Here are the solutions, questions, answers, and notes of chapter 15: Rise of Nazism which is a part of social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.
INTRODUCTION: The chapter Rise of Nazism gives us a glimpse of the world after the First World War which started in 1914 and ended in 1919. After the defeat in the First World War, the German people were not happy about the Weimer Republic. The Weimer Republic was a government set up in Germany after the First World War. Among the many was a young man named Adolf Hitler who wanted to bring a change in Germany and avenge the humiliation that Germany faced in the First World War. Therefore he joined a political party known as National Socialist German Workers’ Party or the Nazi party and became its leader. Through this political party, he gained control over Germany, changed the system of government and became a dictator. He started invading other countries and blamed the Jews for the defeat in World War I. He claimed that the Germans belonged to the master Aryan race and were destined to rule the world.
As he started invading other countries, more and more countries got involved in a crisis and the whole world was plunged into war. This is known as the Second World War which started in 1939 after Germany invaded Poland. Meanwhile, he and his party started to put the Jews in concentration camps and kill them in millions.
The Nazis were eventually defeated by the allies which included the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the USA. Hitler committed suicide and Germany was divided into two parts known as East Germany and West Germany.
I. Choose the correct answer
1. Hitler integrated Austria and Germany in the year
Answer: (c) 1938
2. What was the ‘historic blunder’ committed by Hitler
Answer: (c) Invasion of Soviet Union
3. Choose the wrong pair
Answer: (d) SD : Secret Dictator
4. Germany was finally defeated by the allies in the Second World War in
Answer: (d) 1945
5. What did the Nazi ideology of lebensraum imply?
Answer: (c) expansion of territory
6. When was Hitler appointed as the chancellor of Germany?
Answer: (b) 1933
7. When did the Second World War come to an end
Answer: (b) 1945
8. Which country dropped the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
Answer: (b) USA
ll. Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. What was the main principle of democratic socialism?
Answer: The main principle of democratic socialism is to shun revolution and try to change society gradually by making democratic reforms.
2. What kind of government was imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles?
Answer: The Weimar Republic was the government that was imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles.
5. How long did the Weimar Republic last?
Answer: The Weimar Republic lasted for 14 years.
6. What was the Gestapo?
Answer: Gestapo was a secret state police under the Nazi regime.
III. Short answer type questions
1. Why is Nazism considered a calamity not only for Germany but also for the entire Europe?
Answer: Nazism is considered a calamity not only for Germany but also for entire Europe. Entire Europe and many other countries of the world suffered huge losses by way of men and material, just because of one man and his distorted ambitions. It was indeed one of the most horrible episodes in human history which must never be repeated.
2. What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking?
Answer: The peculiar features of Nazi thinking were:
I. They believed that the strong should rule the world and the rest should accept their leadership.
II. Hitler preached that the Germans belonged to the master race, the Aryans while the Jews were at the lowest rung.
5. How did the Enabling Act make Hitler a dictator?
Answer: Hitler got complete power to do anything by the Enabling Act of March 23, 1933. He used it to set up a Single-Party Dictatorship. With the death of Hindenburg in 1934, Hitler became the sole ruler of Germany.
IV. Long answer type questions
1. Discuss the crisis in Germany after the first world war?
Answer: For Germany, the peace treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating. Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population, 13 per cent of its territories, 75 per cent of its iron and 26 per cent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania. It was forced to pay compensation amounting to £ 6 billion. The Weimer republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation and was financially crippled by being forced to pay compensation. In 1923, Germany suffered the worst inflation and it led to the loss of value of the German currency. The German economy was worst hit by the economic crisis. By 1932 industrial production was reduced to 40 per cent of the 1929 level. The number of unemployed swelled to 6 million people. As jobs disappeared, the youth took to criminal activities and total despair became commonplace. The large mass of peasantry was affected by a sharp fall in food.grains prices and big business was hit hard.
2. Explain Nazism, its features and its main ideas.
Answer: National Socialism or Nazism was a set of political ideologies that were associated with the Nazi party of Germany that gained control over the country in 1933 and lasted till 1945. The Nazis held out the promise of a bright future to the German people.
The main features and ideas of Nazism were:
I. Nazis did not believe in equal rights for everyone. They believed that the strong should rule the world and the rest should accept their leadership.
II. Hitler believed in racism also. Hitler Hitler preached that the Germans belonged to the master race, the Aryans. The blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while the Jews were at the lowest rung.
III. Hitler’s racial ideology was borrowed from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spence.
IV. Like Mussolini in Italy, Hitler justified his conquests by claiming the need for lebensraum or living space.
V. Hitler believed that the greatest enemies of the Germans were the Jews. He blamed them for all evils that had befallen Germany.
3. Why was Nazism considered to be a negation of both democracy and socialism?
Answer: The rise of Nazism under Hitler was a complete negation of the democratic liberal values taught by the French Revolution. It also negated socialism, Welfare of the workers, and the poor brought about by the Russian Revolution. It was indeed one of the most horrible episodes in human history which must never be repeated. Hitler’s Concentration Camps at Auschwitz and Dachau (Munich, Germany) are blots on the history of mankind.
6. Discuss the problems faced by the Weimar Republic. Who were called the ‘November criminals’?
Answer: The republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation and was financially crippled by being forced to pay compensation. The Weimar Republic was fragile. The Weimar Constitution had some inherent defects, which made it unstable and vulnerable to dictatorship. One was proportional representation. This made achieving a majority by any one party a near-impossible task, leading to a rule by coalitions. Another defect was Article 48, which gave the President the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree. People lost confidence in the democratic parliamentary system, which seemed to offer no solutions.
Those who supported the Weimar Republic, mainly Socialists, Catholics and Democrats, became easy targets of attack in the conservative nationalist circles. They were mockingly called the ‘November criminals’.