Here you will find all the questions, solutions, answers, and notes of chapter 14 Outcomes of Democracy of Social Science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: We have deep faith, a great interest and fascination for democracy. People consider it as the best alternative vis-a-vis monarchy or dictatorship or one-party rule. But they are not satisfied with its working. They prefer democracy for moral reasons, not for prudential reasons. Many of us blame democracy for all the ills and problems in our society. India and the U.S are the two largest democracies but they are quite different in terms of per capita income, literacy level, health indicators, etc. But there are certain things that we expect from all democracies.
We are led to believe that democracy is the panacea for all socio-economic and political problems. Therefore, if some of our great expectations are not met, we jump to the conclusion that democracy is not a worthy system of government. We obviously forget the fact that democracy is just a form of government. It can simply create a conducive environment for socio-economic development. The citizens’ role is to take advantage of the conditions and achieve these goals. Thus, democracy is one of the best means, not an end in itself, to achieve our goals as an individual, society and nation.
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which regime usually develops a procedure to conduct the social competition and reduce the possibility of social tension?
Answer: (a) Democratic regime
2. Which factor is often missing from a non-democratic government?
Answer: (c) Transparency
3. Which type of government is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation?
Answer: (b) Democracy
4. What kinds of equality are found in all democracies?
Answer: (c) Political equality
II. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What should be the most basic outcome of democracy?
Answer: The basic outcome of democracy is that sovereignty lies with the people.
2. Which type of government has a high degree of economic inequalities?
Answer: Democratic form of government has a high degree of economic inequalities.
III. Short Answer Questions
1. What is transparency?
Answer: A citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is called transparency.
2. Which provision of the Indian Constitution grants equal status to all citizens?
Answer: Equality before law for all and provision of equal opportunities to all of the Indian Constitution grants equal status to all citizens.
3. Which measures have been taken by the government of India for improving the status of weaker sections?
Answer: Indian Constitution does not recognise caste inequalities. There have been real efforts to grant equal status and equal opportunity to all caste groups. This has necessitated the provision of reservation for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Untouchability is abolished.
4. Which aspect of dictatorship is better than democracy?
Answer: The aspect of dictatorship is better than democracy is that dictatorial regimes have had a slightly better record of economic growth and they are more efficient.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1. How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Answer: Democracy produces an accountable, responsive and legitimate government in the following ways:
i. The basic premise of democracy is that sovereignty lies with the people. They elect their representatives to rule on their behalf. Therefore, the representatives should be accountable to the people.
ii. A citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is called transparency.
iii. For a democracy, the interests and welfare of the people are supreme. Thus, it is correct to expect democracy to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the citizens.
iv. In a democracy, decision making is based on deliberations and negotiations that follow certain norms and procedures.
v. There are regular, free and fair elections; open public debate on major policies and legislation.
vi. A democratic government is essentially a legitimate government. It is backed by people’s sanction to rule.
2. “Democracy is the better form of government.” Support the statement with three arguments.
Answer: We generally agree that democracy was better because of the following reasons :
i. It promotes equality in society and enhances the dignity of citizens.
ii. It improves the quality of decisionmaking.
iii. It provides scope and mechanism for the resolution of social conflicts.
3. Discuss the merits and demerits of democracy in light of your study of the chapter.
Answer: Merits of democracy: The basic premise of democracy is that sovereignty lies with the people. They elect their representatives to rule on their behalf. Therefore, the representatives should be accountable to the people. The most basic outcome of democracy it establishes is that the government should be accountable to the citizens, and responsive to their needs and expectations.
Demerits of democracy: The democratic government takes a longer time to arrive at a decision because it follows certain laid down procedures. Democratic governments are not good at sharing information with the public. Corruption has become a way of life in democracies. Those with money and influence are often able to browbeat the law.
4. ‘Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.’ Discuss. [HOTS]
Answer: By nature, human beings like to be ruled as per their wish and desire. This is only possible in a democracy where people elect their representatives to rule on their behalf. All democracies provide political equality to citizens. That is, all adult people, whether rich or poor, educated or illiterate, men or women have the right to vote in periodic elections and elect their representatives. Democracies all over the world have been successful in dealing with social conflicts. Non-democracies have not been successful on this count. Thus, democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting the dignity and freedom of the individual.
5. Explain the factors that sustain democracy in India.
Answer: There are several factors that sustain democracy in India:
i. Indian democracy successfully balances the principles of centralisation and federalism.
ii. There is a horizontal distribution of power among the three organs of government – legislature, executive and judiciary.
iii. There is a vertical distribution of power among the centre, states and local self-governments.
iv. We have an independent and integrated judicial system which acts as the guardian of the Constitution.
v. The Directive Principles act as a guide and help in the formulation of policies for the welfare and wellbeing of citizens.
vi. Though decision-making takes time, this reduces the chance of rash or irresponsible decisions.
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