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Here you will find all the questions, solutions, answers, and notes of chapter 7 Agriculture of Social Science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.

INTRODUCTION: In many developing countries including India, agriculture still remains the primary occupation of the people. Agriculture in India is the means of livelihood of almost 70 per cent of the workforce in the country. It has, since ancient times, been India’s most important economic sector. India is an agricultural country. Two-third of its population is engaged in agricultural activities. Besides producing food grains, agriculture is also a source of raw material required for industries. Hence, we can say that agriculture has been a potent factor in promoting industrialisation at a global level. In addition, some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices, etc., are exported and foreign exchange earned for the country.

Agriculture is the oldest human activity. It was agriculture that brought man out of forest. Over the years cultivation method have changed significantly. These changes have been influenced by physical, environmental and technological know how and sociocultural practices.

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. The most important fibre crop in India is:

Answer: (a) Cotton

2. The most important occupation of the people of India is:

Answer: (b) Agriculture

3. Which of the following types of economic activity is agriculture?

Answer: (a) Primary activity

4. Rice is a subsistence crop in Odisha; in which of the following states is rice a commercial crop? [HOTS]

Answer: (c) Punjab and Haryana

5. Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?

Answer: (b) Plantation agriculture

6. Which of the following is a Rabi crop?

Answer: (b) Gram

7. Which of the following crops are produced during Zaid cropping season?

Answer: (b) Muskmelon

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Name the two main fibre crops of India.

Answer: Cotton and jute.

2. Which state is the largest producer of sugarcane in India?

Answer: Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugarcane in India.

3. State the growing and harvesting periods of Rabi crops.

Answer: Rabi crops are grown between October and December. They are harvested between April and June.

4. Which crops are known as beverage crops?

Answer: Beverage crops are those that produce a potable beverage that is not water.

5. Why is tea processed within tea gardens?

Answer: Tea is processed within the tea estates to retain its freshness.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What is agriculture?

Answer: Agriculture is the process of producing food, seed, fibre and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals.

2. What is primitive farming? Mention any two characteristics.

Answer: In this form of farming, farmers clear, slash and burn a small piece of land and grow on it cereals and other food crops to sustain themselves.

Two characteristics of it are:

i. Primitive tools such as a hoe, digging sticks and dao are used.
ii. No fertilisers or manure is used and hence the land productivity is low.

3. Briefly describe the conditions required for the cultivation of jute.

Answer: The conditions required for the cultivation of jute are:

i. Well-drained fertile soil in the flood plains.
ii. Soil which is renewed every year.
iii. high temperature during the time of growth.

4. When are rabi crops sown? Name two rabi crops.

Answer: Crops that are sown between October and December and harvested between April and June are known as rabi crops. Two rabi crops are wheat and maize.

5. What is Zaid?

Answer: Zaid is a short season between the rabi and kharif seasons.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Which type of farming is ‘slash and burn’? Why is the land abandoned after a few years?

Answer: Primitive subsistence is also known as slash and burn farming.

In this particular type of farming, no fertilizers or manure is used and hence the land productivity is low. Primitive subsistence depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil, and suitability of other environmental conditions. Therefore, in this type of farming, the land is abandoned after a few years so that the land can regain its fertility during that time and become suitable again for farming.

2. ‘Some pulses are known as leguminous crops.’ Why are they grown in rotation with other crops? [HOTS]

Answer: Crop rotation is a process that works to conserve soil. It is achieved by planting and growing a series of different crops in the same soil. Pulses are grown in rotation with other crops as they help in restoring soil fertility by utilising nitrogen from the air. This process prevents overgrowth of pathogens and a lack of fertility in the soil, overall. Pulses need less moisture and can survive in dry conditions. The land therefore later can be used to grow other crops.

3. Describe the temperature and rainfall conditions necessary for the growth of sugarcane.

Answer: Sugarcane is a sub-tropical as well as a tropical crop and is the main source of sugar, gur (jaggery), khandsari and molasses. It grows well in a hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21° C to 27° C and annual rainfall between 75 cm and 100 cm. Irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall. This crop requires manual labour from sowing to harvesting. lt can be grown on a variety of soils. lt is an annual crop.

4. Explain any four factors responsible for the low productivity of agriculture in India.

Answer: Four factors responsible for the low productivity of agriculture in India are:

i. India’s countryside has about 600 million people dependent on approximately 250 million hectares of farmland. This gives an average of less than half a hectare of land per person. Thus the land is limited.
ii. Constant use of land without appropriate techno-institutional changes has hindered the pace of agricultural development.
iii. Most of the farmers still depend on monsoons, natural fertility and seeds.
iv. Old methods of irrigation such as flooding of fields and Persian wheel, wooden plough and bullock cart to carry on production are in use.

5. What is intensive subsistence farming? How is it practised?

Answer: Intensive subsistence farming is a labour-intensive farming method where every bit of cultivable land is is characterised by very small farm holdings. There is enormous pressure on agricultural land. This is a consequence of the ‘Right of inheritance’, which has led to the division of land among successors. The successors are solely dependent on the land for their livelihood and hence the pressure

lt uses high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation to obtain higher production. ln, this type of agriculture every bit of cultivable land is used. Where there is inadequate water irrigation is used and where the land is hilly, terraces are made. ln many areas, swamps have been drained for the cultivation of paddy.

6. What are the main cropping seasons in India?

Answer: India has three cropping seasons. These are rabi, kharif, and zaid.

Rabi: The rabi crops are grown between October and December and are harvested between April and June. Wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard are some important crops. Availability of precipitation during winter months helps in the growth of rabi crops.

Kharif: Kharif crops are sown with the onset of monsoon in June and are harvested between September and October. Paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean are some of the important crops.

Zaid: This is a short season between the rabi and kharif seasons. Crops produced are watermelons, muskmelons, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.

7. Discuss the importance of horticulture crops and production in India.

Answer: India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables. It produces tropical as well as temperate fruits. Almost 13% of the world’s vegetables are produced in India. It leads the world in the production of peas and cauliflower, is second in onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and fourth in potato production. Horticulture in the recent years has gained importance as an important component of agriculture in the country and has proved to be an important contributor in the nation’s GDP. Some of the important horticulture crops in the country are mangoes, oranges, bananas, pineapples etc.

8. Mention any six institutional and technical reforms implemented by the Indian government in agriculture.

Answer: Six institutional and technical reforms implemented by the Indian government in agriculture are:

i. Subsidy on electricity, seeds and fertilisers to ensure that farmers continue to improve agriculture, consolidated and collectivised farms to make them economically viable.
ii. Widespread use of radio and television for acquainting farmers in new and improved techniques of cultivation.
iii. Crop insurance to protect the farmers against losses caused by crop failure.
iv. Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers on television and radio.
v. Well-knit network of rural banking for farmers to help them get loans to modernise agriculture.
vi. Announcing minimum support price for the crops grown by farmers to check exploitation of farmers by middlemen and speculators.

9. What is the Green Revolution? What programmes were launched in the 1980s and 1990s for improvement of agriculture?

Answer: The Green Revolution was initiated to bring about an improvement in the field of Indian agriculture. The Green Revolution is a phrase generally used to describe the spectacular increase in the production of food grains in India.

By the 1980s and 1990s it became very clear that what was required was a comprehensive land development programme which would comprise both institutional and technical reforms. Some of the programmes that were launched in the 1980s and 1990s for improvement of agriculture were:

Kisan Credit Card (KCC): It was an initiative to make sure that the farmers have access to credit easily and at an affordable rate. 
Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS): This was introduced to guarantee the farmers compensations if their crops fail due to accidents or natural calamities.
Minimum support prices (MSPs): The major objectives of this was to support the farmers from distress sales as well as to procure food grains for public distribution.

Get notes of other chapters of NBSE class 10 social science.

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