During the last few decades, man has exploited nature to such an extent that environmental equilibrium has been disturbed. The exploding population has added fuel to the fire. Therefore, it has become the duty of all of us to understand the problems and come out with appropriate solutions. Because of this very reason, environmental education was introduced to the students of classes 9 and 10 studying under Nagaland Board of School Education. Here, you will find all the questions of all chapters solved of environmental education class 9.
1. Ecosystem and its types
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 1: The term ecology is derived from two Greek words ‘oikos’ meaning home and ‘ology’ meaning study. Earlier, the common approach to study Biology was to study different species of animals and plants existing on earth. A lot of information regarding the structure and functions of different organisms was collected. But the earlier scientists neglected to study the interactions between different organisms. Human life is completely dependent on the living and non-living organisms around us and in this chapter, we will learn more about this dependency and coexistence.
2. Interaction between biotic and abiotic components
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 2: For the smooth study of the ecosystem, it is customary to study it in terms of its two components. Although these two components of the ecosystem are inseparable and inter-dependable, yet it is convenient to consider them under different headings. Biotic components constitute living organisms like plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. Abiotic components constitute non-living organisms like soil and water.
3. Energy flow and nutrient cycle
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 3: All organisms require energy for working just as a scooter or a car requires petrol for running. A human body requires food for performing normal functions. Food gets metabolised and provides energy in the form of heat. It is found that the sun is the source of all energy on this earth. Green plants make use of the phenomenon of photosynthesis to prepare their food. Here carbon dioxide and water in the plant are converted into carbohydrates (food ) using solar energy. This energy then is passed on to other organisms.
4. Destruction of ecosystem and its impact
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 4: Man is closely related to an ecosystem and is dependent on it for his requirements of air, water, and food. A balance is required to be maintained between various components of the ecosystem so that everything goes on smoothly. Man, being selfish by nature, is trying to outrage the modesty of nature by following ways that go against the natural equilibrium. This has started showing signs of environmental degradation. If one component of an ecosystem vanishes or even decreases in quantity or numbers, it leads to disturbance of ecological balance.
5. Conservation of ecosystem
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 5: Conservation may be defined as man’s planned and regulated management to prevent the destruction or exploitation of the environment. When we talk about conservation of ecosystems we mean two things, which are conservation of living beings i.e. plants and animals, and conservation of non-living things like atmosphere, soil, water bodies, etc.
6. Role of EIA
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 6: There has been widespread exploitation of natural resources, particularly in the last fifty years. This has been caused by industrialisation, urbanisation and associated construction of big buildings, schools, colleges, and hospitals. Reckless conversion of forest cover for development purposes has brought the environment to a dangerous point. We have to check this malady on a war footing if this earth has to remain a fit place for living. This is where the role of environmental impact assessment appears.
7. Natural resources
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 7: Natural resources means resources provided by nature. And these resources are indispensable for humans, other animals, and plants. We just can’t think of the survival of animal and plant life without these natural resources. Some of these are land, water, air, minerals, forests, etc. These resources are not equally distributed all over the earth. Some areas have more forests while others may have more minerals. A proper mix of these resources ensures a balanced environment. In this chapter, we will learn about natural resources, their availability, and conservation.
8. Depletion of resources, cause and impact
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 8: Natural resources are something that we require, for all times to come, to sustain life and growth. If we spend our resources recklessly that would amount to wasting natural resources. We have limited assets of minerals and fossil fuels. If we don’t keep a check on the use of automobiles, or on the use of other sources of energy like electricity, we shall be doomed one day. There is a need to adopt alternative and renewable sources of energy like solar energy, wind energy, and biogas. Although we may feel slightly uncomfortable to adjust to new technologies, there is no way out if the ecological balance is to be maintained and if the life cycle is to continue.
9. Practices for conservation of resources
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 9: It has now been amply realized that the situation will go out of control and this world will not be a fit place to live if serious efforts are not made to stop the rapid depletion of natural resources. Also, we have to put a curb on the use of fossil fuels and look for alternative and renewable sources of energy. Conservation of resources does not mean that we have to stop using the resources altogether. Conservation means preservation, maintenance, restoration, and sustainable utilisation of resources. If the natural resources are conserved in the true spirit, there is no danger to balance in the environment.
10. Sources and classification of waste
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 10: The useless leftover or discarded materials are called wastes. By waste, we imply the material which is no longer required or which has become useless. Dead plants and animals, the products of metabolic activities of humans and other animals are waste materials. By-products of various industrial units which are useless and not required are also considered wastes. Although all waste materials are not harmful products, a majority of them are. It is desired to treat the waste before it is let into the atmosphere, soil, or water. Waste treatment and management play a key role in keeping the environment clean.
11. Impact of waste accumulation
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 11: With the technological and economic advancement, the amount of consumption of materials has increased. The worn-out material becomes waste and is replaced by the new material. Industrial units manufacturing different kinds of products produce huge amounts of wastes in the form of by-products. Agricultural activity which uses fertilizers and insecticides is responsible for the transfer of these materials to the waterways, thereby causing pollution of water. Many tons of garbage are thrown out as domestic waste in each town every day. This domestic waste pollutes the land very badly, spoiling the landscape and resulting in the spread of epidemics and diseases. With the change in the type of materials, the type of waste has also changed with time.
12. Need for management of waste and methods of safe disposal
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 12: We are an advanced society today. A number of technological developments have taken place. It has become possible to raise the efficiency of the machines with constant research and development. With the rise in the consumption of materials, there has been a proportionate rise in the creation of waste also. We h ave not been able to find a lasting solution to the disposal of waste. This is one area that has been haunting us continuously. With the rise of our living standard and increase in comfort, the natural resources have been dwindling and the environment is getting polluted beyond control. If we have to keep this planet worth living for us and our future generations, we have to think seriously towards conserving our resources, protecting our environment, and minimising the waste creation.
13. Human rights, fundamental duties and value education
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 13: A moral, legal, or environmental claim to live, to have or receive something or to behave in a particular way is called right. Humans have moral, legal, or environmental claims to live, to have or to get a share in natural resources or to behave in a particular way as they would be done by others is called human rights. In this chapter, we will learn about human rights, fundamental rights, and more.
14. Women and child affair
Introduction to Environmental Education Class 9 chapter 14: Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free at least at primary and secondary school. Primary school education shall be compulsory. Higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. Following the above international guidelines, India has also made primary education compulsory. Education is free for girls, in government schools, up to high school, senior secondary school, or degree college, depending upon the state in India as education is a state subject. In spite of all these liberties, we find that a large number of children remain uneducated. The situation is worse with a girl child. Over 60 percent of the primary school age group children are not going to schools. The chapter is focused on the empowerment of women.