Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, additional/extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 madhyamik Social Science (Political Science/Democratic Politics II) Chapter “Outcome of Democracy.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.
Based on the previously mentioned discussions it can be concluded that democracy is a better form of government compared to dictatorship or other alternatives. This was based on the promotion of equality, enhancement of individual dignity, improvement in decision making, provision of a conflict resolution method, and room for correcting mistakes. However, in practice, people’s satisfaction with democracy is often low, leading to a dilemma about the outcomes of democracy. There are over a hundred countries that practice some form of democracy, but their outcomes vary greatly based on social, economic, and cultural factors. It is important to recognize that democracy is just a form of government that creates conditions for citizens to achieve goals, and it’s up to the citizens to take advantage of these conditions. The author suggests that it’s necessary to think carefully about the outcomes of democracy and examine the record of democracy to determine what can be reasonably expected from it.
In a democracy, the most important thing is ensuring the citizens have the right to choose their rulers and have control over them. Citizens should have the ability to participate in decision-making that affects them. The outcome of democracy should be a government that is accountable to and responsive to the citizens’ needs and expectations. Democracy may lead to a slower but more acceptable and effective government compared to non-democratic rulers. Democracy also provides transparency and citizens’ right to information about the government. Although the actual performance of democracies has a mixed record, they are still considered better than non-democratic regimes as they are seen as a legitimate government. The support for democracy exists in both democratic and non-democratic countries due to its ability to generate its own support.
The evidence shows that dictatorships have a slightly higher rate of economic growth compared to democracies, but the difference is negligible. The relationship between democracy and economic growth is complex and depends on various factors such as population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, and economic priorities. However, democracy should not lag behind dictatorships in terms of economic development. While there may be economic inequalities within democracies, they are still preferred due to their positive outcomes. Evidence shows that in poor countries, there is virtually no difference in economic growth between democracies and dictatorships. Additionally, there can be high levels of inequality within democracies, with the top 20% of the population often taking a disproportionate share of the national income.
The expectation of democracies to reduce economic disparities is reasonable. However, in practice, democracies often lead to growing economic inequalities where a small number of ultra-rich individuals hold a disproportionate share of wealth and income, while those at the bottom struggle to meet their basic needs. Despite the majority of voters being poor, democratically elected governments do not seem to prioritize addressing poverty effectively, as seen in countries such as India and Bangladesh where a large portion of the population lives in poverty.
It is a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life, as it accommodates various social divisions and has the ability to handle social differences and conflicts. However, for democracy to achieve this outcome, it is necessary to understand that democracy is not just rule by majority opinion and must involve the minority, and that rule by majority should not become rule by a majority community based on religion, race, or linguistic group. Democracy remains a true democracy as long as every citizen has a chance of being in the majority at some point in time.
Democracy is considered superior to other forms of government for promoting dignity and freedom of individuals. Respect for individual freedom and dignity are the foundation of democracy, but not all democracies have fully achieved this principle. Historical struggles, such as for women’s rights and against caste discrimination, have strengthened the principles of equality and respect in democratic societies. The success of democracy is also evident in the expectations and criticisms that people have of their government, as they believe their vote makes a difference. Expectations from democracy are used as a criteria for evaluating its effectiveness.
Textual questions and answers
1. How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Answer: In a democracy, we are most concerned with ensuring that people will have the right to choose their rulers and people will have control over the rulers. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in decision making, that affects them all. Therefore, the most basic outcome of democracy should be that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens. This is achieved by regular, free and fair elections; open public debate on major policies and legislations; and citizens’ right to hold the government accountable and take part in decision making.
2. What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities?
Answer: The conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities are:
i. It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments can represent the general view. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.
ii. It is also necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc. Rule by majority means that in case of every decision or in case of every election, different persons and groups may and can form a majority.
5. In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct – democracies have successfully eliminated:
A. conflicts among people
B. economic inequalities among people
C. differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated
D. the idea of political inequality
Answer: A. conflicts among people
6. In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:
A. free and fair elections
B. dignity of the individual
C. majority rule
D. equal treatment before law
Answer: C. majority rule
7. Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that
A. democracy and development go together.
B. inequalities exist in democracies.
C. inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.
D. dictatorship is better than democracy.
Answer: B. inequalities exist in democracies .
8. Read the passage below:
Nannu is a daily wage earner. He lives in Welcome Mazdoor Colony, a slum habitation in East Delhi. He lost his ration card and applied for a duplicate one in January 2004. He made several rounds to the local Food & Civil Supplies office for the next three months. But the clerks and officials would not even look at him, leave alone do his job or bother to tell him the status of his application. Ultimately, he filed an application under the Right to Information Act asking for the daily progress made on his application, names of the officials, who were supposed to act on his application and what action would be taken against these officials for their inaction. Within a week of filing application under the Right to Information Act, he was visited by an inspector from the Food Department, who informed him that the card had been made and he could collect it from the office. When Nannu went to collect his card next day, he was given a very warm treatment by the Food & Supply Officer (FSO), who is the head of a Circle. The FSO offered him tea and requested him to withdraw his application under the Right to Information, since his work had already been done.
What does Nannu’s example show? What impact did Nannu’s action have on officials? Ask your parents their experiences when they approach government officials to attend to their problems.
Answer: Nannu’s example shows the power of the Right to Information Act in holding government officials accountable and ensuring that citizens’ rights are respected. His action had a direct impact on the officials, as it forced them to take action on his application and treat him with respect. It is also a good example of how citizens can use the law to hold officials accountable for their actions. It is important to ask your parents about their experiences when they approach government officials to attend to their problems, as this can provide valuable insight into the challenges of democracy.
Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions and MCQs
1. What are some expectations from democracy?
Answer: Democracy is expected to promote equality among citizens, enhance the dignity of the individual, improve the quality of decision making, provide a method to resolve conflicts, and allow room to correct mistakes.
9. What is democracy based on?
A. Political equality
B. Economic equality
C. Majoritarian rule
D. Rich minority
Answer: A. Political equality
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