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Introduction to the chapter International Organisation – The United Nations Organisation and Others: On October 24, 1945, the United Nations Organization (UNO) was established. Every year, the 24th of October is designated as UN DAY. The UN charter contains a total of three (3) Articles. The United Nations Organization has six organs: (1) the General Assembly (2) the Security Council (3) the Economic and Social Organization (4) the Trusteeship Council (5) the International Court of Justice (6) the Secretariat. The United Nations’ step toward eradicating a warlike environment among the world’s countries through disarmament is significant and laudable. On December 10, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Human Rights Declaration with the support of 48 UNO member states. The National Human Rights Commission was established by an ordinance signed by the president on September 28, 1993. It became an act on January 8, 1994.
Very short answer questions of International Organisation – The United Nations Organisation and Others
1. Why was the UNO formed?
Answer: The United Nations Organization was established to ensure global peace and to avert another world war. The magnitude of the devastation caused by the Second World War terrified the world population, prompting them to consider the formation of a global organisation.
2. Mention two objectives of the UNO.
Answer: Two objectives of the UNO are:
i. To maintain international peace and security.
ii. To foster friendly relations among all countries around the world based on equal rights and self-determination.
3. Give the name of the UN organs.
Answer: The six organs of the UNO are:
i. General Assembly
ii. Security Council
iii. Economic and Social Council
iv. Trusteeship Council
v. International Court of Justice (ICJ)
4. Give the name of the two agencies related to the UNO.
Answer: The two agencies related to the UNO are:
i. International Labour Organization (ILO)
ii. World Health Organisation (WHO)
5. Give the name of two treaties that were signed on disarmament.
Answer: Two treaties that were signed on disarmament are:
i. Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963
ii. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, 1963
6. What is meant by human rights?
Answer: The conditions which are essential for each Individual of the world to live a dignified life are termed Human Rights.
Long answer questions of International Organisation – The United Nations Organisation and Others
1. Discuss the aims of the UNO for which it came into existence and also discuss its principles.
Answer: The aims/objectives of the UNO are:
(i) To maintain international peace and security.
(ii) To build friendly relations among all countries of the world on the basis of equal rights and self-determination.
(iii) To resolve existing economic, social and cultural problems and disputed issues on the basis of international cooperation so that each person can enjoy human rights and fundamental rights.
(iv) To act as the centre of excellence to build good and cordial relations with various countries.
The principles of the UNO are:
(i) Formed on the principle of equal sovereignty of all member countries.
(ii) All the member states should execute their duties and responsibilities by obeying the rules as mentioned in the UN charter.
(iii) All the member states should resolve their disputes in a peaceful manner without affecting international peace, security and justice.
(iv) All the member states should avoid the threat or use of force against any state so as to maintain cordial international relations.
(v) All the member states should help and extend support to the UNO whenever required and should not help a particular state which is facing UNO’s punitive action.
2. Write a note on the security council of the UNO.
Answer: The Security Council is the United Nations’ most important organ. When the United Nations Organization was founded, it had five permanent member states and six temporary member states. The permanent members are the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and China. By amending the 23rd article of the UN Charter in 1963, the number of temporary member states was increased from six to ten. The general assembly elects the temporary members. Each permanent member state has the right to use its veto. To make a decision on an important matter, at least nine members, including five permanent members, must agree.
3. Discuss the steps taken by the UNO on world peace.
Answer: The steps taken by the UNO on world peace are:
(i) Disarmament Commission: The UNO had established the Disarmament Commission in January 1952 to remove war-like situations among the world nations.
(ii) Treaties: The UNO has accorded treaties like the partial Nuclear Non – Proliferation Treaty (1968), the seabed control treaty (1972), Salt-I (1972), Salt-II (1979), Nuclear Arms Control Treaty (1993), the START-I (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty 1991) and START-I (1993) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) (1996).
(iii) Preventive Diplomacy: The UNO adopted preventive diplomacy in June 2007 to resolve disputes through discussion and promote world peace.
4. Write a note regarding National Human Rights Commission in India.
Answer: The National Human Rights Commission was set up on 28 September 1993 in India through an ordinance by the president of India. On 8 January 1994, the Human Rights Protection Act 1993, came into force. State Human Rights Commissions have also been set up in the provinces.
The members of the commission should possess the following qualifications:
i. The chairman of the commission should be a retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
ii. One member should be a serving or be a retired Judge of the Supreme Court.
iii. One member should be a serving or be a retired Chief Justice of any High Court.
iv. Two members are those who have knowledge and experience in human rights activities as activists.
The respective chairman of the National Minority Commission, Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes National Women’s Commission should be the members of the commission. The members of the commission are appointed for a term of five years by the president of India.
5. Discuss the steps taken by the UNO regarding Human Rights.
Answer: The United Nations Organization (UNO) emphasised human rights, as well as cooperation and a peaceful environment among member nations. The Human Rights Declaration was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, with the support of 48 member states to secure human rights for all people to live a dignified life. The Human Rights Declaration’s goals are as follows:
i. To secure the rights of the individuals that have been incorporated in the declaration.
ii. To give due recognition to the above-mentioned rights by the member states.
Thus, UNO has taken positive steps to secure dignified human life for each individual and has made clear that no state can secure international peace and security by depriving its citizens of their human rights. 10 December is observed as International Human Rights Day.
Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions
1. Mention the permanent member states of the Security Council.
Answer: The permanent member states of the Security Council are America, Great Britain, France, Russia, and China.
2. When was the League of Nations formed and why?
Answer: The League of Nations was formed in 1914. It was formed with the aim of maintaining world peace after World War I and permanently putting an end to war.
3. When is the UN Day observed?
Answer: The United Nations Day is observed on 24 October.
4. When was the UNO formed?
Answer: The United Nations Organization was formed on 24 October 1945.
5. How many states signed in the San Francisco Conference?
Answer: Altogether 51 states signed in the San Francisco Conference.
35. What are the aims and objectives of the Economic and Social Council?
Answer: The aims and objectives of the Economic and Social Council are:
i. To improve the living standard of people.
ii. To solve the problem of unemployment.
iii. To create the way for social and economic progress.
iv. To solve health-related problems.
v. To create cooperation among nations in the field of education and culture.
36. Mention two functions shared by the General Assembly and the Security Council.
i. The Secretary-General and the Judges of the International Court of Justice are appointed with the consent of these two organs.
ii. The entry of new members depends on the agreement and approval of both the organs.
37. When did World War I break out?
Answer: In the year 1914 World War I broke out.
38. When did World War II break out?
Answer: On 1 September 1939 World War II broke out.
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