Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, additional/extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 (madhyamik) Social Science (Geography/Contemporary India II) Chapter “Manufacturing Industries.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.
Manufacturing is the process of producing goods in large quantities from raw materials to more valuable products. The chapter discusses the importance of manufacturing industries in the secondary sector, which is responsible for manufacturing primary materials into finished goods.
The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries. The manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of economic development because it helps modernize agriculture, reduces the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors, eradicates unemployment and poverty, and expands trade and commerce by exporting manufactured goods. Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are prosperous.
The agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity. They depend on the latter for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers. Thus, the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry has not only assisted agriculturists in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient.
In the present day world of globalization, manufacturing industries need to be more efficient and competitive. Self-sufficiency alone is not enough. Manufactured goods must be at par in quality with those in the international market. Only then, will a country be able to compete in the international market. Therefore, India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.
The manufacturing sector in India has stagnated at 17% of GDP over the last two decades, with a total of 27% for the industry which includes mining, quarrying, electricity, and gas. In comparison, some East Asian economies have a manufacturing sector share of 25-35%. However, since 2003, manufacturing has been growing at a rate of 9-10% per annum and the desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%. The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up with the objective of achieving this target through appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity.
Industrial locations in India are complex and influenced by the availability of raw materials, labor, capital, power, and market. Manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are available or can be arranged at a lower cost. After an industrial activity starts, urbanization follows. Cities provide markets and services such as banking, insurance, transport, labor, consultants, and financial advice to the industry. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centers known as agglomeration economies.
The textile industry in India occupies a unique position in the Indian economy, contributing significantly to industrial production (14%), employment generation (35 million persons directly), and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6%). It contributes 4% towards GDP and is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain, i.e., from raw material to the highest value-added products.
In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat, where availability of raw cotton, market, transport, including accessible port facilities, labor, and moist climate contributed towards its localization. While spinning continues to be centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu, weaving is highly decentralized to incorporate traditional skills and designs of weaving in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery, etc. India has world-class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality fabric as it cannot use much of the high-quality yarn produced in the country. Weaving is done by handloom, powerloom, and in mills, and the handspun khadi provides large-scale employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry.
India is a major exporter of cotton yarn, with a capacity of 43.13 million spindles, second only to China. However, the weaving, knitting, and processing units are not able to use much of the high-quality yarn produced in the country. As a result, apparel and garment manufacturers have to import fabric. The industry is also facing challenges such as erratic power supply, outdated machinery, low labor output, and competition with synthetic fiber. India also has a significant jute industry, with most mills located in West Bengal along the banks of the Hugli river. The industry faces stiff competition from synthetic substitutes and other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt, and Thailand. The government’s policy of mandatory use of jute packaging has increased internal demand, and the growing global concern for environment-friendly, biodegradable materials has opened up opportunities for jute products.
India is the second-largest sugar producer in the world but leads in the production of gur and khandsari. The industry relies on bulky raw materials, which results in reduced sucrose content during transportation. Sixty percent of the country’s 662 sugar mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, making the industry suitable for the cooperative sector due to its seasonal nature. The mills are gradually shifting to southern and western states like Maharashtra, where the cooler climate and higher sucrose content of the cane lead to longer crushing seasons and more successful cooperatives.
Mineral-based industries use minerals and metals as raw materials, with the iron and steel industry being the basic industry that other sectors rely on. Steel is essential in manufacturing machinery, construction materials, defense, medical, scientific, and consumer goods. Iron ore, coking coal, and limestone are required in the ratio of approximately 4:2:1, and the finished products need an efficient transportation network for distribution to the markets and consumers. India ranked third among world crude steel producers, with 95.6 million tonnes of crude steel production in 2016. However, per capita consumption of steel in India was only 63 kg per annum, significantly lower than the world average of 208 kg.
The Chhotanagpur plateau region has the highest concentration of iron and steel industries due to low iron ore costs, high-grade raw materials in proximity, cheap labor, and vast growth potential in the home market. However, India faces challenges in reaching its full potential in the industry, including limited availability and high costs of coking coal, lower labor productivity, irregular energy supply, and poor infrastructure. While India imports good quality steel from other countries, liberalization and foreign direct investment have given a boost to the industry, and private entrepreneurs have made efforts to improve steel production competitiveness through research and development.
The metallurgical industry in India is centered around aluminium smelting, which is the second most important industry in the country. Aluminium is a lightweight, corrosion-resistant metal that is an excellent conductor of heat and is used to manufacture a variety of products, such as aircraft, utensils, and wires. In 2014-15, India produced approximately 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium, with smelting plants located in several states across the country. The chemical industry is also rapidly growing and contributes around 3% to India’s GDP. It includes both large and small-scale manufacturing units and produces inorganic and organic chemicals, including sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash, and caustic soda.
The chemical industry is its largest consumer and produces chemicals used for industrial applications, agriculture, and consumer markets. The fertiliser industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers, phosphatic fertilisers, and complex fertilisers. India is the third-largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers, with manufacturing units spread across the country. The cement industry is also essential for construction activities and requires bulky raw materials such as limestone, silica, and gypsum. The first cement plant was established in Chennai in 1904, and the industry has since expanded rapidly. The industry is doing well in terms of production and export, with efforts being made to generate adequate domestic demand and supply to sustain it.
India’s manufacturing industry has seen significant growth in recent years, particularly in the automobile and information technology and electronics sectors. The liberalization of the industry and the introduction of new models led to increased demand for vehicles and the growth of the passenger car, two and three-wheeler markets. The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to televisions, telephones, and computers, with Bengaluru emerging as the electronic capital of India. The industry has been a major foreign exchange earner due to its fast-growing business processes outsourcing sector. However, the growth of industry has also led to environmental degradation through air, water, land, and noise pollution. Industries are also responsible for thermal power plant pollution.
Air, water, and soil pollution are major environmental problems caused by industrial and human activities. Air pollution is mainly caused by the release of harmful gases and particulate matter from factories and the burning of fossil fuels. Toxic gas leaks can have long-term effects on human health and the environment. Water pollution is caused by the discharge of organic and inorganic waste materials into rivers and other water bodies by industries such as paper, chemical, textile, and dyeing. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling, which can have adverse effects on aquatic life. Nuclear waste from power plants and weapon production facilities can cause cancer, birth defects, and miscarriages. Soil pollution is caused by the dumping of waste materials, which can render the soil useless and contaminate groundwater. All these forms of pollution have adverse effects on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the environment as a whole.
Overexploitation of groundwater reserves by industries must be legally regulated to protect groundwater resources. To reduce particulate matter in the air, factories can install smoke stacks with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers, and inertial separators. Using oil or gas instead of coal can also reduce smoke emissions. Machinery and equipment can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise, and generators can be fitted with silencers. To further reduce noise, noise-absorbing materials can be used, and individuals can use earplugs or headphones. Achieving sustainable development requires balancing economic development with environmental concerns.
Textual questions and answers
1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material.
Answer: (b) Cement
(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(c) TATA Steel
Answer: (b) SAIL
(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium Smelting
Answer: (a) Aluminium Smelting
(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc.
(c) Aluminium Smelting
(d) Information Technology
Answer: (b) Electronic
2. Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.
(i) What is manufacturing?
Answer:Manufacturing is the process of transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value.
(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
Answer: The three physical factors for the location of an industry are availability of raw materials, access to transportation and communication networks, and access to power and water.
(iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
Answer: The three human factors for the location of an industry are availability of skilled labor, access to markets, and government incentives.
(iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.
Answer: Basic industries are those which supply their products as raw materials to manufacture other goods, such as iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting. An example of a basic industry is the steel industry.
(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?
Answer: The important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement are limestone, clay, sand, iron ore, and gypsum.
3. Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.
(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
Answer: Mini steel plants are smaller in size and use electric furnaces to produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications. They use steel scrap and sponge iron, and have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. Integrated steel plants are larger and handle everything from raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping in one complex. The industry faces problems such as high cost of production, lower productivity of labour, irregular supply of energy and poor infrastructure. Recent developments such as liberalisation and foreign direct investment have given a boost to the industry, leading to an increase in production capacity. Furthermore, investments in research and development have allowed for the production of steel more competitively.
(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?
Answer: Industries are responsible for four types of pollution: air, water, land, and noise. Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportions of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers. Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects. Land pollution is caused by the dumping of industrial waste, which can contaminate soil and water, and also cause health problems. Noise pollution is caused by machines, vehicles, and other sources of loud sound. All of these forms of pollution can have a negative impact on the environment, leading to a degradation of air, water, and land quality.
(iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?
Answer: There are a number of steps that can be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry. Firstly, industries should adopt clean production processes that use fewer resources and generate less waste. Secondly, industries should invest in renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and geothermal, to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. Thirdly, industries should implement waste management systems to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste materials. Fourthly, industries should invest in research and development to develop new technologies that are more efficient and less damaging to the environment. Finally, industries should develop and implement policies that promote environmental sustainability and responsible resource management.
Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letters in each word are hinted in brackets.
(i) Used to drive machinery (5) P………………………
(ii) People who work in a factory (6) W……………………..
(iii) Where the product is sold (6) M……………………..
(iv) A person who sells goods (8) R………………………
(v) Thing produced (7) P………………………
(vi) To make or produce (11) M……………………..
(vii) Land, Water and Air degraded (9) P………………………
Answer: (i) Power (ii) Workers (iii) Market (iv) Retailer (v) Product (vi) Manufacture (vii) Pollution
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