Here you will find all the questions, solutions, answers, and notes of chapter 13 Competition and Contestations in Democracy of Social Science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: Political parties are the life-blood of a democratic polity. It is particularly so in a country like India which has a multi-party system. If you travel to the countryside and discuss politics with village folks, they will talk about various political parties, their leaders and their politics, though they may not know anything about our Constitution and its provisions. Most of us tend to be very critical of political parties and blame them for all the wrongs in our society. They are blamed for conflicts, divisions and unethical practices prevalent in our democracy and political life. A century ago, there were few countries that had political parties, now there are few which do not have them. Most of the countries have several political parties.
A political party is a group of people who share a common ideology and aim to form the government by contesting elections and winning a majority of the contested seats. Each political party has a set of policies and programmes declared publicly by election manifestos, for promotion of common good of citizens.
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who chooses the candidates for contesting elections in India?
Answer: (d) None of these
2. Which of these countries has a one-party system?
Answer: (b) China
3. Which of these is not a good option for a democratic state?
Answer: (a) One-party system
4. Which among the following political parties was formed by Kanshi Ram and Mayawati?
Answer: (c) Bahujan Samaj Party
5. Shiromani Akali Dal is associated with
Answer: (b) Punjab
II. Very Short Answer Questions
1. Name three components of a political party.
Answer: The essential components of a political party:
i. the leaders
ii. the active members, and
iii. the followers.
2. Define a political party.
Answer: A political party is a group of people who share a common ideology and aim to form a government by contesting elections and winning a majority of the contested seats.
3. What is the difference between a national party and a state party?
Answer: National parties are present in all or many of the federal units, whereas state parties are present in only one of the federal units.
III. Short Answer Questions
1. Differentiate between a ruling party and an opposition party.
Answer: A party that forms government at the central or state level is called a ruling party. On the other hand, a party other than the ruling party in a legislature is called ab opposition party.
2. Name two countries each adhering to (i) one-party system (ii) two-party system.
Answer: (i) China, North Korea. (ii) USA, United Kingdom.
3. Write the major objectives of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
Answer: It wants to build a strong and modern India by drawing inspiration from India’s ancient culture and values.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1. Explain how a political party can shape public opinion.
Answer: Opinion of people against and in favour of certain issues and policies of the government can make the prospects of a ruling party in the coming election. Opposition parties play a pivotal role in the formation of public opinion through organising meetings, demonstrations, protests, dharnas, distribution of posters and pamphlets and by highlighting issues in the mass media. They examine and criticise the government for its failures and wrong policies.
2. State the various functions which political parties perform in a democracy.
Answer: The various functions which political parties perform in a democracy are::
i. Contesting elections: Political parties put up candidates in various constituencies to contest an election.
ii. Declaring different policies and programmes: Each party has a different set of ideology, policy and programme which it desires to implement after forming the government.
iii. Making laws for the country: Laws are made after the bills are debated and passed by legislatures by a majority.
iv. Parties form and run governments: The majority party in a legislature forms the government.
v. Role of opposition: The parties which fail to form government play the role of opposition inside the legislature and outside.
vi. Shaping public opinion: Opinion of people against and in favour of certain issues and policies of the government can make the prospects of a ruling party in the coming election.
3. What are the characteristics of a political party?
Answer: The characteristics of a political party are:
i. A political party is a group of people who share a common ideology and aim to form a government by contesting elections and winning a majority of the contested seats.
ii. Each political party has a set of policies and programmes declared publicly by election manifestos, for promotion of the common good of citizens.
iii. As the policies, programmes and ideologies of different political parties are different they seek to win popular support in an election to be able to implement them.
iv. Each party has a different social base representing the interests and aspirations of a part of the society. Thus, it involves partisanship.
v. A party is known for its ideology, programmes and policies and the section of society whose interests it represents.
vi. There are three essential components of a political party which are the leaders, the active members, and the followers.
4. ‘The quality of democracy depends on the degree of public participation.’ Explain. [HOTS]
Answer: The quality of democracy depends on the degree of public participation. It would be difficult to reform politics if ordinary people simply criticise it from outside. The problem of bad politics can be solved by adopting better politics. That is possible only when ordinary citizens participate in the process of democracy. Constitutional institutions should be strengthened that help people’s participation and control.
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