Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, additional/extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 Social Science (Political Science/Democratic Politics II) “Political Parties.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.
Political parties are very important in democracies because they bring together people with similar policies and ideas to run for office and be in charge of the government. They show the political divides in society and are known for their partisan stances, policies, and interests. Political parties have three parts: leaders, active members, and followers. They run for office, come up with policies and programmes, help make laws, and run the government. People vote for a political party if they think it is responsive to their needs and wants.
Political parties play a crucial role in representative democracies. They are necessary for a democracy to work because they gather different points of view on different issues and give them to the government. They also bring together representatives to form a responsible government, support or restrain the government, and make policies. The number of political parties in a country is not a fixed number. It depends on the nature of society, how it is split up socially and geographically, and its history of politics. Each country has a party system that is shaped by its own unique circumstances, and no system is perfect for all countries and situations.
People in South Asia and other democracies don’t trust political parties very much, according to surveys with large samples. In spite of this, though, the number of people who join political parties in India is high and has been steadily rising for the last 30 years. In India, political parties are registered with the Election Commission. Depending on how well they do in elections, they are recognised as either national or state parties. In 2018, there were seven recognised national parties in the country.
The Indian National Congress (INC., also known as the Congress Party, is one of the oldest political parties in the world. It was founded in 1885. It was the main force in Indian politics for many years after independence, especially when Jawaharlal Nehru was in charge. The party supports secularism and the welfare of weaker groups and minorities. It also wants new economic reforms with a human face. The Congress Party was in power at the centre until 1977 and again from 1980 to 1989. From 2004 to 2014, it led the United Progressive Alliance (UPA. government. Right now, the Congress Party is the main opposition party in the Lok Sabha.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was started in 1980 by reviving the old Bharatiya Jana Sangh, which was started by Syama Prasad Mukherjee in 1951. The BJP wants to build a strong and modern India by looking at India’s ancient culture and values and Deendayal Upadhyaya’s ideas of integral humanism and Antyodaya. Cultural nationalism, or Hindutva, is an important part of how the party sees India and Indian politics.
The BJP wants full political and territorial integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India. They also want a uniform civil code for everyone in the country, no matter what religion they are, and a ban on religious conversions. In the 1990s, the number of people who supported the party grew a lot. Before the 1990s, the party was only popular in the north, west, and cities. Now, it has supporters in the south, east, north-east, and rural areas. In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, the BJP won the most seats and is now leading the ruling NDA government at the centre.
The Communist Party of India (CPI) was founded in 1925, and it believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism, and democracy. The party is against secessionism and communalism, and it accepts parliamentary democracy as a way to promote the interests of the working class, farmers, and the poor. In 1964, there was a split in the CPI that led to the formation of the Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M). The CPI is strong in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, but its support base has been slowly shrinking over time. The party got less than 1% of the votes and only one seat in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections.
The Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) was founded in 1964, and it believes in Marxism-Leninism. It supports socialism, secularism, and democracy and is against imperialism and communalism. The CPI-M agrees that democratic elections are a useful and helpful way to reach the goal of socio-economic justice in India. The party has strong support in West Bengal, Kerala, and Tripura, especially among the poor, factory workers, farmers, agricultural labourers, and intelligentsia. The CPI-M was in charge of West Bengal for 34 years. The party won about 3% of the vote and 9 seats in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections.
In India, the Election Commission classifies a number of large political parties as state parties or regional parties. However, these parties do not necessarily have a regional ideology or point of view. The power and number of these parties have grown, making the Parliament of India more political diverse. National parties are forced to join forces with state parties, which has made federalism and democracy in the country stronger. But political parties have to deal with four problems: a lack of internal democracy, dynastic succession, the growing role of money and muscle power, and the lack of meaningful choices for voters. Parties need to find ways to deal with these problems if they want to keep being effective tools of democracy.
In a democracy, political parties need to be changed in order to deal with the problems that citizens face. Leaders of political parties make the final decision about whether or not to make changes. In some countries, political parties and leaders have been tried to be changed. For example, the constitution was changed so that elected representatives couldn’t change parties. But if all party leaders are not willing to change, it is hard to make them.
The author talks about various ways to change political parties to make them more democratic on the inside. One idea is to make a law that regulates internal affairs and sets quotas for women in decision-making bodies. Another idea is to reduce the power of money and criminals by making candidates file an affidavit that lists their property and criminal history. Some people think that the state should pay for elections as a solution. But the author admits that too much regulation can be counterproductive and that political parties may not agree to a law they don’t like. The author says that public pressure and more public participation can also help improve political parties.
Textual questions and answers
1. State the various functions political parties perform in a democracy.
Answer: Political parties play an important role in a democracy by performing a variety of functions. These include:
i. In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put forward by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways.
ii. In a democracy, a large number of similar opinions have to be grouped together to provide a direction in which policies can be formulated by the governments. This is what the parties do. A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a few basic positions that it supports.
iii. Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. But since most of the members belong to a party, they follow the direction of the party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinions.
iv. Parties form and run governments. The big policy decisions are taken by political executives that come from the political parties. Parties recruit leaders, train them, and then make them ministers to run the government the way they want.
v. Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power, by voicing different views and criticising the government for its failures or wrong policies. Opposition parties also mobilise opposition to the government.
vi. Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over the country. Many of the pressure groups are the extensions of political parties among different sections of society.
2. What are the various challenges faced by political parties?
Answer: Political parties face a variety of challenges in a democracy. These include gaining and maintaining public support, staying relevant in the changing political landscape, and dealing with internal divisions. Political parties must work to gain and maintain public support in order to stay in power, as their success depends on the public’s willingness to vote for them. They must also stay relevant in the changing political landscape, as new issues arise and public opinion shifts. Additionally, political parties must deal with internal divisions, as different factions within the party may have different opinions on various issues. Political parties must find a way to bridge these divisions and maintain a unified front in order to remain successful.
5. What are the characteristics of a political party?
Answer: The characteristics of a political party include:
i. Ideology: The set of beliefs and values that guide its policies and actions.
ii. Structure: The organizational hierarchy and decision-making processes.
iii. Leadership: The top officials, such as its chairman, leader, or spokesperson.
iv. Membership: The members, who can be individuals or organizations.
v. Electoral Strategies: The tactics it uses to win elections, such as campaigning, fundraising, and advertising.
6. A group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government is called a _____________________.
Answer: political party
7. Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
|List I||List II|
|1. Congress Party||A. National Democratic Alliance|
|2. Bharatiya Janata Party||B. State party|
|3. Communist Party of India||C. United Progressive (Marxist) Alliance|
|4. Telugu Desam Party||D. Left Front|
Answer: 1-C, 2-A, 3-D, 4-B
8. Who among the following is the founder of the Bahujan Samaj Party?
A. Kanshi Ram
B. Sahu Maharaj
C. B.R. Ambedkar
D. Jotiba Phule
Answer: A. Kanshi Ram
9. What is the guiding philosophy of the Bharatiya Janata Party?
A. Bahujan Samaj
B. Revolutionary democracy
C. Integral humanism
Answer: C. Integral humanism
10. Consider the following statements on parties.
A. Political parties do not enjoy much trust among the people.
B. Parties are often rocked by scandals involving top party leaders.
C. Parties are not necessary to run governments.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) A, B, and C (b) A and B (c) B and C (d) A and C
Answer: (b) A and B
11. Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
Muhammad Yunus is a famous economist of Bangladesh. He received several international honours for his efforts to promote economic and social development for the benefit of the poor. He and the Grameen Bank he started jointly, received the Nobel Peace Prize for 2006. In February 2007, he decided to launch a political party and contest in the parliamentary elections. His objective was to foster proper leadership, good governance and build a new Bangladesh. He felt that only a political party different from the traditional ones would bring about new political culture. His party would be democratic from the grassroots level.
The launching of the new party, called Nagarik Shakti (Citizens’ Power), has caused a stir among the Bangladeshis. While many welcomed his decision, some did not like it. “Now I think Bangladesh will have a chance to choose between good and bad and eventually have a good government,” said Shahedul Islam, a government official. “That government, we hope, would not only keep itself away from corruption but also make fighting corruption and black money a top priority.”
But leaders of traditional political parties who dominated the country’s politics for decades were apprehensive. “There was no debate (over him) winning the Nobel, but politics is different – very challenging and often controversial,” said a senior leader of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Some others were highly critical. They asked why he was rushing into politics. “Is he being planted in politics by mentors from outside the country,” asked one political observer.
Do you think Yunus made the right decision to float a new political party? Do you agree with the statements and fears expressed by various people? How do you want this new party organised to make it different from other parties? If you were the one to begin this political party, how would you defend it?
Answer: I believe that Muhammad Yunus made the right decision to float a new political party in order to foster proper leadership, good governance, and build a new Bangladesh. I understand the statements and fears expressed by various people, and I believe that in order to make the new party different from other parties, it should be organized with grassroots democratic principles and an emphasis on fighting corruption and black money. If I were the one to begin this political party, I would defend it by emphasising its commitment to fostering proper leadership, good governance, and building a new Bangladesh.
Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions, MCQs
1. What is a political party?
Answer: A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in government. They agree on policies and programs to promote the collective good and reflect political divisions in society.
37. What is the impact of changing political parties?
A. Increased defection
B. Difficult dissent
C. Loss of legislative seat
D. Party leader decides
Answer: C. Loss of legislative seat
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