Here are the notes/solutions/answers to the questions for history chapter 1 Partition of Bengal and Swadeshi Movement of class 10 (HSLC) for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA). These notes/answers, however, should only be used for references and modifications/changes can be made wherever possible.
INTRODUCTION: The partition of Bengal is one of the most important chapters in India’s freedom struggle. This partition, which occurred during the reign of Lord Curzon (1899-1905), is a historic event in the political history of India. The creation of two states by dividing the vast Bengal province stirred a national struggle against British rule in the whole of India. This event is known as the second important political upheaval in India after the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857.
In the last part of the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century the national movement became very strong in the Bengal province. This consciousness and uprising among the people put the British government in a dilemma and to suppress this national uprising, Lord Curzon created a new province flamed ‘Eastern Bengal and Assam’ by adjoining East Bengal. to Assam. On the other hand by keeping the remaining west parts of Bengal with Bihar and Orissa (Odisha) as before, another province. was continued as West Bengal. The whole country stood united on the protest to this partition. It created a new era in the uprising of national sentiment in every Indian. In reality, the movement against the British policy of partition of Bengal was the first active national struggle in all Indian perspectives.
Very short answer questions
1. In which Viceroy’s time did the partition of Bengal take place?
Answer: In the time of Viceroy Lord Curzon, the partition of Bengal took place.
2. On Which date in 1905 did the partition of Bengal come into force?
Answer: On 16 October 1905, the partition of Bengal come into force.
3. In which meeting was the proposal of giving up foreign commodities accepted?
Answer: In the second protest meeting held at Dinazpur on 20th July 1905, the proposal of giving up foreign commodities was accepted.
7. Under whose presidentship did the Conference of Indian National Congress accept the proposal of swaraj for Indians?
Answer: Under the presidentship of Dada Bhai Naoraji the Conference of Indian National Congress accept the proposal of swaraj for Indians.
8. When did the unification of Bengal take place?
Answer: The unification of Bengal took place on 12 December 1911.
Short long answer type questions:
1. Mention three main geographical regions of Bengal which were annexed to the province West Bengal and Assam created after the partition of Bengal.
Answer: The three main geographical regions of Bengal which were annexed to the province West Bengal and Assam created after the partition of Bengal were Dhaka, Chattagram and Rajshahi.
2. Write briefly about what were the intentions of the partition of Bengal.
Answer: In Bengal, the unity between Hindu and Muslim farmers and labourers was a threat for the British and they planned to break the unity by division. So the hidden purpose behind the partition of Bengal was to decimate the Hindu Muslim unity. To meet this vested interest, communal feelings were needed to be spread.
3. Why was the anti-partition of the Bengal movement named as Swadeshi movement? Discuss briefly.
Answer: The anti-partition of the Bengal movement was named as Swadeshi movement because it was publicly recommended that the Indians would unitedly boycott foreign goods and would start using homemade goods made by the Indians. Irrespective of caste, creed and religion people plunged into this movement.
8. Mention three contributions of the Swadeshi movement.
Answer: The three contributions of the Swadeshi movement were:
i. The Swadeshi movement was able to give the Indians political knowledge regarding mass movement. Indian people learned that if the majority of the people come forward for a common cause, then a mass movement would certainly become successful.
ii. The sense of nationalism stirred by the Swadeshi movement compelled the Indian National Congress for the first time to take the proposal for demanding Swaraj in its Calcutta session in 1906 under the presidentship of Dada Bhai Naoraji.
iii. The Swadeshi movement also gave birth to armed movement. The tendency to resort to violent methods occurred in some sections of activists.
Write short notes on:
1. Kabiguru Rabindranath Tagore
Answer: Kabiguru Rabindranath Tagore was a great Indian writer and freedom fighter who through his writings, speeches, ideas, and active involvement shaped the Swadeshi movement. On the day of implementation of the partition of Bengal i.e. 16th October 1905, at the call of Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali people of Calcutta observed Rakhibandhan. Under his leadership, thousands of people gathered at Maszids at Kalutola and Chitpur and tied rakhis to the Moulabi’s and other Muslims. In the background of the swadeshi movement, The Swadeshi Bhandar, established by Rabindranath Tagore became a reputed textile firm. He also had received Nobel Prize for literature in 1913.
3. Nawab Salimullah
Answer: Nawab Salimullah led the creation of the Muslim League and later declared the aims and objectives of the All India Muslim League. This league soon became a big force to weaken the Indian National Congress. He was instrumental in the propaganda propagation among the Muslims against the Hindus initiated by Lord Curzon. With the help of Nawab Sallimullah Khan Lord Curzon tried to approach the Muslims of Bengal. For this purpose, he lent Rs. 14 Lacs to Nawab with minimum interest. Nawab Salimullah died in the year 1905.
Additional/extra questions and answers
1. What name did Lord Curzon give the newly formed state of Assam and East Bengal?
Answer: The new state of Assam and East Bengal was named East Bengal and Assam by Lord Curzon.
2. When was the Regulating Act introduced?
Answer: The Regulating Act was introduced in 1773.
3. What year did the Sepoy Mutiny begin?
Answer: The Sepoy Mutiny began in 1857.
4. What name was given to the proposal of the partition of Bengal by the British government?
Answer: The name given to the proposal of the partition of Bengal by the British government was the Minute on Territorial Re-distribution in India.
5. What is Risley paper?
Answer: On December 6, 1903, Hebert Risley, Secretary of State, officially declared the Minute on Territorial Re-distribution in India. Risley papers was the name given to it.
6. Which process is known as the historical partition of Bengal?
Answer: The historical partition of Bengal refers to the process of forming the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam by annexing 15 districts of North and East Bengal to Assam.
7. What was the real reason for the partition of Bengal?
Answer: The real reason for the partition of Bengal was to destroy Hindu-Muslim unity.
8. Who composed the song Bande Mataram?
Answer: Bankim Chandra Chatterjee composed the song Bande Mataram.
9. Who drew the picture of Bangamata?
Answer: Abanindra Nath Tagore drew the picture of Bangamata.
10. What was the name of the organisation that was tasked with instilling patriotic feelings in students?
Answer: The Dawn Society was the name of the organisation responsible for instilling patriotic feelings in students.
21. What was the name of Ambikagiri Roy Choudhury’s revolutionary organisation?
Answer: Seva Sangha was the name of Ambikagiri Roy Choudhury’s revolutionary organisation.
22. What was the primary goal of the Swadeshi movement?
Answer: The Swadeshi movement’s main goal was to raise public awareness of British imperialist exploitation. People were encouraged to be self-sufficient.
23. Which session of the National Congress adopted the demand for Swaraj?
Answer: Swaraj was the main proposal adopted in the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress in 1906.
24. When was the partition of Bengal repealed?
Answer: The partition of Bengal was abolished on December 12, 1911.
25. Who was Sir John Jenkins?
Answer: Sir John Jenkins was the home Secretary to the govt. of India.
26. When did the people of Bengal observe National Mourning Day?
Answer: Bengalis commemorated National Mourning Day on October 16, 1905.
27. The British divided Bengal into which two sections?
Answer: Bengal was divided into two sections: East Bengal and Assam, and West Bengal.
28. When was the Allahbad Treaty signed and between whom?
Answer: The Allahabad Treaty was signed in 1764. It was signed between the Mughal emperor Shah Alam and Robert Clive.
29. When was the Assam province formed?
Answer: The province of Assam was established on February 7, 1874.
30. What were the main three causes for which Lord Curzon divided Bengal into two parts?
Answer: The three main causes were:
i. To divide Hindus and Muslims.
ii. Bengal was once regarded as the heartland of Indian nationalism. The British intended for patriotic Hindu Bengalis and intellectuals to be a minority in both states through Partition.
iii. Lord Curzon hoped that by partitioning India, he could increase the loyalty of Muslims who were politically aware, and thus sow the seed of communalism in Indian society.
41. Who was Morley’s political adviser when he was Secretary of India? Who was responsible for his death?
Answer: Colonel Curzon Wailey served as Morley’s political advisor. Madaulal Dhingra assassinated him in front of London’s Governor’s House.
42. What were the Indian National Congress’s two divisions?
Answer: A strong nationalist and anti-British faction arose within the National Congress. As a result, Congress was split into two factions. There were extremists and moderates.
43. In which session did Congress adopt a resolution demanding Swaraj for Indians? Who was the president?
Answer: On November 21, 1906, a Congress session in Calcutta demanded Swaraj for India. The President was Dada Bhai Nouraji.
44. Write two names of extremist leaders of Congress.
Answer: The two leaders were Lala Lajpat Roy and Bipin Chandra Pal.
45. What did Lord Curzon do to keep the movement’s leaders loyal?
Answer: In the issue of the Bengal partition, the British government expected support from Congress’ moderate leaders. In order to maintain the loyalty of these leaders, Lord Curzon presented them with various titles, posts, and medals, among other things. For gaining support for partition, moderate Congress leaders were offered positions as judges on the high court, members of the British parliament, and members of the Viceroy’s council, among other things. Despite this, Curzon was unable to control the anti-partition movement.
46. Name two political institutions of Assam.
Answer: The two political institutions of Assam were Asom Association and Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha.
47. Write two reasons for women’s participation in the Swadeshi movement.
Answer: The Swadeshi movement sparked a desire among Bengali women to participate actively in the movement. They became involved in the movement as a result of two incidents. They were:
i. On the day of Prafulla Chaki’s execution, every Bengali family fasted. Every kitchen was shut down, and all mothers spent the day in a state of mourning.
ii. The second incident involved the police torturing of Bhupendra Nath Dutta, the editor of “Yugantor,” for his harsh criticism of Bengal’s partition. Instead of crying over the incident, his mother, Bhabaneswari Devi, called for a mass movement. Thousands of women showed up to support the cause.
48. What were Lord Curzon’s four points for the partition of Bengal?
Answer: Lord Curzon’s four points program for the partition of Bengal was as follows–
a. By annexing Rajshahi, Dhaka, and Chattagram to Assam, the new province will be known as ‘East Bengal and Assam.’
b. Dhaka will be the new province’s capital.
c. A Lieutenant Governor will take over the administration of Eastern Bengal and Assam.
d. Assam’s capital would be relocated from Shillong to Dhaka.
49. Describe the students’ role in the Swadeshi Movement.
Answer: The British government planned Bengal’s partition against the people’s wishes. This drew the attention of the student body. For the first time, Ripon College students staged a walkout from their classes to join the movement. A large student rally was organised against the partition on July 31, 1905, under the leadership of Ripon College students. They formed a central committee to launch various anti-partition movements. On the 7th of August, 1905, Maharaja Manindra Chandra Nandi presided over a large public meeting at the Town Hall of Kasimbazar, Calcutta. A unanimous decision to boycott British goods was reached after representatives from various places were summoned.
Surendranath Banarjee led the formation of a Student Union. Rabindranath Tagore, in his inspiring speech, urged people to maintain social harmony by refraining from buying and selling British goods. The students decided to continue their picketing in business institutions. Various protest rallies set fire to British goods. Students were able to contribute to the freedom movement in this way.
51. What public-interest projects did the British government undertake in the Brahmaputra Valley to keep people away from the Swadeshi movement?
Answer: The British government attempted to keep the Brahmaputra valley residents away from the Swadeshi movement. They did some public-interest work in the valley for this purpose. These were the following:
i. The Assamese language and literature were included in the Calcutta University Entrance Examination curriculum.
ii. To make Cotton College a standard institution, graduate classes for each subject were opened.
iii. In the Brahmaputra Valley, the Mouzadari system was implemented.
iv. A twelve-point land settlement was implemented.
52. When did Bengal become one?
Answer: Bengal became a unified state in 1911.