Nationalism in India

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Here you will find all the questions and solutions of chapter 3 Nationalism in India of Social Science for class 10 for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE).

In India, as in Indochina, people discovered unity in fighting the colonial oppressors. People, belonging to different groups and classes came together to fight a common enemy i.e., the British. It was not easy to do so, each had different ideas, each had suffered in different ways under oppression. It took a long time for people to come together. Gandhiji was successful in bringing various groups under one banner. But before this happened, nationalism in India had undergone many changes.

Nationalism in India
Jinnah and Gandhiji in 1944 (Image source: Wikimedia)

The First World War was a turning point in the history of Indian National Movement. First of all the war had created economic problems for the people of India. The people of India had suffered under the burden of a war fought by the British against their enemies. India had financed the war expenditure by paying increased taxes, custom duties and a higher income tax. There was an alarming rise in prices between 1914 and 1918, which made the common people suffer great hardships. People, especially in rural areas, were forced to enter the armed forces. Famines in 1918-19 and 1920-21 had added to the misery of the people as there was an acute shortage of food. Epidemics followed in the wake of famines and, it was reported by the Census of 1 921, more than 13 million people died due to famines and epidemics.

Politically, the First World War gave a big shock to imperialism in India. It aroused a desire for freedom in Indians and the new generation of nationalists began looking for new ways to overthrow the British Rule.

l. Multiple Choice Questions

1. which was the first satyagraha launched by Gandhiji in India?

Answer: (a) Champaran Satyagraha

2. Baba Ramchandra was :

Answer: (d) All the above

3. The Indian independence League was formed by

Answer: (c) Ras Behari Bose

4. The leader of the peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh was

Answer: (c) Alluri Sitaram Raju

ll. Very Short Answer Questions

1. When did Gandhiji return from South Africa?

Answer: Gandhiji returned from South Africa in 1915.

2. Name the leader of the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh.

Answer: The leader of the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh was Alluri Sitaram Raju.

3. Who formed the Swaraj party?

Answer: C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party.

4. Why were the Indians against the Simon Commission?

Answer: The Indians were against the Simon Commission because the Commission was considered an insult to India, as it had no Indian in it to decide India’s future.

5. What is Satyagraha?

Answer: Satyagraha meant insistence on truth, and need to search for truth. Satyagraha meant fighting injustice peacefully without resorting to violence.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Name two Muslim leaders of the Khilafat Movement.

Answer: Mohammad Ali and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali were the two Muslim leaders of the Khilafat movement.

2. What is the significance of the Lahore Session of the Congress held in December 1929?

Answer: At the Lahore session of the Congress held in December 1929, Congress adopted the resolution of complete Independence for India as its goal. Jawaharlal Nehru, on the Midnight of 31st December, hoisted the Indian tricolour flag of Indian independence.

3. Write any two principles of Satyagraha.

Answer: The two principles of Satyagraha were:
I. Insistence on truth.
II. Need to search for truth.

4. Name the two main ‘satyagraha’ movements organised by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1917 and 1918.

Answer: The two main ‘satyagraha’ movements organised by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1917 and 1918 were Champaran Satyagraha (1917) and Kheda Satyagraha (1918).

5. When and why was the Inland Emigration Act passed by the British in India?

Answer: The Inland Emigration Act was passed by the British in India in 1829 to not allow the plantation workers to go back to their villages without their permission.

lV. Long Answer Questions

1. Describe the activities of the workers in plantations during the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Answer: For the workers in British plantations, Swaraj meant freedom of a different kind for workers. For plantation workers in tea gardens of Assam, Gandhiji’s Swaraj meant :

(i) right to freedom of movement. By the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the British did not allow the plantation workers to go back to their villages without their permission. This permission was very rarely given to them.
(ii) The non-cooperation movement made them leave the plantations in thousands. They thought they were free to go back to their villages where they would be given the land. Their dream was never realised. They were first stranded by railway and steamer strikes and then the police caught them and beat them up brutally.

The above examples of towns, countryside and plantations show how each group interpreted non-cooperation in their own way. But they had one thing in common. The tribals, the workers and the peasants chanted Gandhiji’s name just as his followers did in towns and they all demanded “Swatantra Bharat”, a free India. This linked them with the movement and identified them with the national movement and the Congress. They all believed that “Swaraj” would end their sufferings and troubles.

2. Discuss the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh and its impact on nationalism.

Answer: The tribals of Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh gave their own interpretation to “Swaraj”. They started a militant guerrilla movement against the colonial government. Their leader was Alluri Sitaram Raju who claimed he had special powers. He could survive bullet shots, make correct astrological predictions and could heal people. The rebels considered Raju an incarnation of God.

The reasons for their uprising were many

(i) The British administration had ended their isolation and brought them fully under colonialism.
(ii) It made tribal chiefs into Zamindars and introduced a new system of land revenue and taxation of whatever the tribals produced.
(iii) It tried to spread Christianity among the tribals and sent hundreds of Christian missionaries to their areas.
(iv) Colonialism also introduced moneylenders, traders and middlemen in their society.
(v) These middlemen soon took possession of their land and forced many tribals into debt.

The tribal movement though was quickly suppressed by the British with the capture and death of Raju, it but ignited nationalistic feelings among the tribals as well as the nationalism in India. It also went on to display the might of people.

3. Describe the main features of the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Answer: The main features of the Cabinet Mission Plan were as follows:

I. The Mission emphasised that their main object was not “to lay out the details of a constitution” for India but to set in motion machinery whereby a constitution could be “settled by Indians for Indians”.
II. In regard to the formation of the proposed constitution-making machinery, the Mission realised that the most satisfactory method would have been by election based on adult franchise.
III. The Cabinet Mission, too, failed in making the two major parties (Congress and Muslim League) come to an agreement and was accordingly obliged to put forward their own proposals.
IV. The Cabinet Mission Plan also laid down in some detail the procedure to be followed by the constitution-making body.
V. It was proposed in the Plan that for this Assembly each province was to be assigned a specific number of seats. This number will be proportionate to the population of the province.
VI. The total number of seats in the proposed Constituent Assembly was fixed at 389 to be divided as- British India 292 seats; Chief Commissioners Provinces 4 seats and the Indian States 93 seats.

4. Discuss the contribution of Subhas Chandra Bose in the freedom struggle.

Answer: Netaji did not agree with Gandhiji’s methods of achieving independence through non-violence. He believed that the only way to liberate his people was by direct action. At first, Netaji joined the Congress Party and was even elected President twice. But because he did not agree with Gandhiji’s views, he broke off to form the Forward Bloc. He was imprisoned for his revolutionary activities on various occasions. At the time of World War II, the British were in a tight spot due to the pressure from Hitler. Netaji was under detention in Calcutta at that time and decided to take advantage of the situation. Dressed as a Pathan, he escaped to Germany. Here he approached Hitler with his cause. Hitler was impressed and promised to help him. He then organised all the Indian prisoners of War to form the Liberation Army and free India.

In 1943, Netaji left for Japan and formed the I.N.A. in Singapore in 1943. The year 1945 witnessed the I.N.A. waging a war in the North-East of our country. He inspired his army with the battle cry ‘Delhi Chalo’. Even though he did not succeed in this battle, he had driven home his message. The British realised that the Indians were serious about gaining independence, and would assume any means towards that end.

On August 18, 1945, Bose died in a plane crash while flying from Bangkok to Tokyo.

Click here for the notes of other chapters of NBSE class 10 social science.


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