Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, additional/extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 madhyamik Social Science (Geography/Contemporary India II) Chapter “Resources and Development.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.
The process of transforming natural objects into useful resources involves an intricate relationship between technology, nature, and institutions. Human interaction with the environment is achieved by using technology to generate institutions that aim to boost economic development.
Many people wrongly assume that resources are freely available from nature, but the fact is that human activities create them. Humans are the key components that convert materials from the environment into resources that are later utilized. Resources are categorized based on their origin, exhaustibility, ownership, and status of development.
Biotic resources are derived from the biosphere and include life forms such as human beings, flora, fauna, fisheries, and livestock. In contrast, abiotic resources are non-living objects, such as rocks and metals.
Renewable resources can be replenished by physical, chemical, or mechanical processes, such as solar and wind energy, water, forests, and wildlife. Renewable resources can be continuous or flow resources.
Non-renewable resources, on the other hand, take geological time to form, such as minerals and fossil fuels. Some resources like metals are recyclable, while others such as fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get depleted after use.
Individuals, communities, nations, or international institutions can own resources. Private resources are those owned by individuals, such as farmland or property. Community-owned resources are available to everyone, such as public parks and urban playgrounds. National resources belong to the country and can be acquired by the government for public use.
Urban Development Authorities have legal powers to acquire land for public projects like roads, canals, and railways. Minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within political boundaries, and oceanic areas up to 12 nautical miles from the coast are classified as territorial water and belong to the nation. International institutions regulate resources such as the oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone.
The Earth’s resources can be classified as potential, developed, stock, and reserves. Potential resources are found in a region but have not yet been utilized, while developed resources have been surveyed and have determined for use. Stock resources are materials in the environment that are capable of satisfying human needs, but due to lack of appropriate technology, humans can’t access them. Reserves are a subset of stock resources that can be used with existing technical knowledge, but their use has not started.
Resource development and sustainability must be taken into account to avoid depletion caused by indiscriminate exploitation, greed, and accumulation in few hands, resulting in global ecological crises. Sustainable development includes sustainable living, and resource planning is crucial for sustainable development plans. India, with its diverse resources, requires balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional, and local levels. Resource planning involves identifying resources, evolving appropriate technology and institutional setups, and matching resource development plans with national development plans.
Textual questions and answers
Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?
Answer: d) Non-renewable
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource tidal energy cannot be put?
Answer: d) Non-recyclable
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation
(c) Over irrigation
Answer: c) Over irrigation
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
Answer: d) Uttarakhand
(v) In which of the following states black soil is predominantly found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
Answer: b) Maharashtra
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
Answer: Black soil is predominantly found in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Cotton is the main crop grown on this type of soil.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
Answer: The type of soil found in the river deltas of the eastern coast is alluvial soil.
The three features of this type of soil are:
i. The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt, and clay.
ii. Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile.
iii. It contains an adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid, and lime.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
Answer: To control soil erosion in hilly areas, contour ploughing can be used to slow down the flow of water down slopes. Terrace cultivation can also be used to restrict erosion, and planting shelter belts of plants can help protect the soil. Strip cropping can also be used to divide large fields into smaller sections.
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
Answer: Biotic resources are resources that come from living organisms. Abiotic resources are resources that come from non-living things. Examples of biotic resources include water, forests, and wildlife, while examples of abiotic resources include iron ore and coal.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
Answer: In India, land use patterns are divided into several categories. About 43 percent of the land area is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry. Mountains account for 30 percent of the total surface area of the country and ensure the perennial flow of some rivers, providing facilities for tourism and ecological aspects. About 27 percent of the area of the country is the plateau region. It possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels, and forests. The land under permanent pasture has also decreased.
The net sown area and the land under forests have changed from 1960–61 to 2008–09 very marginally due to a variety of reasons. One of the main reasons is that the policy of 1952, which was considered essential for the maintenance of the ecological balance, was not implemented properly. The land under permanent pasture has also decreased, which has made it difficult to feed the huge cattle population on this pasture land. Additionally, most of the other than the current fallow lands are either of poor quality or the cost of cultivation of such land is very high. This has resulted in these lands being cultivated once or twice in about two to three years, which affects the net sown area percentage of India.
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Answer: Technical and economic development have led to an increase in the consumption of resources in several ways. Firstly, with the advancement of technology, more efficient and effective methods of production have been developed, leading to increased consumption of resources. This is because production processes have become more efficient and require more resources to produce the same amount of output. Secondly, economic development has also led to an increase in consumption of resources as more people are able to afford goods and services, leading to an increase in demand for resources. Additionally, economic development has also led to an increase in the number of industries, which require resources for production. Finally, economic development has also led to an increase in the number of people who are able to travel, leading to an increase in the consumption of resources for transportation.
Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions and MCQs
1. Are resources free gifts of nature?
Answer: No, resources are not free gifts of nature as is assumed by many. Resources are a function of human activities.
107. What is contour ploughing?
a) Ploughing up and down the slope
b) Ploughing along the contour lines
c) Ploughing in a circular manner
d) Ploughing in a straight line
Answer: b) Ploughing along the contour lines
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