Here are the solutions, questions, answers, and notes of chapter 10: Map Reading (Including Drawing and Insertion) which is a part of social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.
INTRODUCTION: When we think of maps we generally mean a two-dimensional representation of the earth or a part of it. In other words, maps are the representation of a geographical area, usually a portion of the Earth’s surface, drawn or printed on a flat surface. Maps have been made since ancient times. The Greeks and the Romans in ancient times first popularised map making.
Map reading means analyzing the map by interpreting the various symbols used in the construction of a map. It is the translation of symbols, colours and conventional symbols back to the original features, they represent.
Although a sketch requires less interpretation and is readily understood by a layman, yet compared with an exact map it has a great disadvantage. In it, the scale diminishes with the distance and it shows only the side of the picture which is in front of you. On the other hand, a map is drawn to scale and reproduces the correct delineation along with their actual latitudes and longitudes.
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. Early maps were based on:
Answer: (a) Astronomical determination
2. The White colour on a map denotes:
Answer: (c) Ucultivable land
3. The art and science of map-making is called
Answer: (b) Cartography
4. A line drawn on the map joining places of equal temperature is called an
Answer: (a) Isotherm
5. A line drawn on a map connecting places experiencing an equal amount of atmospheric pressure is called
Answer: (d) Isobar
6. By which colour water bodies like oceans, seas, lakes, are shown on a map?
Answer: (a) Blue
7. Which of the following is not a cardinal direction?
Answer: (d) North-East
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions.
1. What is a map?
Answer: A map is a representation of a part or whole of the Earth’s surface drawn according to a scale on a plain sheet of paper, cloth or wood.
2. What is meant by scale?
Answer: A scale is a ratio between a distance measured on a map and the corresponding distance on the surface, connecting two given points, represented by the same unit.
3. Why are conventional symbols so called?
Answer: They are called conventional because the design and shape of these symbols have been laid down by mutual agreement among nations.
4. What is the importance of colour in a map?
Answer: The colours represent particular features and are more useful for representation of information and reading of survey maps.
5. Name the four intermediate directions.
Answer: Four intermediate directions are North-West (NW), North-East (NE), South-East (SE), and South-West (SW).
6. Name the two main types of map.
Answer: The two main types of maps are physical maps and cultural maps.
7. What is meant by ‘Linear Scale’?
Answer: A linear scale is a graphic line drawn on the map. Each division of the scale represents a certain distance on the ground.
8. What is meant by Representative Fraction?
Answer: It is similar to ratio proportion but may indicate the same result by a mathematical formula.
III. Short Answer Type Questions.
1. Briefly describe the importance of maps.
Answer: Maps are important for the following reasons:
i. Maps are essential for locating places on Earth.
ii. Maps help in locating resources, their mining and for comparing reserves.
iii. Maps are an essential tourist aid.
iv. Maps help us to measure distances and geographical differences.
v. Maps are an essential management tool.
vi. By drawing flow lines one can know the direction of rivers, winds, traffic movements, etc.
2. Explain any two ways of representing scale.
Answer: Two ways of representing scale are:
i. Ratio proportion method: In this case, 1 unit on the map may represent several thousand units on the ground.
ii. linear scale: In this case, a graphic line is drawn on the map.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions.
1. Describe the essential elements of map-making.
Answer: The essential elements of map making are:
i. Scale: A scale is a ratio between a distance measured on a map and the corresponding distance on the surface connecting two given points, represented by the same unit.
ii. Conventional Symbols: These are commonly used symbols to avoid crowding of information on a map.
iii. Colour: The colours represent particular features and are more useful for representation of information and reading of survey maps.
2. Give the importance and function of colour on maps.
Answer: The colours represent particular features and are more useful for representation of information and reading of survey maps. Important colours may mean the following:
Blue: Oceans, seas, lakes and other water bodies.
Yellow: Cultivable land on a survey map. On Atlas maps, it may mean rough land.
White: Uncultivable land on survey maps and unvegetated land on Atlas maps.
Green: Forest area, grasslands etc.
Red: Settlements huts on survey maps.
3. What is known as cultural maps? Explain the different types of cultural maps.
Answer: Maps that have a specific purpose and content are called Cultural Maps. They may show the distribution of population, crops, etc.
A few different types of cultural maps are:
i. Population maps: These maps show the density of population in a particular regions.
ii. Literacy maps: These maps are developed to show the variations of literacy in a defined region.
iii. Religious maps: Religious maps show the concentration of people following different religions in a region.
4. Why are conventional signs not drawn to scale?
Answer: A variety of features, both natural and manmade are depicted with the help of symbols on the topographical sheet. These are called conventional signs and are accepted universally. These symbols cannot be drawn to scale as maps are representations of places on papers and it is impossible for conventional signs to be drawn to scale as they represent massive structures or places.
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