Agriculture: NBSE Class 10 Social Science chapter 7 notes

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Get here the notes/solutions/extras of NBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 7 Agricultur. However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.

Summary

Agriculture is one of the oldest activities practiced by humans. In India, agriculture is the main occupation of about 70% of the population. It has been the most important economic activity in India since ancient times.

There are different types of farming practices in India depending on physical factors like climate, soil, relief, etc. and human factors like cultural background, practices followed, etc.

Primitive Subsistence Farming: This is also called slash and burn agriculture. In this type, farmers clear a small piece of land by slashing and burning the vegetation. They then grow cereals and other food crops on that land to sustain themselves and their families. The entire family works using primitive tools like hoes, digging sticks, etc. No manure or fertilizers are used, so the productivity is very low. This type of farming is practiced in different parts of India with local names like bewar, podu, pama, jhumming, etc.

Intensive Subsistence Farming: This is a labor-intensive farming method where high doses of fertilizers, irrigation, and other biochemicals are used to get higher production. Very small land holdings characterize this type, with huge pressure on the limited agricultural land. It is practiced in areas with high population density.

Commercial Farming: In this type, the latest technology like HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, etc. are used to maximize productivity. Plantations where a single crop is grown on large areas also come under commercial farming. Cash crops like wheat, rice, tea, coffee, etc. are grown for commercial purposes.

India has three main cropping seasons – Kharif (monsoon), Rabi (winter), and Zaid (summer). Rice, millets, pulses are the main Kharif crops, while wheat, peas, mustard are Rabi crops. Watermelons and vegetables are grown in Zaid season.

The major foodgrains produced in India are rice, wheat, maize, and millets. Rice is the staple food for the majority. Among cash crops, sugarcane is the main source of sugar and jaggery. Oil seeds like groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesame are also widely cultivated. Important fiber crops are cotton and jute.

Tea and coffee are the major beverage crops, with Assam being the largest tea producer. Horticulture crops like mangoes, oranges, bananas, grapes, apples, etc. are also widely grown across different regions.

Rubber is an important industrial crop, with Kerala being the largest producer. Sericulture or silk production from mulberry leaves is another significant activity.

Despite being an agricultural nation, Indian agriculture suffers from low productivity due to factors like small landholdings, dependence on monsoons, lack of irrigation, use of older methods and equipment, etc.

The government has taken several measures to improve agriculture in the form of institutional and technical reforms. Provision of subsidies on inputs like electricity, seeds, fertilizers, crop insurance, weather bulletins, rural banking, and announcement of support prices are some institutional reforms.

Technical reforms include promotion of consolidated and cooperative farming, use of mass media to spread awareness about new techniques, research and development activities, etc.

The Green Revolution of the 1960s-70s aimed to increase foodgrain production through the use of high-yielding varieties, fertilizers, irrigation, etc. However, its benefits were limited to certain regions only.

Land reforms like abolition of zamindari system, consolidation of landholdings, etc. were also undertaken, especially in the First Five Year Plan period.

Agriculture plays a vital role in the Indian economy by ensuring food security, providing livelihoods, and contributing to industrial growth through supply of raw materials. It accounted for about 14% of India’s GDP in 2013.

Textual questions and answers

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

1. Mr. Momin lives in Meghalaya, wishes to cultivate pulses but is unable to grow it. What reasons could be responsible for the failure of this crop? +

(a) Excessive rainfall and high humidity in Meghalaya (b) Limited availability of irrigation facilities (c) Inadequate sunlight and poor soil drainage (d) None of these

Answer: (a) Excessive rainfall and high humidity in Meghalaya 

2. Rohan told Sohan to guess the name of the crop; he provided the following geographical conditions: 

• It grows in a cool and moist season
• It requires bright sunshine at the time of ripening
• 50 cm to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season. 

(a) Wheat (b) Pulses (c) Rice (d) Maize

Answer: (a) Wheat 

3. Rice is a subsistence crop in Odisha; in which of the following states is rice a commercial crop? 

(a) West Bengal and Bihar (b) Jammu and Kashmir [ (c) Punjab and Haryana (d) Tamil Nadu and Kerala

Answer: (c) Punjab and Haryana 

4. Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area? 

(a) Shifting agriculture (c) Horticulture (b) Plantation agriculture (d) Intensive agriculture

Answer: (b) Plantation agriculture 

5. Read the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Choose one of the correct alternatives given below. 

Assertion (A): Constant reliance on traditional farming methods has hindered the modernization of agricultural practices.
Reason (R): Traditional methods of farming often involve inefficient use of resources and lack of technological advancements, which limits the potential for increased productivity and sustainability. 

(a) Both the Assertion and Reason are true, and the Reason is a correct explanation of the Assertion. (b) Both the Assertion and Reason are true, but the Reason is NOT a correct explanation of the Assertion. (c) The Assertion is true, but the Reason is false. (d) The Assertion is false, but the Reason is true.

Answer: (a) Both the Assertion and Reason are true, and the Reason is a correct explanation of the Assertion. 

Very Short Answer Questions

1. State the growing and harvesting periods of Rabi crops. 

Answer: Rabi crops are sown from October to December and harvested from April to June. 

2. Which crops are known as beverage crops? 

Answer: Tea and coffee are known as beverage crops. 

3. Why is tea processed within tea gardens? 

Answer: Tea is processed within the tea estates to retain its freshness. 

Short Answer Questions

1. What is agriculture? 

Answer: Agriculture is the process of producing food, seed, fibre and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. 

2. What is primitive farming? Mention any two characteristics. 

Answer: Primitive subsistence is also known as slash and burn farming. Farmers clear, slash and burn a small piece of land and grow on it cereals and other food crops to sustain themselves. The entire family or community work on the land. Primitive tools such as hoe, digging sticks and dao are used. 

3. Briefly describe the conditions required for the cultivation of jute. 

Answer: Jute requires well-drained fertile soil in the flood plains, renewed every year, and high temperature during the time of growth. 

4. When are Rabi crops sown? Name two Rabi crops. 

Answer: Rabi crops are sown from October to December. Wheat and barley are two important Rabi crops.

Long Answer Questions

1. Which type of farming is ‘slash and burn’? Why is the land abandoned after a few years? 

Answer: Primitive subsistence is also known as slash and burn farming. In this type of farming, farmers clear, slash and burn a small piece of land and grow on it cereals and other food crops to sustain themselves. 

The entire family or community works on the land. Primitive tools such as hoe, digging sticks and dao are used. No fertilisers or manure is used, and hence the land productivity is low. Primitive subsistence depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of the other environmental conditions. 

The land is abandoned after a few years as its fertility gets exhausted. 

2. ‘Some pulses are known as leguminous crops.’ Why are they grown in rotation with other crops? 

Answer: Some pulses like gram, tur (arhar), and peas are leguminous crops. Pulses are grown in rotation with other crops as they help in restoring soil fertility by utilising nitrogen from the air. Pulses need less moisture and can survive in dry conditions. Rotating pulses with other crops helps maintain soil health and productivity. 

3. Explain any four factors responsible for the low productivity of agriculture in India. 

Answer: Four factors responsible for the low productivity of agriculture in India are: 

  • Most farmers still depend on monsoons and natural fertility, using traditional methods like flooding fields for irrigation, wooden ploughs, and bullock carts. 
  • Lack of appropriate techno-institutional changes and reforms, hindering modernization of agricultural practices. 
  • Fragmented and small landholdings due to the right of inheritance, making the holdings economically unviable. 
  • Insufficient use of modern inputs like high-yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation facilities, limiting productivity. 

4. What is intensive subsistence farming? How is it practised? 

Answer: Intensive subsistence farming is a labour-intensive farming method that uses high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation to obtain higher production. 

It is characterised by very small farm holdings due to the division of land among successors, leading to enormous pressure on agricultural land. In intensive subsistence farming, every bit of cultivable land is used. Where there is inadequate water, irrigation is used, and where the land is hilly, terraces are made. In many areas, swamps have been drained for the cultivation of paddy. The chief crops grown are paddy, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, sorghum, and vegetables. 

5. Mention any six institutional and technical reforms implemented by the Indian government in agriculture. 

Answer: Some of the institutional and technical reforms implemented by the Indian government in agriculture are: 

  • Providing subsidies on electricity, seeds, and fertilizers to encourage farmers to improve agriculture. Consolidating and collectivizing farms to make them economically viable. 
  • Widespread use of radio and television to acquaint farmers with new and improved cultivation techniques. 
  • Introducing crop insurance to protect farmers against losses caused by crop failure. 
  • Providing special weather bulletins and agricultural programs for farmers on television and radio. 
  • Establishing a well-knit network of rural banking to help farmers get loans to modernize agriculture. 
  • Announcing minimum support prices for crops to protect farmers from exploitation by middlemen and speculators. 
  • Introducing schemes like Kisan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) for farmers. 

Extra MCQs

1. What is the primary occupation of people in many developing countries, including India? 

A. Industry B. Services C. Agriculture D. Mining 

Answer: C. Agriculture 

2. What percentage of the workforce in India is engaged in agricultural activities? 

A. 70% B. 50% C. 30% D. 20% 

Answer: A. 70% 

3. Which of the following is NOT a source of raw material for industries, according to the passage? 

A. Food grains B. Tea C. Coffee D. Minerals 

Answer: D. Minerals 

4. What is the term used for the type of farming where a small piece of land is cleared, slashed, and burned to grow cereals and other food crops? 

A. Intensive farming B. Commercial farming C. Primitive subsistence farming D. Plantation farming 

Answer: C. Primitive subsistence farming 

5. Which of the following tools is NOT being used in primitive subsistence farming? 

A. Hoe B. Digging sticks C. Tractor D. Dao 

Answer: C. Tractor 

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50. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a reason for the importance of agricultural development in India, according to the passage? 

A. Ensuring food security B. Producing raw materials for industries C. Reducing import dependency D. Generating employment opportunities 

Answer: C. Reducing import dependency 

Extra questions and answers

1. What is the oldest human activity? 

Answer: Agriculture is the oldest human activity. 

2. What is the importance of agriculture in India? 

Answer: Agriculture in India is the means of livelihood of almost 70 per cent of the workforce in the country. It has, since ancient times, been India’s most important economic sector. 

3. What are the different types of farming practiced in India? Describe them briefly. 

Answer: There are different types of farming: 

Primitive subsistence is also known as slash and burn farming. Farmers clear, slash and burn a small piece of land and grow on it cereals and other food crops to sustain themselves. The entire family or community works on the land. Primitive tools such as hoe, digging sticks and dao are used. No fertilisers or manure is used and hence the land productivity is low. 

Intensive Farming – It is a labour-intensive farming method. It uses high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation to obtain higher production. It is characterised by very small farm holdings. There is enormous pressure on agricultural land. 

Commercial Farming – This type of farming uses technology high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity and production. Plantation is also a type of commercial farming. In this kind of farming, a single crop is grown in a large area. 

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53. Highlight the importance of India in the production of vegetables. 

Answer: Almost 13% of the world’s vegetables are produced in India. It leads the world in the production of peas and cauliflower, is second in onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and fourth in potato production.

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