Here are the notes/solutions/answers to the questions for history chapter 2 Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India of class 10 (HSLC) for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA).
These notes/answers, however, should only be used for references and modification/changes can be made wherever possible.
INTRODUCTION: The advent of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi was a landmark in the history of the freedom movement in India after the world war started in 1914. The Allied nations- Britain, U.S., and France promised that democracy and national self-determination would be offered to India after the war if they support for their war effort. Indian nationalists supported the war expecting this major political gain. But after the Allied victory in 1918, they showed little willingness to end the colonial system. This attitude of the British gave rise to disillusion in the nationalists.
Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on October 2, 1869. After a brief stint as a lawyer both in Rajkot and Bombay, he went to Natal, South Africa in 1893 in connection with professional work. Gandhi’s activities in South Africa transformed him into a mature and idealist leader. With this impression, he returned to India in 1915 and gave a new direction to the freedom struggle of the country.
Very short/short answer questions:
1. When was Mahatma Gandhi born?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on October 2, 1869.
2. In which country did Gandhi first apply the technique of Satyagraha?
Answer: Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in South Africa.
3. Why did Rabindranath Tagore renounce his Knighthood?
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore renounced his Knighthood in protest against the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.
4. Under whose leadership was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Answer: The Khilafat movement was started in India under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali.
5. When did the Chauri-Chaura incident take place?
Answer: The Chauri-Chaura incident took place on February 5, 1922.
6. Under what circumstances did Lala Lajpat Rai lose his life?
Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai lost his life when he was ‘lathi-charged’ by the British for leading a protest against the Simon Commission at Lahore.
7. When and in which session of the Indian National Congress was Purna Swaraj declared to be the chief goal of the Indians?
Answer: In 1929, the Lahore session of the Congress under the Presidentship of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru declared Complete Independence as the chief goal of the Indians.
8. Gandhi started on his Salt march from Sabarmati Ashram to the sea coast at Dandi. What was the distance between Sabarmati Ashram and the sea -coast at Dandi?
Answer: The distance between Sabarmati Ashram and the sea -coast at Dandi was 385 km.
9. Who was known as Frontier Gandhi?
Answer: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan was known as Frontier Gandhi.
10. Who was the sole Congress representative at the Second Round Table Conference in London?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was the sole Congress representative at the Second Round Table Conference in London.
11. Name the British Prime Minister who announced the Communal Award in 1932?
Answer: Ramsay Macdonald was the British Prime Minister who announced the Communal Award in 1932.
12. During the course of which movement did Gandhi give the slogan “Do or Die”?
Answer: During the course of the Quit India Movement Gandhi give the slogan “Do or Die”.
13. Who was the founder of the Azad Hind Fauz?
Answer: The founder of Azad Hind Fauz was Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.
14. “Give me blood and I shall give you freedom”. This famous quote is attributed to which Indian leader?
Answer: This famous quote is attributed to Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.
15. What is the name of the International Boundary Line between India and Pakistan?
Answer: Radcliffe Line is the name of the International Boundary Line between India and Pakistan.
1. What do you understand by the term Satyagraha? Briefly write about the three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India?
Answer: It is a compound of two separate words, Satya (truth) and agraha (adherence, holding fast). Its root meaning is ‘holding on to truth”. Gandhi explained that Satyagraha was not mere passive resistance. It meant intense political activity by large masses of people.
The three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India were Champaran (North Bihar), in Kheda (Gujarat) and in Ahmedabad during 1917-18. In Champaran, he took up the cause of peasants against landlords, in Kheda that of farmers against the collection of land-revenue when their crops failed, and in Ahmedabad that of the mill workers against the mill owners. In each of the cases, the strategy was Satyagraha, and the principles were truth and non-violence. And in every case, the real force working under Gandhi was ‘mass participation’.
2. Why was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Answer: As a result’ of the defeat of Turkey in the First World War, the influence of the Khalifa was greatly reduced. The Muslims regarded the Sultan of Turkey as their Khalifa or spiritual head. They became upset when they found that he would retain no control over his empire’s holy places. The Muslims in India became apprehensive of the fate of the Khalifa and formed a Khilafat Committee under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali. Its object was the restoration of the Sultan of Turkey as Khalifa (Caliph) of Islam.
3. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22? What were its programmes? What made Gandhi suspend the movement?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi launch the Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22 because of the following reasons:
i. The discontent over the World War-I, as it had taken a big toll on India’s economy and human resource.
ii. The Jalianwala Bagh massacre of 1919.
iii. The growing British oppression of Indians as demonstrated by the Rowlatt Act of 1919.
iv. The economic exploitation of India by the British.
v. The Indian Muslims had launched the Khilafat movement to ensure the protection of the Ottoman Empire.
The Non-cooperation movement had two aspects – positive and negative. The former included the promotion of Swadeshi, particularly the revival of hand-spinning and weaving; removal of untouchability among the Hindus; promotion of Hindu-Muslim unity; prohibition of the use of alcoholic drinks, a~d the colle~tion. ~f a crore of rupees for the memorial of Tilak. The negative side is usually referred to as the triple boycott; namely, the boycott of Legislatures, Courts ‘and educational institutions schools and colleges maintained or aided by the Government.
The Chauri-Chura incident made Gandhi suspend the movement.
4. What was the main aim of the Civil Disobedience Movement? What were the main features of the movement?
Answer: The main aim of the Civil Disobedience Movement was that India should be granted dominion status.
The main features of the movement were:
i. Gandhi protested against the Salt Law by making salt himself and throwing up a challenge to the British government. The movement spread and salt laws were challenged in other parts of the country.
ii. Gandhi and thousands of freedom lovers (men, women, and children) were arrested.
iii. The first Round Table Conference in London was boycotted by the Congress.
iv. The freedom of the Press was curtailed. Nationalist literature – poems, stories, and novels were banned on a large scale.
v. The Civil Disobedience Movement demonstrated the awakening of the political consciousness among the Indian masses.
vi. It exposed the British rule in India in all its naked hideousness and lowered its prestige in the eyes of the world.
5. Under what circumstances was the Quit India movement launched? Do you consider the movement to be a milestone in India’s struggle for independence? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer: In September1939, the Second World War broke out. M.K. Gandhi and J. Nehru both were strongly critical of Hitler and the Nazis. Therefore, they promised the British to provide the support of the Congress to their war efforts, in return they asked to grant India complete independence. The offer was not accepted by the British government. In 1942, Churchill sent one of his ministers, Sir Stafford Cripps to negotiate with Indian political parties seeking their support in the war. However, the Cripps mission failed and Gandhi decided to launch the Quit India Movement. Other factors that led to the Quit India Movement was the fear of Japan attacking India, terror in East Bengal and the fact that India had realized that the British could not defend the country anymore.
Yes, I consider the movement to be a milestone in India’s struggle for independence because though the movement was short-lived, it demonstrated the depth that nationalist feeling had reached in the country and the great capacity for struggle and sacrifice that the people had developed. After ‘Quit India’ there could be no retreat. Independence was no longer a matter of bargain, for any future negotiations with the British government could only be on the manner of transfer of power.
6. Write a brief note on the Indian National Army.
Answer: In 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose, who was twice elected as President of the Indian National Congress was interned in his own house in Calcutta for his anti-British, activities. But he eluded police vigilance and went to Afghanistan, Russia, Germany and ultimately to Burma and Malaya. In 1943, with the aid of expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose, the Indian National Army (INA) or the Azad Hind Fauz was revived. The idea of the Indian National Army was first conceived by Captain Mohan Singh, an Indian officer of the British army in Malaya who had to surrender to the Japanese in the Second World War.
The slogan of the INA was ‘Jai Hind’. It fought with the Japanese army against the British and Commonwealth forces in the campaigns in Burma, Imphal, and Kohima. However, the defeat of Japan led to the eventual surrender of INA.
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