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Here are the solutions, questions, answers, and notes of chapter 9: WILDLIFE which is a part of social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.

INTRODUCTION: Wildlife refers to animals, birds and other organisms, like insects which live in a natural habitat. India has a rich stock of flora and fauna. In India, there are more than 89,000 animal species, 1200 species of birds, making up 13% of the world total, 2500 species of fish making up 12% of the world’s stock. Amphibians, reptiles and mammals of India comprise between 5% and 8% of the world’s counts. India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions. The natural habitat of the Indian lion is the Gir forest in Gujarat. Tigers are found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sundarbans of West Bengal and the Himalayan region. Leopards too are members of the cat family. They are important among animals of prey.

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I. Choose the correct answer.

1. Which is our national bird?

Answer: (b) Peacock

2. Which migratory birds visit India?

Answer: (c) Both of these

3. The gharials, a variety of crocodiles, are found only in

Answer: (b) India

4. Where is the Corbett National Park situated?

Answer: (c) Uttarakhand

5. The Kaziranga National Park is famous for which wild animal?

Answer: (c) Rhinoceros

6. In which state is Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary located?

Answer: (b) Kerala

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions.

1. How many species of birds and animals are found in India?

Answer: India has more than 89,000 animal species and 1200 species of birds.

2. What are endangered species?

Answer: Such plants and animals which are on the line of extinction are termed as endangered species.

3. Where are elephants found in India?

Answer: Elephants are found in Kerala, Karnataka, and Assam in India.

4. Which is the natural habitat of the Indian lion?

Answer: Gir forest in Gujarat.

5. Which animals are found in rivers, lakes, and coastal areas of India?

Answer: ln the rivers, lakes and coastal areas, turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found.

6. Where is Kaziranga National Park located?

Answer: Assam.

7. Where is Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary located?

Answer: Kerala

III. Short Answer Type Questions.

1. Give an estimate of the abundant wildlife in India.

Answer: The abundance of wildlife can be estimated by the following:

(i) There are more than 89,000 animal species
(ii) India has 1200 species of birds that make up 13% of the world’s total.
(iii) The country has 2500 species of fish that make up 12% of the world’s stock.
(iv) The amphibians, reptiles and mammals of India comprise between 5% and 8% of the world’s counts.

2. Where can you see elephants and rhinoceros in India?

Answer: The elephants are found in the hot wet forests of Kerala, Karnataka, and Assam. Rhinoceros in India are found in swamps and marshlands of West Bengal.

3. State any three methods to conserve wildlife in India.

Answer: Three methods to conserve wildlife in India are:

(i) Prevention of poaching.
(ii) Making and imposing laws for the protection of threatened and endangered species.
(iii) Creating awareness among the people.

4. What is a Biosphere Reserve?

Answer: Biosphere reserves are multipurpose protected areas created to deal with the issue of conservation of biodiversity and its sustainable use.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions.

1. Discuss the methods which can be used to conserve wildlife.

Answer: Wildlife can be conserved by:

i. Prevention of poaching.
ii. Making and imposing laws for the protection of threatened and endangered species.
iii. Creating awareness among the people.
iv. Prevention and preservation of their natural habitat.
v. Demarcating national parks, sanctuaries and reserves and protecting them.

2. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna? Explain.

Answer: India has a rich heritage of flora and fauna because of the following reasons:

i. India is a diverse country with different relief features from snowy mountains to deserts. Different types of vegetation are found in these regions and the vegetations support different types of animals.
ii. Availability of different types of soil providing the base for different types of vegetations.
iii. The climate of India differs from north to south and east to west. Thus supporting a large variety of flora and fauna.
iv. India has a monsoon type of climate where rainfall varies from 20 cms to 300 cms, distributed throughout the year.
v. India does not experience extreme climatic conditions as a large part of the land experience moderate influence of the sea.

3. State and explain the usefulness to conserve wildlife.

Answer: The need to conserve our rich and varied fauna arises because of the following serious considerations.

(i) They provide us with milk, meat, wool, silk and hides etc. Insects like bees provide us with honey.
(ii) Wild animals and birds add to the beauty of nature and help in maintaining ecological balance.
(iii) Indiscriminate hunting of wildlife disturbs the ecological balance and leads to the extinction of some species altogether.
(iv) Some beautiful species like cheetah, rhinoceros, musk-deer, Indian bustard are in the danger of total extinction. Besides this many birds and animals have already become extinct due to reckless destruction of the forest. Thus, we need to protect animals and wildlife.

4. Explain the government measures to protect wildlife in India.

Answer: The various government measures taken to protect wildlife in India are:

i. Various national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been set up – in various parts of India whose wild animals and birds are kept in their natural habitat, e.g. Nilgiri and Nanda Devi biosphere reserves.
ii. A periodic census is being taken to find out the latest position of some rare species so that they can be preserved for our future generations.
iii. The killing of wildlife has been banned by the government. Special forest officers have been appointed to catch the law-breaking animal hunters

5. How can people’s participation be effective in conserving forests and wildlife? [HOTS]

Answer: It is also our duty to preserve wildlife. We should avoid reckless hunting of wild animals, indiscriminate felling of trees and clearing of forests to protect our national wealth, i.e. wildlife. Common people have a large role to play in the conservation of forests and wildlife. We can participate in environmental movements and pressurize the government, both at the state and Central level to bring stricter laws to conserve our forests and minimise the industrial impacts on the environment. We can also refuse to use products that intensively harm the forest and wildlife during their production and when they are disposed of. Afforestation should become people’s movement and more trees should be planted.

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