Nationalism in India

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Here you will find all the questions and solutions of chapter 3 Nationalism in India of Social Science for class 10 for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.

INTRODUCTION of Nationalism in India: In India, as in Indochina, people discovered unity in fighting the colonial oppressors. People, belonging to different groups and classes came together to fight a common enemy i.e., the British. It was not easy to do so, each had different ideas, each had suffered in different ways under oppression. It took a long time for people to come together. Gandhiji was successful in bringing various groups under one banner. But before this happened, nationalism in India had undergone many changes.

The First World War was a turning point in the history of the Indian National Movement. First of all the war had created economic problems for the people of India. The people of India had suffered under the burden of a war fought by the British against their enemies. India had financed the war expenditure by paying increased taxes, custom duties and a higher income tax. There was an alarming rise in prices between 1914 and 1918, which made the common people suffer great hardships. People, especially in rural areas, were forced to enter the armed forces. Famines in 1918-19 and 1920-21 had added to the misery of the people as there was an acute shortage of food. Epidemics followed in the wake of famines and, it was reported by the Census of 1 921, more than 13 million people died due to famines and epidemics.

Politically, the First World War gave a big shock to imperialism in India. It aroused a desire for freedom in Indians and the new generation of nationalists began looking for new ways to overthrow the British Rule.

I. Multiple Choice Questions of Nationalism in India

1. which was the first satyagraha launched by Gandhiji in India?

Answer: (a) Champaran Satyagraha

2. Baba Ramchandra was :

Answer: (d) All the above

3. The Indian independence League was formed by

Answer: (c) Ras Behari Bose

4. The leader of the peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh was

Answer: (c) Alluri Sitaram Raju

II. Very Short Answer Questions of Nationalism in India

1. When did Gandhiji return from South Africa?

Answer: Gandhiji returned from South Africa in 1915.

2. Name the leader of the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh.

Answer: The leader of the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh was Alluri Sitaram Raju.

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5. What is Satyagraha?

Answer: Satyagraha meant insistence on truth, and the need to search for truth. Satyagraha meant fighting injustice peacefully without resorting to violence.

III. Short Answer Questions of Nationalism in India

1. Name two Muslim leaders of the Khilafat Movement.

Answer: Mohammad Ali and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali were the two Muslim leaders of the Khilafat movement.

2. What is the significance of the Lahore Session of the Congress held in December 1929?

Answer: At the Lahore session of the Congress held in December 1929, Congress adopted the resolution of complete Independence for India as its goal. Jawaharlal Nehru, on the Midnight of 31st December, hoisted the Indian tricolour flag of Indian independence.

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5. When and why was the Inland Emigration Act passed by the British in India?

Answer: The Inland Emigration Act was passed by the British in India in 1859 to not allow the plantation workers to go back to their villages without their permission.

IV. Long Answer Questions of Nationalism in India

1. Describe the activities of the workers in plantations during the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Answer: By the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the British did not allow the plantation workers to go back to their villages without their permission. This permission was very rarely given to them. The non-cooperation movement made them leave the plantations in thousands. They thought they were free to go back to their villages where they would be given the land. Their dream was never realised. They were first stranded by railway and steamer strikes and then the police caught them and beat them up brutally. The tribals, the workers and the peasants chanted Gandhiji’s name and they all demanded “Swatantra Bharat”, a free India. This linked them with the movement and identified them with the national movement and the Congress. They all believed that “Swaraj” would end their sufferings and troubles.

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4. Discuss the contribution of Subhas Chandra Bose in the freedom struggle.

Answer: Netaji did not agree with Gandhiji’s methods of achieving independence through non-violence. He believed that the only way to liberate his people was by direct action. At first, Netaji joined the Congress Party and was even elected President twice. But because he did not agree with Gandhiji’s views, he broke off to form the Forward Bloc. He was imprisoned for his revolutionary activities on various occasions. At the time of World War II, the British were in a tight spot due to the pressure from Hitler. Netaji was under detention in Calcutta at that time and decided to take advantage of the situation. Dressed as a Pathan, he escaped to Germany. Here he approached Hitler with his cause. Hitler was impressed and promised to help him. He then organised all the Indian prisoners of war to form the Liberation Army and free India.

In 1943, Netaji left for Japan and formed the I.N.A. in Singapore in 1943. The year 1945 witnessed the I.N.A. waging a war in the North-East of our country. He inspired his army with the battle cry ‘Delhi Chalo’. Even though he did not succeed in this battle, he had driven home his message. The British realised that the Indians were serious about gaining independence, and would assume any means towards that end.

On August 18, 1945, Bose died in a plane crash while flying from Bangkok to Tokyo.

Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions of Nationalism in India

1. When did Congress adopt the Purna Swaraj resolution?

Answer: December 1929: Lahore Congress; Congress adopts the de demand for ‘Puma Swaraj’.

2. Who founded the Swaraj Party? 

Answer: The Swaraj Party was established by C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru.

3. Who was in charge of the new constitution drafted in 1928?

Answer: Under the leadership of Motilal Nehru the new constitution was drafted in 1928.

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12. What were the differences between Gandhiji’s methods and the ones of his predecessors?

Answer: The entry of Gandhiji into the national movement changed it from an elite to a mass movement. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi changed the character of the national movement by introducing a new ideology. He was a legendary figure in Indian history and a fascinating character in human history. Instead of simply leading a political struggle, he established an entirely new moral code and method of action: nonviolence in an age of violence. While every national liberation movement included some form of violence, his struggle for freedom was entirely nonviolent. Unlike his predecessors, he demonstrated the viability of idealism by bringing it into the realm of practical politics. With this strategy, he bridged the eastern and western worlds.

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