Here are the notes/solutions/answers to the questions for political science and economics (social science) chapter 1 Indian Democracy of class 10 (HSLC) for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA). These notes/answers, however, should only be used for references and modifications/changes can be made wherever possible.
Introduction to the chapter Indian Democracy: The Indian Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950. From 15 August 1947 to 26 January 1950, India was governed under the Government of India Act, 1935. The words “Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, and Republic” are significant in the Preamble. There is no mention of ‘Federation’ in the Indian constitution because it has not been modelled after the model of true federation found in the United States of America. Instead, in Article No. 1 of the Constitution, India is declared to be a Union of States. The Government of India Act of 1935 also introduced, in a limited form, the parliamentary form of government in pre-independence India.
Very short answer questions of Indian Democracy
1. Which political party won the elections held in 1945 in England?
Answer: The labour party won the elections held in 1945 in England.
2. When did the “Cabinet Mission” come to India?
Answer: The “Cabinet Mission” came to India in March 1946.
3. Who was the first Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer: Dr Sacchidananda Sinha was the first Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.
8. Is there a Dual citizenship system in India?
Answer: No, there is no dual citizenship system in India.
9. From which country’s constitution has the concept of India’s Parliamentary democracy been followed?
Answer: The concept of India’s Parliamentary democracy has been followed from the UK.
Short answer questions of Indian Democracy
1. Why did the British government send the Cabinet Mission to India?
Answer: The British government sent the Cabinet Mission to India because the Labor Party Government of England felt the utmost necessity of a constitution for the new democratic state i.e. India.
2. According to which Act, India’s administration was governed between 15 August 1947 to 26 January 1950 and who enacted this Act?
Answer: India was governed in accordance with the provisions of the Govt. of India Act, 1935, between the period from 15 August 1947 to 26 January 1950 enacted by the Indian Government.
6. What is meant by a “Quasi-federal” state?
Answer: A quasi-federal state is a type of state that exists between a unitary state and a federation. It combines the characteristics of a federal government with those of a unitary government. India is classified as a semi-federal or quasi-federal state.
7. Which Indian Act had introduced limited Parliamentary democracy in pre-independence India?
Answer: The Govt. of India Act, 1935 had introduced a parliamentary form of government in a limited form in pre-independence India.
Long answer questions of Indian Democracy
1. Discuss how the ideals of the Indian Constitution have been manifested in its Preamble.
Answer: The Preamble serves as the constitution’s introduction. The Indian constitution’s preamble is regarded as its soul, conscience, threshold, and keys. Every word in the Preamble that begins, “We the people of India,” has a specific meaning and ideal. The Indian constitution’s drafters paid close attention to incorporating every aspect of rich ancient Indian culture and civilization as guiding principles into the document’s pages. Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, and Republic are important words in the preamble. All of these words exemplify the constitution’s ideals and spirit.
2. Write in detail about what is meant by sovereign, socialist, secular, Democratic and Republic.
Answer: Sovereign: India is a Sovereign state. Sovereignty is the supreme and absolute power of the state. In other words, externally India is not “subordinate to any foreign power nor is India directed by any other force internally.”
Socialist: The word denotes that there will be no inequality among Indians in terms of income, status, or standard of living. All modes of production and means of production would be nationalised. Socialism will be established through equal distribution of national income and a mixed economy. The national economy will be determined by the people. The economy of the country shall not be guided by any capitalist class of people.
Secular: India is a secular country. In India, there shall be no official or state religion. All religions are equal in the eyes of the government, and as such, there shall be no religious discrimination. The government shall not take a special interest in or make concessions to any religion.
Democratic: India is a democratic country. The country’s administration shall be governed by elected representatives of the people. The people will administer the country on their own behalf, and the administration will be accountable to the people.
Republic: India is a republic. The people will elect the state’s leader. The position of Head of State shall not be hereditary, nor shall it be filled by a person chosen by someone.
5. Explain the important characteristics of the parliamentary form of government in India.
Answer: The important characteristics of the parliamentary form of government in India are:
i) The Indian parliamentary democracy makes India a Republic. Unlike in England, the Head of the state in India’s parliamentary democracy is not a hereditary person. While England’s Head, King or Queen, is a hereditary one, India’s Head of the state is a person elected by the people.
ii) The power and composition pattern of the Upper House (Rajya Sabha) of India is quite different from that of the Upper House (House of Lords) of England.
iii) The Parliament of England is the most powerful in the parliamentary democratic system. But India’s parliament is not so powerful. Ultimately, the Indian constitution has created parliamentary democracy making it suitable to the Indian situation, which has been able to present India as a distinguished parliamentary democratic country in front of the world.