Introduction, questions, answers, and notes of the chapter The Rise of Nationalism in Europe which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education: The nature of nationalism in Europe underwent many changes. Nationalism did not exist in Europe in the Middle Ages (in its present form). At that time all Christians in Western Europe belonged to the Catholic church; all educated people used the Latin language, and they all lived under the Holy Roman Empire. Loyalty to a nation was therefore unknown in those centuries. However, with the rise of the vernacular languages, breaking away from the Catholic church, and the rise of strong dynasties and kingdoms formed the basis of the rise of nationalism in Europe.
In the nineteenth century that nationalism became such a force that it brought about dramatic changes in the intellectual and political world of Europe. There arose the new Nation States. A nation-state is one in which the people shares the same culture. These new nation-states had a centralised power which ruled over a clearly defined territory. In these states, not only the ruler but the common people also shared a common identity and history. Through different events and processes, nation-states and nationalism emerged in Europe.
l. Multiple Choice Questions
1. The first clear expression of Nationalism in Europe came with:
Answer: (b) The French Revolution
2. Nationalism brought about in Europe the emergence of:
Answer: (a) The Nation states
3. The term ‘Plebiscite’ means:
Answer: (b) A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal
4. Socially and politically dominant class in Europe during the mid-eighteenth century was:
Answer: (b) The landed aristocracy
5. Who claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das Volk?
Answer: (a) Johann Gottfried
ll. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What does the word ‘liberalism’ mean?
Answer: The term liberalism has its roots in the Latin word ‘Liber’ which means free. For the new educated middle class it meant freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law.
2. When was the Treaty of Vienna drawn?
Answer: The Treaty of Vienna was drawn in 1815.
3. Which treaty finally recognised Greece as an independent nation?
Answer: The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
4. Who founded the secret society called ‘Young Italy’?
Answer: Giuseppe Mazzini founded the secret society called ‘Young Italy’.
5. What was Zollverein?
Answer: The Prussian Government passed many tariff reforms to convert Prussia into a Free Trade Area. All the German states, with the exception of a few states, joined the Custom Union of Prussia. This brought about an economic union of German states in 1834. This economic union was called Zollverein
6. Who was considered by Italians as the ‘brain’?
Answer: Italian nationalistic leader Count Camilo Cavour was considered by Italians as the ‘brain’.
7. Who started the first freedom movement in Italy?
Answer: The first movement for freedom from foreign rule in Italy was started by the Carbonari Society.
III. Short Answer Questions
1. What were the names given to the two allegorical representations of France and Germany?
Answer: The French Nation was represented as a woman named Marianne with a red cap, the tricolour and the cockade – all symbols of liberty to promote unity.
Germania became the allegory of the German nation. She wore a crown of Oak leaves – German Oak stands for heroism.
2. Who was considered the soul of Italian unification? Why?
Answer: Giuseppe Mazzini was considered the soul of Italian unification. He was considered so because he was totally devoted to a united Italy for which he took several initiatives which included the establishment of a secret society known as ‘Young Italy’.
lV. Long Answer Questions
1. How did Greece become a nation state?
Answer: The Greeks were the first to revolt against the Ottoman Turkish Empire in 1821. They were greatly impressed and influenced by the national and liberal movements spreading all over Europe. It was a mass movement to secure independence. The Turkish emperor perpetrated great atrocities on the Greeks when they revolted. This put the Christian countries to shame and they forced Greeks and the Turks to come to an agreement. The Greeks living in exile also supported the nationalists in Greece.
Poets and artists also joined the campaign. In 1827, England, France and Russia defeated the Turks, the Egyptians and their allies in a naval battle. They signed a Treaty in London in 1827 which forced the Turks to recognise Greece as an independent state under the suzerainty of Turkey. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
2. Describe the events that led to “Dual Monarchy” in Hungary. What were its consequences?
Answer: The Austrian Empire had subjects belonging to various races and speaking different languages. The new Austrian Emperor, Francis Joseph had to face the revolt of Hungary in 1848 under Kossuth, who declared his country as independent, but when Hungary started treating its Slav population badly, the Austrians suppressed its newly won independence in 1849.
But by 1860 Austrians realised they could not hold on to Hungary under their iron rule. They drew up a charter and restored it to its 1848 position. The Hungarians got their Diet (Parliament) back and gave autonomy to its town and cities. The Hungarians were not satisfied by this arrangement and the stalemate continued till 1866. The defeat of Austria by Prussians forced Austria to compromise with the Hungarians. This led to the establishment of Dual Monarchy in 1867.
The consequence of these events and the establishment of Dual Monarchy were as follows:
1. Austria-Hungary had a common ruler King Frances Joseph – Dual Monarchy.
2. Both states were considered equal.
3. They had two separate Parliaments and a joint ministry for 3 important departments – finance, war and foreign affairs.
4. The Austro – Hungarian Dual Monarchy disturbed the political balance of this region. It gave the administration of Slavs to them and Serbia wanted to unite all Slavs under their leadership (Bosnia, Herzegovina etc).
5. It led to a break-up into a number of small Balkan states.
6. It also, eventually, led to World War I, when the Austrian Crown Prince and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serb.
3. Explain liberalism in political and economic fields prevailing in Europe in the 19th century.
Answer: Politically, liberalism stood for a constitution, a representative government ruling by consent, a parliamentary system, ownership of private property and end of the privileges of the aristocracy. It but had its own limitations in the 19th century Europe. Some of its drawbacks are:
(i) Till the Early 20th century liberalism did not grant equal rights to men without properly and all women.
(ii) There was no universal sufferage. Under the French Revolutionary Government and under Napoleonic Code women were denied all political rights and were subjugated to the authority of fathers and husbands.
(iii) Throughout the nineteenth century and early twentieth century women struggled for their political rights.
Economically, liberalism stood for, freedom of markets, end of state restrictions on movement of goods and capital. This also led to the formation of a customs union or Zollverein by Prussia in 1834, which many German states joined. This Union reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two and abolished tariff barriers. A network of railways led to great mobility and gave an impetus to national unity. It boosted economic nationalism.
4. “Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe.” Support the statement with examples.
Answer: Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe in the following ways:
1. The Romantics encouraged the depiction of emotions, feelings and intuition. They did not believe in glorification of logic, reason and science. For them, the basis of a nation should not be wars or territorial expansion but a common cultural past, a shared heritage by all.
2. The Romantics believed that true German Culture could be discovered only among the common people – Das Volk.
3. Folk stories also played an important role in the spread of nationalism, particularly the stories written by Grimm Brothers. They believed that their work of collecting German folk tales and publishing them in the German language was an effort on their part to promote the German spirit and oppose the French domination.
4. Music, art and language made people feel proud of their own culture, heritage and build up a resistance to foreign rule thus promoting nationalism.
5. “Till mid-eighteenth century there were no nation states as exist today.” Justify by giving examples.
Answer: Till the late 18th century a nation was identified with the name or person of the sovereign for examples the Tudors or the Stuarts of England and the Habsburgs of Austria. It was only in the nineteenth century that nationalism became such a force that it brought about dramatic changes in the intellectual and political world of Europe. Instead of multi-national dynastic empires, there arose new Nation States. These new nation states had a centralised power which ruled over a clearly defined territory. In these states, not only the ruler but the common people also shared a common identity and history.
6. Mention any four proposals of the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
Answer: The four proposals of the Congress of Vienna, 1815 were as follows:
1. The Bourbon dynasty, which was exiled and deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power.
2. France lost all the territories it had won and annexed under Napoleon.
3. France was surrounded by new states to prevent it from aggression and expansion in future.
4. Old monarchies overthrown by Napoleon were restored to their respective kingdoms.
7. Discuss, with examples, how culture, art and language helped in the rise of nationalism in Europe.
Answer: Culture, art and music played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe. The feeling of nationalism was strengthened, developed and given encouragement by art – music, literature, drama. The Romantics, as opposed to the Classicists, encouraged depiction of emotions, feelings and intuition. They did not believe in glorification of logic, reason and science. For them, the basis of a nation should not be wars or territorial expansion but a common cultural past, a shared heritage by all.
The Romantics believed that true German Culture could be discovered only among the common people – das Volk. How folk stories played an important role in the spread of nationalism can be seen from the folk tales written by Grimm Brothers. They believed that their work of collecting German folk tales and publishing them in the German language was an effort on their part to promote the German spirit and oppose the French domination. Music, art and language made people feel proud of their own culture, heritage and build up a resistance to foreign rule thus promoting nationalism.
8. State the ideas of Mazzini which led to the rise of nationalism in Italy.
Answer: The ideas of Mazzini which led to the rise of nationalism in Italy were as follows:
1. Mazzini firmly believed that young men of Italy could easily achieve freedom for their motherland. He declared that the need of the hour was self-sacrifice.
2. He created confidence among the Italians that they could fight and achieve independence.
3. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
4. Mazzini believed Italy had to be forged into a single unified republic. The unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.
5. Mazzini was a staunch patriot and had established two underground societies first ‘Young Italy’ and then ‘Young Europe’.
Extra questions and answers
1. What developments gradually brought about changes in nature of nationalism in Europe?
Answer: Three developments gradually brought about the changes –
(i) The Renaissance led to the rise of the vernacular languages and use of those languages for literary expression.
(ii) The Reformation made several national churches to break away from the Catholic church.
(iii) Rise of strong dynasties and kingdoms.
2. What is a nation?
Answer: A nation is described as a community of people who believe that they have a common homeland.
3. What factors led to the rise of nation-states?
Answer: There were many factors that led to the rise of nation-states. Among them the most important were:
(i) The rise of a new middle class.
(ii) The spread of the ideology of liberalism.
(iii) The Treaty of Vienna and a new spirit of conservatism.
4. How did the Industrial Revolution bring about a social change in Europe?
Answer: The Industrial Revolution brought about a great social change. It created new social groups, made up of the working class and middle-class population. The educated middle class spread the ideas of liberalism and national unity. They demanded an end to the privileges of the aristocracy.
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