner. Local courts, tribunals, or alternative dispute resolution methods like arbitration or mediation can be utilized to settle disputes and prevent delays in project implementation.

f. Land Use Planning and Environmental Impact Assessment: Prioritizing land use planning and conducting comprehensive environmental impact assessments can help identify suitable project sites, minimize land acquisition, and mitigate potential environmental and social impacts. These assessments should consider the cultural, ecological, and economic significance of the land to ensure sustainable development practices.

2. The world is increasingly moving towards a global village. How do we safeguard our culture and still blend comfortably into the global village?

Answer: Safeguarding our culture while blending comfortably into the global village requires a balanced approach that allows for cultural preservation while embracing the benefits of globalization. Here are some strategies to achieve this:

a. Cultural Education and Awareness: Promote cultural education and awareness programs at schools and community levels to ensure that younger generations are aware of and connected to their cultural heritage. This can include teaching traditional arts, music, language, and history to instill pride and knowledge about their cultural roots.

b. Cultural Exchange Programs: Encourage cultural exchange programs that allow individuals from Nagaland to visit other parts of the world and vice versa. This promotes mutual understanding, appreciation, and respect for diverse cultures. Such programs can also help showcase Nagaland’s unique cultural traditions and foster intercultural dialogue.

c. Preservation of Traditional Practices: Support the preservation of traditional practices, rituals, festivals, and customs by providing platforms and resources for their continuation. This can include organizing cultural festivals, establishing cultural centers, and supporting local artisans, craftsmen, and performers.

d. Revitalization of Indigenous Languages: Take steps to revitalize and promote indigenous languages by integrating them into the education system, documenting and preserving language resources, and encouraging their use in daily life. Language plays a vital role in preserving cultural identity.

e. Responsible Tourism: Develop and promote responsible tourism practices that allow visitors to experience Nagaland’s culture without causing harm or diluting its authenticity. Emphasize community-based tourism initiatives that involve local communities and provide them with economic benefits while safeguarding their cultural traditions.

f. Adaptation and Innovation: Encourage the adaptation and innovation of traditional practices to suit modern contexts. This can involve incorporating traditional elements into contemporary art, music, fashion, and other creative expressions, thereby keeping cultural traditions.

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