Here are the solutions, questions, answers, and notes of chapter 19: PEOPLE AS A RESOURCE which is a part of social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education.
Human resource refers to human beings. If their qualitative aspects are developed, they can contribute a lot in the process of economic development of the nation. From this standpoint, the population helps in economic development. The relationship between population and economic development is very complex. Many things can be said in favour of and against this complex relationship. Population is an asset for the economy rather than a liability. Population becomes human capital when there is an investment made in the form of education, training and medical care. Investment in human capital yields a return just like an investment in physical capital. Educated, skilled and healthier people generate higher productivity and income.
‘People as Resources’ is a way of referring to a country’s working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. Looking at the population from this productive aspect emphasises its ability to contribute to the creation of the Gross National Product. Like other resources population also is a resource ‘human resource’. This is the positive side of a large population that is often overlooked when we look only at the negative side, considering only the problems of providing the population with food, education and access to health facilities.
I. Choose the correct answer
1. Which of the following statements is not an argument in favour of population growth?
Answer: (c) Population growth causes unemployment in the country.
2. Which of the following is not a cause of unemployment in India?
Answer: (d) Development of skills and proper training.
3. The literacy rate in the year 2011 was
Answer: (b) 74.04%
4. What is the current infant Mortality Rate in India?
Answer: (b) 47.57
5. When there is unemployment due to slacking of demands for goods, it is called
Answer: (b) Cyclical unemployment
6. According to census 2011, the life expectancy in India is
Answer: (a) 66.8 years
7. Which is the most important component of human resource development?
Answer: (a) Education
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. What is human capital?
Answer: Human capital can be defined as the knowledge, ability, skill and physical capacity of the people which help them to produce more.
2. Mention two things necessary for good health.
Answer: Two things necessary for good health are (i) Balanced and nutritious diet and (ii) healthcare facilities.
3. Define unemployment.
Answer: When a person is unable to find any gainful work or job, that person is said to be unemployed.
4. What is disguised unemployment?
Answer: Disguised unemployment implies that more than the required number of people are engaged in a given job.
5. Define seasonal unemployment.
Answer: There are some industries and occupations which offer employment for only a certain period of time in a year. The unemployment during the off-season is known as seasonal unemployment.
6. Define structural unemployment.
Answer: This type of unemployment is related to the structural set-up of the economy.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
1. Describe in brief the role of human resource in economic development.
Answer: Human resource refers to human beings. If their qualitative aspects are developed, they can contribute a lot in the process of economic development of the nation. Investment in human capital (through education, training, medical care) yields a return just like investment in physical capital.
2. Explain the positive relationship between population growth and economic development of a country.
Answer: Like other resources population also is a resource ‘human resource’. If the growing population is provided with better education, better health and better environment, the quality of labour force may be improved to a great extent. Thus, people can produce more and hence national production/output is increased. In this way population can help in the economic development of a country.
3. Discuss the role of education in human capital formation.
Answer: Education plays the following roles in human capital formation:
i Education modifies/improves human behaviour.
ii. It produces skilled and trained workers.
iii. It increases labour productivity.
iv. It develops personality and sense of national consciousness.
v. It promotes science and technology.
4. Mention various types of unemployment.
Answer: The various types of unemployment are:
i. Disguised Unemployment
ii. Seasonal Unemployment
iii. Structural Unemployment
iv. Cyclical Unemployment
v. Technical Unemployment
5. Why is population growth a major cause of unemployment in India?
Answer: The rapid population has created an army of labour force. When the number of people increases in a country much faster than the increase in employment opportunities, that situation may lead to unemployment. This is what has happened in India.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
1. Differentiate between physical capital and human capital. How can human capital be created?
Answer: Physical capital can be defined as a factor of production such as machinery, buildings, or computers. Human capital, on the other hand, can be defined as the knowledge, ability, skill and physical capacity of the people which help them to produce more.
Human beings can be turned into resource only if their innovative aspects are developed. Qualitative aspects in human beings cannot be developed automatically. This requires investments in them. Education and health are the major human resources of a country. When we make adequate inputs of education and health in the people, the quality of human resource will definitely increase. They convert human beings into human capital.
2. How is population growth, a retarding factor in economic development of India?
Answer: Population growth is a retarding factor in economic development of India because of the following reasons:
(i) Despite of considerable growth in national income, per capita income could not increase much due to the fast population growth.
(ii) The burden of unproductive consumers upon the workforce is still high.
(iii) Population growth is considered as one of the major causes of unemployment in India.
(iv) Heavy pressure of population has led to the problem of over-crowding in cities, unplanned urbanisation, emergence of slums, etc.
(v) Rapidly growing population lowers the land-man ratio. Per capita cultivated area is gradually on the decline in India.
(vi) In spite of large increases recorded in foodgrain production, their per capita availability has not improved much.
3. “The quality of human resource in India is very poor when compared with advanced nations.” Justify the statement by giving examples.
Answer: Human beings can be turned into resource only if their innovative aspects are developed. When we make adequate inputs of education and health in the people, the quality of human resource will definitely increase.
In India, the situation on literacy front still remains disappointing. In the total world population, India’s share is one-sixth, but among the world’s illiterates her share is one-third. This underlines the need for improving literacy rate still further. Even now public expenditure on education in India is most inadequate
Though India has made many improvements in healthcare sector, but health conditions are far from satisfactory in India. One-fourth of the total population is under-nourished. Sanitation level is extremely poor. About 72 per cent of our population lives in insanitary conditions. Hence, the role of government in providing healthcare is still important. But it is disappointing that public expenditure on health has been quite low, even less than one per cent of GDP.
Thus, the quality of human resource in India is very poor when compared with advanced nations.
4. “Population is an asset, rather than a liability.” Explain.
Answer: Population is an asset for the economy rather than a liability. Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in the form of education, training and medical care. Investment in human capital yields a return just like investment in physical capital. Educated, skilled and healthier people generate higher productivity and income.
5. How does good health contribute to economic development?
Answer: Good health contribute to economic development in the following ways:
(a) It increases the efficiency of workers.
(b) It reduces production loss caused by worker’s illness.
(c) It permits the use of natural and other resources.
(d) It increases the enrollment of children in schools and makes them better able to learn.
(e) It spares/frees resources that otherwise would have to be spent on treating illness.
Ron’e Dutta is the Co-Founder and Editor of Online Free Notes. He is a journalist, a blogger, a creative writer, and a teacher. He is currently writing his first thriller novel on time-travelling. Read the prologue of the novel here. Connect with him on social media.