The Nationalist Movement in Indochina

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Get solutions, questions, answers, and notes of class 10 social science chapter 2 The Nationalist Movement in Indochina which is a part of the syllabus for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education. However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.

INTRODUCTION: This chapter explains how Indochina, one of the important states of the peninsula, fought against colonialism and gained independence.

It became an independent country before India, in 1945, but it had to fight fiercely for nearly 30 years to achieve this. Indochina is a region in South East Asia. It lies roughly east of India, south of China and is naturally influenced by both. The main religion of the is region is Theravada, or Hinayana Buddhism. Mahayana Buddhism is prominent in Vietnam. Malaysia is a multi-religious nation, with Islam as the main religion. Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity are other major religions.

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Indochina comprises
(a) India and China
(b) North and South Vietnam and China
(c) India, China and Vietnam
(d) The modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia

Ans: (d) The modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia

2. The French landed in Vietnam in the year:
(a) 1857
(b) 1856
(c) 1858
(d) 1859

Ans: (c) 1858

3. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of:
(a) Local practices, worship of the supernatural
(b) Buddhism and Confucianism
(c) Buddhism, Confucianism, and local practices with reverence shown to the supernatural
(d) All the above

Ans: (b) Buddhism and Confucianism

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. When did Cochin China become a French colony?

Ans: In 1867 Cochin China become a French colony.

2. Who was the founder of the Hoa Hao Movement?

Ans:  Huynh Phu So was the founder of the Hoa Hao Movement.

3. What was the result of the Geneva conference in 1954?

Ans: The Geneva Conference led to the end of French claim to any territory in the Indochinese peninsula. The events of 1954 ended French colonial rule but led to the beginning of serious involvement of USA in South Vietnam, which led to the Vietnam War.

4. When was the Socialist Republic of Vietnam proclaimed?

Ans: On 2nd July, l976 Vietnam was reunified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What does the term ‘Indochina’ stands for?

Ans: Indochina is a region in South East Asia. It lies roughly east of India, south of China and is naturally influenced by both. The term Indochina is exclusively used to denote the region that comprises modern-day Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. In the wider sense, it is also better described as Mainland South East Asia, and it includes Peninsular Malaysia, Southern end of the Malay Peninsula, Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Thailand (formerly Siam).

2. Give two reasons why the French considered it necessary to colonize Indochina.

Ans: Two reasons why the French considered it necessary to colonize Indochina are as follows:
I. The colonies provided raw materials, cheap labour and ended their search for a market.
II. They fulfilled the desire for glory, prestige and manpower.

3. When was the Tonkin Free School started? What was its main objective?

Ans: Tonkin Free School started in 1907. Its main objective was to turn students into “Modern” students. To be modern, the students had to follow French fashions in clothes, hair styles etc. Learning Western ideas was not enough.

4. Which school started a major protest against French medium school and when?

Ans: Saigon Native Girls School was the school which started a major protest against French medium school in the year 1926.

5. What was the main difference in the ideas of Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh? [HOTS]

Ans: The main differences in the ideas of Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh were:

a) Phan Chu Trinh wanted to establish a democratic republic. Phan Boi Chau, on the other hand, favoured retaining monarchy as a popular ideological symbol.

b) Phan Chu Trinh was greatly influenced by the writings of French philosophers like Rousseau and Montesquieu and did not want total rejection of western civilization. He wanted to establish a western democratic structure through peaceful reform. Phan Boi Chau, however, wanted to drive out the French immediately through armed resistance and restore Vietnamese independence.

6. When and where were the French defeated in Vietnam?

Ans: The French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam in the year 1954 by the forces of Vietminh.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. What actions did France take to consolidate her position in Indochina?

Ans: The actions France took to consolidate her position in Indochina were:

(1) The French landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by in the successive decades, they established a strong grip over the northern region of the country.

(2) After the war with China, the French assumed the control of Tonkin and Anaam and in the year 1887 French Indo-China was established.

(3) In the next few decades, France tried to consolidate her position by building canals and draining lands in order to increase cultivation in the Mekong Delta.

(4) Rail network was built by construction of the trans-Indochina railways, which joined North Vietnam to South Vietnam and China.

(5) Civilizing Mission was started to make Vietnamese modern which threatened local culture, religions and traditions.

(6) The French dismantled the traditional system of education and started their own schools and introduced French textbooks.

2. Explain the policy which France followed in spreading education in Vietnam? What was their main aim?

Ans: Like the British in India the French also wanted to ‘civilize’ the colony of Vietnam. They believed that their civilisation was more advanced. It did not matter at all if in the name of ‘modern civilisation’ they destroyed local culture, religions and traditions. They were of no importance as according to them they were a hindrance to modern development, outdated and of no use. The rich and the powerful Vietnamese were influenced by the Chinese culture, and the French had to destroy this influence. To achieve this, they totally and systematically destroyed the traditional education system and established their own schools.
The French claimed in the textbooks that colonial rule was good for Vietnam. The Vietnamese, according to the French, were backward, fit only for manual labour and not intellectual work. They were incapable of ruling themselves and could work only in the fields. The French textbooks boasted that they had brought peace and order in Vietnam.

Their main aim was economic domination in Vietnam besides replacing the Chinese cultural influence with French and civilizing them according to their own belief.

3. Give three reasons why the French education policy became unpopular in Indochina.

Ans: The three reasons why French education policy became unpopular in Indochina were:

I. Their education policy was concerned with modernising the Vietnamese civilisation. It was, of course, based on the belief that their civilisation was more advanced. It did not matter at all if in the name of ‘modern civilisation’ they destroyed local culture, religions and traditions. They, according to French, were of no importance as they were a hindrance to modern development, outdated and of no use.

II. The rich and the powerful Vietnamese were influenced by the Chinese culture, and the French had to destroy this influence. To achieve this, they totally and systematically destroyed the traditional education system and established their own schools.

III. The French claimed in the textbooks that colonial rule was good for Vietnam. The Vietnamese,  according to the French, were backwards. The French textbooks boasted that they had brought peace and order in Vietnam.

4. “The schools became an important place for political and cultural battles in Vietnam against French colonialism.” Support the statement with examples. [HOTS]

Ans: The schools became an important place for political and cultural battles in Vietnam against French colonialism. The French were determined to destroy the traditional system in existence and increase their own influence through schools which were not well received. Teachers and students in lower schools quietly defied all the instructions given in the higher classes. They followed their own curriculum and criticised the French textbooks.

One example of defiance was the Saigon Native Girls School. In 1926, a native girl was asked to give up her seat in the front row to a local French student. She refused. The Principal, a Frenchman, expelled the
girl. When other students supported her, they were expelled too. The conflict became worse and in the end, the government had to intervene. The Principal was forced to take the students back. 

Students protested against the colonial government not giving them higher paid jobs. They formed parties to fight for their rights. The battlelines against French colonialism were drawn by schools and students.  They fought for their identity and culture. They refused to let the French treat them as slaves and the fight turned into a fight for independence. The Vietnamese refused to accept themselves as inferior and believe in the superiority of the French civilisation.

5. Explain the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

Ans: Religion also created conflict between the colonial rulers and the nationalists in Vietnam. The  Vietnamese followed Buddhism and Confucianism. The French missionaries introduced Christianity and they preached against some of the practices followed by the Vietnamese. They wanted to correct the Vietnamese belief in the supernatural. A Scholars Revolt broke out in 1868, against the spread of Christianity, initiated by officials of the Royal Court. Over a thousand Catholics were killed in the provinces of NguAn and Ha Tien. The French Government crushed the revolt ruthlessly but the uprising inspired nationalists even after it was suppressed.

The Hoa Hao Movement initiated by a mystic named Huynh Phu So against the French also played a major role in arousing anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

6. Describe the events which led to the final exit of the French from Indochina.

Ans: After the Second World War, the French had to face the Vietminh, under the French educated Ho Chi Minh. Ho Chi Minh was supported by America against the Japanese during the war. Secondly, the Vietminh were inspired by the success of the Japanese in the war. Their leader, Ho Chi Minh, started a national movement to liberate the areas held by France. In 1945 he toppled the French controlled puppet government in Annam, under Bao Dai. In September 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed an independent Republic of Vietnam. He later agreed that it would be an autonomous state under the French Union. However, soon differences with the French led to a long battle between the French and the forces of Vietminh in 1946. The Vietminh won a decisive victory at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, as the war proved too expensive for the French.

The Geneva Conference in 1954 divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel. The accord also provided for elections to be held in 1956, aimed at reuniting North and South Vietnam. France set up independent monarchies in Cambodia and Laos whose territorial integrity was to be respected by all. The Geneva Conference led to the end of French claim to any territory in the Indochinese peninsula.

7. What were the differences of opinion between the two groups in Vietnam regarding the introduction of French education system?

Ans: The rich and the powerful Vietnamese were influenced by the Chinese culture, and the French had to destroy this influence. To achieve this, they totally and systematically destroyed the traditional education system and established their own schools. Two suggestions were offered to solve this problem.

Suggestion 1: Some people suggested that the medium of instruction should be French. This would make the Vietnamese familiar with French culture and French civilisation. They would understand how superior the French culture was. It would also create an ‘Asiatic France’ in Vietnam to support the ‘European France’. The educated Vietnamese would support and work for France.

Suggestion 2: A second group did not agree with the ideas given above. They wanted Vietnamese to continue in lower classes. French should be taught in higher classes and those who became proficient in the language and followed French culture would be rewarded. They would be given French citizenship.

Get notes of other chapters of NBSE class 10 social science.

 


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