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INTRODUCTION: The chapter Rise of Gandhi and Freedom Movement of India revolves around the advent of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi. It was a landmark in the history of the freedom movement in India after the world war started in 1914. The Allied nations- Britain, U.S., and France promised that democracy and national self-determination would be offered to India after the war if they support their war effort. Indian nationalists supported the war expecting this major political gain. But after the Allied victory in 1918, they showed little willingness to end the colonial system. This attitude of the British gave rise to disillusion in the nationalists.
Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on October 2, 1869. After a brief stint as a lawyer both in Rajkot and Bombay, he went to Natal, South Africa in 1893 in connection with professional work. Gandhi’s activities in South Africa transformed him into a mature and idealist leader. With this impression, he returned to India in 1915 and gave a new direction to the country’s freedom struggle.
Very short/short answer questions for Rise of Gandhi and Freedom Movement of India:
1. When was Mahatma Gandhi born?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on October 2, 1869.
2. In which country did Gandhi first apply the technique of Satyagraha?
Answer: Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in South Africa.
3. Why did Rabindranath Tagore renounce his Knighthood?
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore renounced his Knighthood in protest against the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.
4. Under whose leadership was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Answer: The Khilafat movement was started in India under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali.
5. When did the Chauri-Chaura incident take place?
Answer: The Chauri-Chaura incident took place on February 5, 1922.
11. Name the British Prime Minister who announced the Communal Award in 1932?
Answer: Ramsay Macdonald was the British Prime Minister who announced the Communal Award in 1932.
12. During the course of which movement did Gandhi give the slogan “Do or Die”?
Answer: During the course of the Quit India Movement Gandhi give the slogan “Do or Die”.
13. Who was the founder of the Azad Hind Fauz?
Answer: The founder of Azad Hind Fauz was Rash Behari Bose.
14. “Give me blood and I shall give you freedom”. This famous quote is attributed to which Indian leader?
Answer: This famous quote is attributed to Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.
15. What is the name of the International Boundary Line between India and Pakistan?
Answer: Radcliffe Line is the name of the International Boundary Line between India and Pakistan.
Long Answers for Rise of Gandhi and Freedom Movement of India:
1. What do you understand by the term Satyagraha? Briefly write about the three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India?
Answer: It is a compound of two separate words, Satya (truth) and agraha (adherence, holding fast). Its root meaning is ‘holding on to truth”. Gandhi explained that Satyagraha was not mere passive resistance. It meant intense political activity by large masses of people.
The three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India were Champaran (North Bihar), in Kheda (Gujarat) and in Ahmedabad during 1917-18. In Champaran, he took up the cause of peasants against landlords, in Kheda that of farmers against the collection of land revenue when their crops failed, and in Ahmedabad that of the mill workers against the mill owners. In each of the cases, the strategy was Satyagraha, and the principles were truth and non-violence. And in every case, the real force working under Gandhi was ‘mass participation.
2. Why was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Answer: As a result of the defeat of Turkey in the First World War, the influence of the Khalifa was greatly reduced. The Muslims regarded the Sultan of Turkey as their Khalifa or spiritual head. They became upset when they found that he would retain no control over his empire’s holy places. The Muslims in India became apprehensive of the fate of the Khalifa and formed a Khilafat Committee under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali. Its object was the restoration of the Sultan of Turkey as Khalifa (Caliph) of Islam.
3. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22? What were its programmes? What made Gandhi suspend the movement?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi launch the Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22 because of the following reasons:
i. The discontent over World War-I, as it had taken a big toll on India’s economy and human resources.
ii. The Jalianwala Bagh massacre of 1919.
iii. The growing British oppression of Indians as demonstrated by the Rowlatt Act of 1919.
iv. The economic exploitation of India by the British.
v. The Indian Muslims had launched the Khilafat movement to ensure the protection of the Ottoman Empire.
The Non-cooperation movement had two aspects – positive and negative. The former included the promotion of Swadeshi, particularly the revival of hand-spinning and weaving; removal of untouchability among the Hindus; promotion of Hindu-Muslim unity; prohibition of the use of alcoholic drinks, and the collection of a crore rupees for the memorial of Tilak. The negative side is usually referred to as the triple boycott; namely, the boycott of Legislatures, Courts ‘and educational institutions schools and colleges maintained or aided by the Government.
The Chauri-Chura incident made Gandhi suspend the movement.
6. Write a brief note on the Indian National Army.
Answer: In 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose, who was twice elected as President of the Indian National Congress was interned in his own house in Calcutta for his anti-British, activities. But he eluded police vigilance and went to Afghanistan, Russia, Germany and ultimately to Burma and Malaya. In 1943, with the aid of expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose, the Indian National Army (INA) or the Azad Hind Fauz was revived. The idea of the Indian National Army was first conceived by Captain Mohan Singh, an Indian officer of the British army in Malaya who had to surrender to the Japanese in the Second World War.
The slogan of the INA was ‘Jai Hind’. It fought with the Japanese army against the British and Commonwealth forces in the campaigns in Burma, Imphal, and Kohima. However, the defeat of Japan led to the eventual surrender of INA.
Additional/extra questions and answers for Rise of Gandhi and Freedom Movement of India:
1. When did the First World War begin?
Answer: The First World War began in 1914.
2. What made the nationalists lose their trust in the British?
Answer: During World War I, nationalists were of great assistance to the British because they ensured India’s “Swaraj.” Nonetheless, despite their victory in the war, they showed no inclination to end their empirical exploitation in India. The nationalists lost faith in the British as a result of their attitude.
3. Where is Natal situated?
Answer: Natal is situated in South Africa
4. When did Gandhi return to India from South Africa?
Answer: Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1915.
5. What, according to Gandhi, is Satyagraha?
Answer: According to Gandhi, ‘Satyagraha’ is a spiritual movement, a process of purification, or the removal of sin.
6. Who was the responsible officer for the Jallianwalabag massacre?
Answer: General Dyer was the responsible officer for the Jallianwalabag massacre.
7. What happened as a result of Turkey’s defeat?
Answer: The Khalifa’s influence was greatly reduced as a result of Turkey’s defeat in World War I. The Sultan of Turkey was regarded by Muslims as their Khalifa or spiritual leader.
8. What was the Khilafat Committee’s main goal?
Answer: The main goal of the Khalifat Committee was to restore the Sultan of Turkey’s status as the Khalifa of Islam.
9. Why did Mahatma Gandhi extend support to the Khilafat movement?
Answer: Gandhi backed the Khilafat Movement, seeing it as a golden opportunity to bring Muslims and Hindus together on a national level.
10. What was the main objective of the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Answer: The Non-Cooperation Movement’s main goal was to peacefully maintain Indians’ dignity and integrity.
21. Why did Congress boycott the first Round Table Conference?
Answer: Congress boycotted the first Round Table Conference because a civil disobedience movement was in the works at the time.
22. Who was the lone Indian who attended the Second Round Table Conference?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was the lone Indian who attended the Second Round Table Conference.
23. What effect did the Government of India Act have?
Answer: In 1935, the British government passed the Government of India Act, which granted the Indian provinces provincial autonomy.
24. What was the Muslim League’s reaction to the resignation of the Congress Ministry?
Answer: The Muslim League dubbed the resignation of the Congress ministries “The Day of Deliverance.”
25. Who presided over the Muslim League session in Lahore?
Answer: Mohammad Ali Jinnah presided over the Muslim League session in Lahore.
26. Why did both the Congress and the Muslim League reject the Cripps Mission proposal?
Answer: Because there was no proposal for an immediate transfer of power, both Congress and the Muslim League rejected the Cripps Mission’s proposal.
27. What did the pity have to say about Cripps Mission?
Answer: The pity saying about Cripps Mission is “a post-dated cheque on a crashing bank.”
28. Who was the first Satyagrahi to be arrested in a court of law?
Answer: Acharya Vinoba Bhabe was the first Satyagrahi to be arrested.
29. What was stated in the Cripps Mission proposal?
Answer: The Cripps Mission proposal stated that the government would establish an Indian Union with Dominion status soon after the war.
30. Which organisation was the catalyst for the Quit India movement?
Answer: The All India Congress Committee was the catalyst for the Quit India movement.
41. Who was India’s viceroy in 1947?
Answer: Lord Mountbeten.
42. When did the British rule over India end?
Answer: On 15th August 1947
43. Who was Pakistan’s first Governor General?
Answer: Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
44. When did Bangladesh become independent?
Answer: In 1971
45. What is the name of the border between India and Bangladesh?
Answer: Red Cliff line.
46. Name three countries that supported Commonwealth forces.
Answer: Three countries that were in favour of the Commonwealth forces were Britain, the USA, and France.
47. When and where did Gandhi study law?
Answer: Gandhi went to London to study law in 1888.
48. Name two places where Mahatma Gandhi practised law.
Answer: Rajkot and Bombay.
49. What was the Rowlatt Act, and when did it become law?
Answer: In 1919, the Rowlatt Act was passed. This act gave the government the authority to imprison anyone without a trial or conviction in a court of law.
53. Give the names of two national educational institutions that were established during the non-cooperation movement.
Answer: Kashi Vidyapith and Benarash Vidyapith were the two national educational institutions established during the non-cooperation movement.
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