Here you will find all the questions, answers, notes, and solutions of chapter 17 Money and Financial System of Social Science for class 10 for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: Money is a part of our daily life. All people want money but only a few can define it. If you ask somebody ‘what is money?’, he will probably say ‘it is cash’, or may say ‘it is whatever you have got in your bank account’. Cash or the amount in a bank is not the definition of money but at the most an alternative expression of money. Money does not do anything by itself. It is just a piece of paper or is simply an entry into your bank account. Money does not satisfy human wants directly. It satisfies wants indirectly only when it is spent. Money is not wanted for its own sake but for the things, it will buy.
In this chapter, you will get a more accurate understanding of money, how money makes transactions easy, the different institutions to borrow money from (credit) and what are the advantages and disadvantages that each of these institutions has.
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1. The system of exchanging goods for other goods is called
Answer: (c) Barter system
2. Currency notes in India are issued by
Answer: (c) RBI
5. Majority of the credit needs of the poor households are met from
Answer: (b) Informal sources
6. Which of the following is not a modern form of money?
Answer: (c) silver coins
II. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What do you mean by the C-C economy?
Answer: The economic system based upon barter is known as Barter Economy or C – C Economy.
2. What was the main difficulty of the barter system?
Answer: The main difficulties of the barter system are:
(i) Double coincidence of wants.
(ii) Lacks a common unit of value.
3. Define money.
Answer: Money is an intermediate in the exchange process. Money is anything that the law accepts as a medium of exchange.
6. What is meant by legal tender money?
Answer: Standard money is legal tender money. It is legal tender in the sense that no one can refuse to accept it.
III. Short Answer Questions
1. Why are demand deposits considered money?
Answer: Banks accept demand deposits and provide cheque facilities to their depositors. Thus, the modern forms of money currency and demand deposits close are linked to the working of the modern banking system. Thus, demand deposits at banks are money.
2. Mention the two functions that a financial institution must perform to become a commercial bank.
Answer: There are two essential functions that a financial institution must perform to become a commercial bank. These are:
(a) Acceptance of demand deposits that have cheque facilities.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1. State the differences between informal and formal sources of credit.
Answer: The differences between informal and formal sources of credit are as follows:
i. There is no organisation that supervises the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector, whereas, in the formal sector, there are governing agencies like Reserve bank of India.
ii. Lenders in the informal sector can lend at whatever interest rate they decide. On the other hand, the lenders in the formal sector have to abide by the predetermined interest rates.
iii. There is no one to stop lenders in the informal sector from using unfair means to get their money back, which is not possible in the formal sector because of the presence of government governing agencies.
iv. Compared to the formal lenders, most of the informal lenders charge a very high interest rate on loans which may vary from 24% to 60% per annum.
v. The objective of the formal sources is social welfare, while the main objective of informal sources is maximizing profit.
vi. Banks and cooperatives are examples of formal sources. On the other hand, moneylenders, traders etc. are examples of informal sources.
2. State any three advantages of formal sector loans.
Answer: Three advantages of formal sector loans are:
(i) Loans from banks and co-operatives are relatively much cheaper’ Interest rate remains around 8 to 12% per annum.
(ii) Mode of repayment of loan is very easy.
(iii) Formal credit saves the borrower from falling into a debt trap.
6. Describe the functioning of SHGs in India.
Answer: A Self Help Group (SHG) has 15-20 members belonging to one neighbourhood and they are formed with the objective of helping poor borrowers overcome the problem of lack of security. The members of the group meet and save regularly. They save from Rs 25 to 100 or more per member. Members can avail small loans from the group to meet their needs. The group charges a reasonable rate of interest. If the SHG is regular in its savings, it becomes eligible for bank loans. The SHG decides regarding loans – the purpose and amount, interest rate, mode of repayment etc. It is the group which is responsible for the repayment of the loan.
Extra/additional questions and answers/solutions
1. What is the Barter System, and how does it work?
Answer: The barter system is an economic system in which products and services are directly exchanged for other goods and services.
2. What are the two limitations of the barter system?
Answer: The two limitations of the barter system are as follows:
i. Double coincident wants: The barter system necessitates the double coincident wants. The seller must discover someone who is interested in purchasing what he has, but the buyer must also have what the seller desires.
ii. Lack of a common unit of value: The second major disadvantage of barter is the lack of a common unit by which to measure and express the value of products and services. The quantity of other goods and services that a good or service may be exchanged for in the market determines its value.
21. What is the significance of credit?
Answer: Credit is critical to a country’s economic development. It refers to an agreement between a lender and a borrower to exchange money, goods, or services in exchange for the promise of future payment. Credit enables the borrower to meet ongoing production expenses, complete production on time, and thus increase his income.
Farmers require credit for crop production, which includes expenses for seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, water, electricity, equipment repair, and so on. There is still a three to four month period in which the farmers must purchase these inputs and repay them when they sell the crop. As a result, farmers typically take crop loans at the start of the season and repay them shortly after harvesting. Credit, on the other hand, can trap a person in debt. This occurs when a crop fails. In such a case, loan repayment becomes impossible.
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