NBSE Class 9 Nagaland (Social Science) notes

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Here, you will find the notes for the of NBSE Class 9 Nagaland (Social Science) subject for students studying under Nagaland Board. If you are looking for social science notes of NBSE class 9, get them here. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.

1. Write a short note on the origin of the word Naga.

Answer: Originally, the Nagas did not call themselves by that name. It was people outside who gave the name Naga to them. As early as 150 AD Greek scholar Claudius Ptolemy in his geographia referred to Nagaland as “Nagalogoi’ which means the realm of the naked.

Many scholars have researched the origin and meaning of the word Naga. A group of scholars says that the term is probably derived from the word NOK on NOKA which means folk or people in some tribal languages. Others say that the word is from Sanskrit word ‘nanga’ which means naked. Another plausible theory as to the origin of the word is from the Burmese word NAKA which means pierced ears. Both Naga men and women have the tradition of piercing their ears for earrings.

But whatever their origin may be, the Nagas today are proud to be called Nagas. They accept the fact that they belong to an old and proud race known as the Naga.

2. Write a short note on the sources and routes of migration of Nagas.

Answer: It is generally accepted that the Naga race is the result of the coming together of tribes originating in China. One theory is that the Nagas came with groups of migrant tribes who moved towards South East Asia from China through the Himalayan section. This theory proposes that the Nagas settled in the Naga Hills en route, while the rest of the tribes continued their journey southwards towards South East Asia.

The other theory suggests that the Naga race originated from a group of tribes who moved up from South East Asia. Oral sources and all the weight of tradition point to migration from the south. All the Naga tribes are fond of cowries and conch shells which they use as ornaments. This may point to a bygone settlement near the sea.

3. Write a short note on the migration of Nagas in the Naga Hills.

Answer: The Nagas entered the present Nagaland in successive groups through Myanmar. From oral sources such as folklore, legends and traditions, Many Naga tribes trace their origin back to the village of Khezhakenoma in Nagaland and Maikhel in Manipur. It is most probable that the Angamis, the Chakhesangs, the Sumis, the Rengmas and the Lothas formed one wave of migration. Although the legends of Khezhakenoma and Maikhel are generally accepted by most of the Naga tribes, viz- Angami, Chakhesang, Lotha, Rengma, Sumi, and, Zeliang, some tribes have their own versions of these legends.

4. Write a short note on the advance of Nagas in the 20th century.

Answer: In the 20th century, the Nagas experienced great social and political change. From centuries of isolation, the Nagas suddenly woke up to face a world that was fast changing. This traumatic experience of change resulted in a cultural shock.

For the first time, the tribes produced university graduates, doctors, engineers, and political thinkers. Western ideas and western religion, western music and philosophies began to influence the Naga world outlook. There were cries for greater and nobler things. Many of these factors were to lead the Nagas into a new era. They also realised the importance of unity. The first Pan-Naga organisation known as the Naga Club was formed in 1918.

During the 1950’s and 60’s, Nagaland passed through a reign of terror when an undeclared war was waged between the Indian Army and the Naga army. The confrontation eventually resulted in the formation of the state of Nagaland on December 1, 1963.

5. Write a short note on the coming of Christianity in Nagaland.

Answer: The arrival of missionaries in Nagaland transformed Naga history. Rev. Miles Bronson was the first missionary to the Nagas. He was the missionary to the Ao Nagas. He and Godulla, an Assamese Christian, taught the first Naga Christians how to read and write. The progress of Christianity in Nagaland in the 19th Century was very slow as the attitude of the Nagas towards the missionaries was hostile in the beginning. Those who converted to Christianity were persecuted by their clan and sometimes by the whole village.

But the activities of the missionaries were not merely confined to conversion. They carried out other social activities such as medical care and formal education. Slowly, the Nagas responded to the simplicity and the logic of the new religion. Christianity has been the single most dynamic factor in modernising Naga Society. It opened the door for the Nagas to think in a global context and brought them into the fold of a world-family.

6. Write a short note on Ahom-Naga relationship.

Answer: The Nagas and Ahoms where good neighbours. Two Nations lived as neighbours for hundreds of years. The Ahoms led by their chief Sukhapa entered Assam in the 13 century via the Naga Hills which led to many confrontations with the Nagas. The Nagas were, however, defeated.

Soon after the establishment of a new Kingdom by Sukhapa, the Ahoms developed a new attitude towards the neighbours. So the Ahom kings adopted the method of maintaining peace with the Nagas; they invited the Naga Chiefs to their capital and gave them presents as tokens of friendship. Soon trade developd between the Nagas and the Ahoms. One of the main results of this trade relationship was the development of a lingua franca for the Naga. The naga traders learned a broken Assamese known as Naga-Assamese. Later it was shortened to Nagamese.

There where special markets for the Nagas known as Kataki. There were even marriages between the Nagas and the Ahoms. The Nagas were good fighters, and the Ahoms sometimes enlisted Nagas in their army to fight in wars. The Ahoms also constructed a road called Longmoi Ali (Naga Road).

7. Write a short note on the British colonization of the Naga Hills.

Answer: In the 19th century, Great Britain had become the most powerful nation in the world. It was in 1832 when two British captains, Francis Jenkins, and R.B. Pemberton travelled through Angami territory with a party of 700 soldiers and 800 coolies in search of a route between Manipur in Assam.

The British Authorities at Calcutta were reluctant to invade the Naga Hills because of its dense forests and bad communications. But when the British came to know that the King of Manipur was in favour of extending his kingdom over the Naga tribes, the British became cautious. This compelled the British to enter into the Naga areas. After this, the British led various expeditions but were not successful. But the Nagas never forgot what the British had done to them. They decided to take revenge and throughout the 19th century, there was constant fighting. All these caused the British to decide to use their superior forces to annex the Naga areas to their empire.

The Nagas fought bravely to defend their fatherland but their weapons were no match for the technologically superior British weapons. The British formed a new district known as Naga Hills in 1866. This became a district of Assam.

8. Write a short note on the Battle of Kohima.

Answer: The Battle of Kohima was fought between the Imperial Japanese Army and the Allied troops. The forces of Japan invaded India in early 1944. On the 4th April 1944, the first contact between the Allied troops and the Japanese army took place at Aradura, Kohima (now the site of the Cathedral). By 5th April, Kohima was surrounded by the Japanese forces. The Japanese Army numbering more than 10000 men slowly encircled Kohima and established posts at different locations. The Allied troops were slowly pushed up towards the Garrison Hill (now Raj Bhavan) and fierce battles were fought. There were shortages of ammunition and food supply as the only road from Dimapur to Kohima was cut off outside Zubza. Many noncombatants (clerks, drivers, cooks) had to take up rifle and fire at the enemy to defend themselves. The 2nd Division of the British Army reached Kohima on the 18th April and slowly drove away the Japanese forces. The casualties on both sides were very heavy. In the Kohima War Cemetry lies buried the gallant defenders of Kohima. There are 1421 graves of Christians, Muslims, Hindus, and Jews.

At the bottom of the Kohima War Cemetry is the memorial of the 2nd Division with the names of the soldiers who gave their lives in the Battle of Kohima inscribed on stone panels. The famous epitaph on the memorial says “When you go home, tell them of us and say, for your tomorrow we gave our today”.

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