Poverty

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Here are the solutions, questions, answers, and notes of chapter 18: POVERTY which is a part of social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education.

The three major challenges that our economy is facing today ate Poverty, Unemployment and Price Rise. In our daily life, we come across many people who are poor. They could be landless labourers in villages or slum-dwellers in cities or daily wage earners and rickshaw pullers. They could also be beggars or child labourers. Roughly 27 crore people in India are poor.

class 9 social science poverty
Image source: Malcolm Garret

Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life, i.e., food, clothing or shelter. In other words, it refers to inability to get the minimum consumption requirement of life, health and efficiency.

l. Choose the correct answer.

1. Which of the following states has the highest number of people living below the poverty line?

Answer: (b) Uttar Pradesh

2. When was the National Food Security Act enforced?

Answer: (c) 2013

3. Daily minimum nutritional requirement for a person in rural areas has been fixed at

Answer: (a) 2400 calories

4. The food is distributed at subsidized prices through

(b) PDS

5. Which of the following is not one of the causes of poverty?

Answer: (d) Low population

6. Which of the following states has the least percentage of people below the poverty line?

Answer: (a) Punjab

ll. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. Define poverty.

Answer: Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life, i.e., food, clothing or shelter.

2. Name two methods of measuring poverty.

Answer: Expenditure Method and Income Method are the two methods of measuring poverty.

3. What is the poverty line?

Answer: It is a cut-off point on the line of distribution which divides the population as poor and rich.

4. State four causes of poverty.

Answer: Four causes of poverty are:

i. A high rate of population growth.
ii. Inequality in the distribution of income and wealth.
iii. Unemployment and underemployment.
iv. Low availability of essentials.

5. What is meant by food security?

Answer: Food security can be defined as the ability to ensure on a long term basis access to enough food for an active and healthy life to the entire population.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Explain the vicious circle of poverty.

Answer: It is generally said that India is poor because it is poor. Due to poverty, the standard of living of people is low; because of low standard of living the level of efficiency is low; because of low efficiency the level of productivity becomes low; low level of productivity brings the level of income down; and because of low level of income there is poverty in the country. Thus, it becomes a vicious circle.

2. Explain the main features of MGNREGA.

Answer: The main features of MGNREGA are:

i. This scheme guarantees 150 days of paid work to people in rural areas.
ii. This scheme has proved to be a major boost in Indian rural population’s income.
iii. Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal ministry for the implementation of it.
iv. Ministry of Rural Development is responsible for ensuring timely and adequate resource support to the states and to the central council.

3. Explain the four components of food security.

Answer: Food security has the following essential components :

(i) Food security involves the availability of sufficient quantities and good quality food.
(ii) People have enough purchasing power so that they can acquire the food they need.
(iii) Food security ensures a timely, reliable and nutritionally adequate supply of food on a long term basis.
(iv) It also necessitates maintaining a buffer stock so as to take care of natural calamities resulting in temporary shortages.

lV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. Explain the different causes of poverty in India.

Answer: The different causes of poverty in India are:

i. Historical factors: Low level of economic development during the colonial period laid the foundation of poverty in India.
ii. Existence of semi-feudal relations in agriculture: Rural poverty in India emanates to a great extent from the semi-feudal relations of production in the agricultural sector.
iii. Inequality in the distribution of income and wealth: Although the national income of India has been increasing during the plan periods, it was not distributed properly among different sections of the people.
iv. Unemployment and underemployment: A considerable ‘ degree of unemployment and underemployment among both rural and urban workers is supposed to be the principal reasons behind poverty.
v. High rate of population growth: With a high rate of population growth in India, the dependency burden has increased, i.e., the dependence of non-working people on the work-force has increased.
vi. Labour market segmentation: This implies that only a small segment of the labour market is most favourably, placed whereas a large segment of the labour market is most unfavourably placed.

2. What steps have been taken for removing poverty?

Answer: The various steps taken for removing poverty are:

i. Development of Coffage and Small Scale Industries: The government has reserved some production activities solely for these industries. So the problem of unemployment could be tackled effectively.
ii. Income Redistribution: In order to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, the government made an attempt through income redistribution measures.
iii. Land Reform Measures: Several land reform measures such as the abolition of Zamindari System, the security of tenant farmers against eviction etc. were undertaken by the government.
iv. Poverty Alleviation Programmes: The government adopted various policy measures and programmes to remove poverty and hence they were known as Poverty Alleviation Programmes.
v. Food Security: The government has taken various measures to make availability of sufficient foodgrains at affordable prices.
vi. Population Control: To eradicate poverty, population control is essential in India. For this, various family planning programmes have been rolled out.

3. Explain any three poverty removal methods started by Government.

Answer: Three poverty removal methods started by the Government are:

i. Poverty Alleviation Programmes: The government adopted various policy measures and programmes to remove poverty and hence they were known as Poverty Alleviation Programmes. Most of them aim at providing employment or improvement of the asset to the poverty-ridden families.
ii. Food Security: Food security can be defined as the ability to ensure on a long term basis access to enough food for an active and healthy life to the entire population. The government has taken various measures to make the availability of sufficient food grains at affordable prices.
iii. National Food Security Act, 2013: The National Food Security Act, 2013is an Act of the Parliament of India which aims to provide subsidised food grains to approximately two-thirds of India’s 1.2 billion people.

4. Explain the current government strategy of poverty alleviation.

Answer: The current government strategy of poverty alleviation are:

i. National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS): This scheme came into effect on 15 August 1995. The scheme provides pension to old people who were above the age of 65 (now 60) who could not fend for themselves and did not have any means of subsistence.
ii. National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS): This scheme was started in August 1995 by the Government of India. This scheme provides a sum of Rs. 20000 to a person of a family who becomes the head of the family after the death of its primary breadwinner.
iii. National Maternity Benefit Scheme: This scheme provides a sum of Rs. 6000 to a pregnant mother in three instalments. The women have to be older than 19 years of age.
iv. Annapurna: This scheme was started by the government in 1999-2000 to provide food to senior citizens who cannot take care of themselves and are not under the National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS), and who have no one to take care of them in their village.
v. Integrated Rural Development Program(IRDP): The main objective of IRDP is to raise families of identified target group below the poverty line by the creation of sustainable opportunities for self-employment in the rural sector.
vi. Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana: This scheme aimed at creating housing for everyone. It was initiated in 1985.

5. Explain the following food security measures taken up by the government in India:
(a) Food Management (b) Buffer Stock (c) Public Distribution System

Answer: (a) Food management in India has three basic objectives which are the procurement of foodgrains from farmers at remunerative prices, distribution of foodgrains to the consumers at affordable prices, and) maintenance of food buffers for food security and price stability. Thus, the food security system has two components: (a) buffer stock and (b) public distribution system.

.(b) Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice, procured by the government through the Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a minimum support price pre-announced by the government every year before the sowing season. The procured stock is then used to resolve the problem of food shortage and to distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price.

(c) The food procured by the FCI is distributed through government-regulated ration shops among the poorer section of the society. This is called the public distribution system (PDS). Ration shops, also known as Fair Price Shops keep stocks of foodgrains, sugar and kerosene oil for cooking. These items are sold to people at a price lower than the market price.

6. Explain the main features of the Food Security Act, 2013.

Answer: The main features of the Food Security Act, 2013 are:

i. The states are responsible for determining eligibility.
ii. Children from 6 months to 14 years of age are to receive free hot meals or “take home rations”.
iii. The central government will provide funds to states in case of short supplies of food grains.
iv. The current foodgrains allocation of the states will be protected by the central government for at least six months.
v. The Public Distribution System is to be reformed.
vi. There will be state and district-level redress mechanisms.

7. What is meant by ‘vulnerability’ to poverty? Which economic categories are more vulnerable to poverty in India?

Answer: Vulnerability to poverty is the measure which describes the greater probability of certain communities or individuals of becoming or remaining in poverty poor in future.

Economic categories which are more vulnerable to poverty in India are schedule tribes, urban casual labourers, rural agriculture labourers, scheduled castes etc.

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