Resources

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Get solutions, questions, answers, and notes of the class 10 social science chapter 5 Resources which is a part of syllabus for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education: Everything on earth that is useful and necessary for man’s existence on this planet is referred to as a resource. All natural and man-made substances that have the capacity to fulfill human needs and satisfy human wants are termed as resources. Resources must be technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable. Thus, the process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an interdependent relationship between the nature, humans and technology.

Resources chapter of NBSE class 10 social science.
Wind is a natural, inexhaustible, and free resource (Image source: Pradeep Ghildiyal/Unsplash)

Earlier, resources were considered the ‘free gifts of nature.’ But today resources are termed as a function of human activities. Human beings themselves are an essential component of resources and are termed as Human Resource. It is the most important resource because the use and development of all other resources are determined by humans. Resources, for the purpose of study and understanding, are divided into different categories on the basis of origin, ownership, exhaustibility, and status of development.

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is a human-made resource?

Ans: (c) Machines

2. What is land used for grazing cattle and livestock known as?

Ans: (b) Pasture

3. The organic part of the soil formed by decomposition of dead animals and plant matter is called:

Ans: (b) Humus

4. Water becomes a renewable and rechargeable resource due to which of the following reasons: [Hots]

Ans: (b) Hydrological cycle

5. On which of the following rivers is the Hirakud dam constructed?

Ans: (c) Mahanadi

6. Which of the following rocks consists of a single mineral?

Ans: (c) Limestone

7. An example of ferrous mineral would be:

Ans: (c) Iron

ll. Very Short Answer Questions

1.What is a resource?

Ans: All elements of the environment necessary or useful for survival on earth are considered as resources,

2. Give one example each of biotic and abiotic resources.

Ans: One example of biotic resources is forest. One example of abiotic resources is rock.

3. Define soil.

Ans: The uppermost layer of the earth’s crust in which plants grow is called soil.

4. What is soil erosion?

Ans: Removal of topsoil by running water and wind is known as soil erosion.

5. What is soil conservation?

Ans: The prevention of loss of soil due to erosion or other reasons is called soil conservation.

6. What type of resource is water?

Ans: Water is a renewable resource.

7. What is a spillway or weir?

Ans: A spillway or weir is a structure constructed to provide controlled release of water from a dam.

8. What are multipurpose Projects?

Ans: The projects such as dams, canals etc. which are used to to make judicious use of water for various purposes are referred as multipurpose projects.

9. Define the term ‘mineral’.

Ans: A mineral is a naturally occurring solid having a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.

10. What are metallic minerals?

Ans: Metallic minerals are homogenous ore of one kind of metal such as iron, copper and gold. These usually originate from igneous rocks. They have a shine of their own.

lll. Short Answer Questions

1.What are renewable resources?

Ans: Renewable resources are those resources which can be renewed or reproduced. This renewal or reproduction takes place through physical, chemical or mechanical processes, e.g., solar and wind energy, water and forests.

2. What are potential resources?

Ans: These are resources found in a region but not utilised.

E.g., Rajasthan and Gujarat have great wind and solar energy potential but it has not been developed properly.

3. Briefly explain the classification of resources on the basis of ownership.

Ans:

Individual ResourcesCommunity Owned ResourcesNational ResourcesInternational Resources
These are owned
privately by
individuals, e.g., land
owned by farmers.
These are for
the benefit of the
entire community,
e.g., public parks,
playground.
All resources belong to
the nation. All minerals,
forests, wildlife, water,
etc. are owned by the
nation.
Some resources are owned
by international institutions.
E.g., No individual country can utilise
oceanic resources beyond
200 km of exclusive economic
zone, as it belongs to open
ocean, without the permission
of international institutions.

4. Why is land a very important resource?

Ans: Land is a very important resource as land all over the world supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, communication and transport system. Hence, land is of great significance for all nations.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1.Briefly explain the causes of soil erosion.

Ans: Soil erosion is caused by both physical and human factors. The physical factors include slope of the land, intensity of rainfall and velocity of the wind. The human factors that contribute to soil erosion are deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of chemical fertilisers, over-irrigation, mining and unscientific farming methods.

2. Why should we conserve and manage our water resources? [Hots]

Ans: Water sustains life on earth. It is necessary for agriculture as the cultivation of crops depends on the availability of water. It is also important for the industries as a cooling agent. Further, it is used for drinking and domestic consumption.

We should, therefore, conserve and manage our water resources because of the following reasons:

a) Degrading water table: The water tables first degrading. We are using up the groundwater at a faster rate than it could recharge. This is leading to water scarcity in many places already.

b) To safeguard ourselves from health hazards: In the case of water scarcity, people are forced to use water that is polluted uncontaminated which substances that are harmful to our health. Water conservation, therefore, becomes necessary to avoid such situations.

c) To ensure food security: Without water, a food crisis is imminent as crops cannot grow without water. Therefore for the cause of food security conserving water is of utmost important.

3. Why are dams referred to as multipurpose projects?

Ans: Dams are now referred to as multipurpose projects as the use of impounded water are in integration with each other. Dams are constructed to control floods, check soil erosion, provide water for irrigation, generate electricity, recreational purposes, for drinking purposes.

4. What is rainwater harvesting? State the benefits of rainwater harvesting.

Ans: Rainwater harvesting is a technique of utilising rainwater for domestic and agricultural use. The benefits of rainwater harvesting are:

I. It increase water availability for the day to day use.

II. It leads to recharge of the fast declining water table.

III. It is environmentally friendly as it improves the ecosystem.

IV. Water conservation leads to improved quality of groundwater.

5. Differentiate between ferrous minerals and non-ferrous minerals.

Ans:

Ferrous minerals Non-ferrous minerals
These minerals are very important for
the development of metallurgical industries
as they contain iron. Out of the total value
of production of metallic minerals, ferrous
minerals cover three-fourths of the total
production.
These are minerals that contain metals
other than iron. These minerals which include
copper, bauxite, gold, zinc and lead have a
very important role to play in metallurgical,
engineering and electrical industries.

6. Mention any three measures for conservation of minerals.

Ans: Three measures for conservation of minerals are:

I.Use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.

II. Evolving of improved technology to use low-grade ore at low cost.

III. Recycling of metals and using substitutes and scrap metals.

7. What is resource planning? Why is it important?

Ans: Resources are unevenly distributed and limited all over the world. Resource planning is the technique of a balanced utilisation of resources.

Resource planning is required for proper use and utilisation of resources, as overuse and exploitation of resources have created many problems. Also, most resources are finite and therefore must be judiciously used.

8. Do you think conservation of resources is necessary? Why/Why not? [Hots]

Ans: Yes, I do think that conservation of resources is necessary as resources are essential for sustenance as well as for development. But overexploitation and unplanned consumption of resources are leading to their depletion. This has socio-economic and environmental consequences. These problems can be tackled by adopting resource conservation as a means to manage and save resources for a better future. Conservation of resources means using resources efficiently that are needed now without harming future prospects.

9.Discuss the causes of land degradation.

Ans: The causes of land degradation are:

I. Overgrazing: Overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. When overgrazing of natural pastures takes place the vegetation cover decreases. This leads to wind and water erosion.

II. Mining: Abandoned mining sites have created deep scars and have nothing left to be utilised.

III. Waterlogging: Waterlogging is also one of the main causes. The main reason for waterlogging
is over-irrigation. Waterlogging results in the increase of the salinity and alkalinity in the soil.

IV. Mineral processing: Mineral processing is also a major cause of land degradation. This causes dust to settle down on the land and hinders the infiltration of water into the soil.

V. Faulty agricultural process: Agricultural practices such as shifting agriculture, absence of soil conservation measures, unbalanced fertiliser use and faulty planning and irrigation also cause land degradation.

10. List the different types of soil in India. Discuss any one type of soil.

Ans: Indian soils are classified into six main types on the basis of texture or colour and their physical and chemical properties. These are:

(1) Alluvial soils (2) Black soils (3) Red and yellow soils (4) Laterite soils (5) Arid soils (6) Forest soils

Alluvial soil: Alluvial soils form the bulk of soils of India. They are found mainly in the river valleys of the Northern Plains and are very fertile. These soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are best for the cultivation of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Because of their high fertility the areas of alluvial soils are used intensively for growing crops and are, therefore, densely populated. Alluvial soil can be classified as ‘Khadar’ and ‘Bangar’ soils. The new alluvial soil is known as ‘Khadar’ whereas the old alluvial soil is known as ‘Bangar’. The ‘Khadar’ soil is more fertile than ‘Bangar’.

11. Mention any five uses of multipurpose river projects.

Ans: Five uses of multipurpose river projects are:

a. Flood control: These projects control the floods as water can be contained with them as such they have converted many rivers of sorrows into rivers of boon.

b. Generation of power: Multipurpose projects are the main source of power generation. They provide us with neat, pollution free and cheapest form of energy.

c. Soil conservation: They conserve the soil because they slow down the speed of water and thereby prevent soil erosion.

d. Irrigation: These projects are the main source of irrigation for our country and many canals have been dug to irrigate dry areas.

e. Water navigation: These projects provide for inland water navigation through main rivers and canals.

f. Fisheries: These projects provide ideal condition for the breeding of fish.

12. Water is available in abundance in lndia even then scarcity of water is experienced in major parts of the country. Discuss why rainwater harvesting should be adopted.

Ans: Water is in abundance on the earth but only a small proportion of it is fresh water which can be utilized by us. Three parts of our planet are covered with water and only one part is land still there is water scarcity. In the context of India, Water is available in abundance in the country, yet water scarcity in India occurs due to excessive use, over-exploitation, over-utilization, and unequal access to water among different social groups. There are also other reasons like uneven precipitation across the country and variations in seasonal and annual precipitation.

Rainwater harvesting should be adopted for the following reasons:

I. It increase water availability for the day to day use.

II. It leads to recharge of the fast declining water table.

III. It is environmentally friendly as it improves the ecosystem.

IV. Water conservation leads to improved quality of groundwater.

13. Why should we conserve our mineral resources? Suggest measures to conserve mineral resources. [Hots]

Ans: The earth’s crust contains mineral deposits which amount to an insignificant fraction of its crust, i.e., these deposits amount to only 1 per cent of the earth’s crust. This 1 per cent is being rapidly consumed by us without a thought to the fact that these mineral resources require millions of years to be created and concentrated. Supplies are running out. In addition, burning fossil fuels has caused extensive damage to the planet. Mineral resources can be said to be finite and non-renewable and therefore should be conserved.

Some measures for conservation of minerals are:

I. Use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.

II. Evolving of improved technology to use low-grade ore at low cost.

III. Recycling of metals and using substitutes and scrap metals.

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