Get solutions, questions, answers, and notes of class 10 social science chapter 5 Resources which is a part of the syllabus for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education. However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: Everything on earth that is useful and necessary for man’s existence on this planet is referred to as a resource. All natural and man-made substances that have the capacity to fulfil human needs and satisfy human wants are termed resources. Resources must be technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable. Thus, the process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an interdependent relationship between nature, humans and technology.
Earlier, resources were considered the ‘free gifts of nature.’ But today resources are termed as a function of human activities. Human beings themselves are an essential component of resources and are termed as Human Resource. It is the most important resource because the use and development of all other resources are determined by humans. Resources, for the purpose of study and understanding, are divided into different categories on the basis of origin, ownership, exhaustibility, and status of development.
ll. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What is a resource?
Ans: All elements of the environment necessary or useful for survival on earth are considered as resources,
2. Give one example of each of the biotic and abiotic resources.
Ans: One example of biotic resources is forest. One example of an abiotic resource is rock.
5. What is soil conservation?
Ans: The prevention of loss of soil due to erosion or other reasons is called soil conservation.
6. What type of resource is water?
Ans: Water is a renewable resource.
7. What is a spillway or weir?
Ans: A spillway or weir is a structure constructed to provide controlled release of water from a dam.
10. What are metallic minerals?
Ans: Metallic minerals are homogenous ore of one kind of metal such as iron, copper and gold. These usually originate from igneous rocks. They have a shine of their own.
III. Short Answer Questions
1.What are renewable resources?
Ans: Renewable resources are those resources that can be renewed or reproduced. This renewal or reproduction takes place through physical, chemical or mechanical processes, e.g., solar and wind energy, water and forests.
2. What are potential resources?
Ans: These are resources found in a region but not utilised.
E.g., Rajasthan and Gujarat have great wind and solar energy potential but it has not been developed properly.
4. Why is land a very important resource?
Ans: Land is a very important resource as land all over the world supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, communication and transport system. Hence, the land is of great significance for all nations.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1.Briefly explain the causes of soil erosion.
Ans: Soil erosion is caused by both physical and human factors. The physical factors include the slope of the land, the intensity of rainfall and the velocity of the wind. The human factors that contribute to soil erosion are deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of chemical fertilisers, over-irrigation, mining and unscientific farming methods.
2. Why should we conserve and manage our water resources? [Hots]
Ans: Water sustains life on earth. It is necessary for agriculture as the cultivation of crops depends on the availability of water. It is also important for the industries as a cooling agent. Further, it is used for drinking and domestic consumption.
We should, therefore, conserve and manage our water resources because of the following reasons:
a) Degrading water table: The water tables first degrading. We are using up the groundwater at a faster rate than it could recharge. This is leading to water scarcity in many places already.
b) To safeguard ourselves from health hazards: In the case of water scarcity, people are forced to use water that is polluted uncontaminated which substances that are harmful to our health. Water conservation, therefore, becomes necessary to avoid such situations.
c) To ensure food security: Without water, a food crisis is imminent as crops cannot grow without water. Therefore for the cause of food security conserving water is of utmost importance.
3. Why are dams referred to as multipurpose projects?
Ans: Dams are now referred to as multipurpose projects as the use of impounded water are in integration with each other. Dams are constructed to control floods, check soil erosion, provide water for irrigation, generate electricity, recreational purposes, for drinking purposes.
7. What is resource planning? Why is it important?
Ans: Resources are unevenly distributed and limited all over the world. Resource planning is the technique of a balanced utilisation of resources.
Resource planning is required for the proper use and utilisation of resources, as overuse and exploitation of resources have created many problems. Also, most resources are finite and therefore must be judiciously used.
8. Do you think conservation of resources is necessary? Why/Why not? [Hots]
Ans: Yes, I do think that conservation of resources is necessary as resources are essential for sustenance as well as for development. But overexploitation and unplanned consumption of resources are leading to their depletion. This has socio-economic and environmental consequences. These problems can be tackled by adopting resource conservation as a means to manage and save resources for a better future. Conservation of resources means using resources efficiently that are needed now without harming future prospects.
9.Discuss the causes of land degradation.
Ans: The causes of land degradation are:
I. Overgrazing: Overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. When overgrazing of natural pastures takes place the vegetation cover decreases. This leads to wind and water erosion.
II. Mining: Abandoned mining sites have created deep scars and have nothing left to be utilised.
III. Waterlogging: Waterlogging is also one of the main causes. The main reason for waterlogging
is over-irrigation. Waterlogging results in the increase of the salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
IV. Mineral processing: Mineral processing is also a major cause of land degradation. This causes dust to settle down on the land and hinders the infiltration of water into the soil.
V. Faulty agricultural process: Agricultural practices such as shifting agriculture,
10. List the different types of soil in
Ans: Indian soils are classified into six main types on the basis of texture or colour and their physical and chemical properties. These are:
(1) Alluvial soils (2) Black soils (3) Red and yellow soils (4) Laterite soils (5) Arid soils (6) Forest
Alluvial soil: Alluvial soils form the bulk of soils of India. They are found mainly in the river valleys of the Northern Plains and are very fertile. These soils contain an adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are best for the cultivation of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Because of their high fertility, the areas of alluvial soils are used intensively for growing crops and are, therefore, densely populated. Alluvial soil can be classified as ‘Khadar’ and ‘Bangar’ soils. The new alluvial soil is known as ‘Khadar’ whereas the old alluvial soil is known as ‘Bangar’. The ‘Khadar’ soil is more fertile than ‘Bangar’.
13. Why should we conserve our mineral resources? Suggest measures to conserve mineral resources. [Hots]
Ans: The earth’s crust contains mineral deposits that amount to an insignificant fraction of its crust, i.e., these deposits amount to only 1 per cent of the earth’s crust. This 1 per cent is being rapidly consumed by us without a thought to the fact that these mineral resources require millions of years to be created and concentrated. Supplies are running out. In addition, burning fossil fuels has caused extensive damage to the planet. Mineral resources can be said to be finite and non-renewable and therefore should be conserved.
Some measures for the conservation of minerals are:
I. Use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.
II. Evolving of improved technology to use low-grade ore at low cost.
III. Recycling of metals and using substitutes and scrap metals.
Extra/additional questions and answers/solutions
1. What is a resource?
Answer: A resource is anything on Earth that is useful and necessary for man’s survival on this planet.
2. What is human resource?
Answer: Human beings are considered a resource because they are an essential component of resources.
3. What are the different categories of resources?
Answer: For the purposes of study and comprehension, resources are classified according to their origin, ownership, exhaustibility, and stage of development.
4. What is leading to the depletion of resources?
Answer: Overexploitation and indiscriminate consumption of resources are causing their depletion.
5. What do you mean by conservation of resources?
Answer: Conservation of resources refers to the efficient use of resources that are required now without jeopardising future prospects. Conservation does not forbid resource use but rather emphasises the prudent and planned use of natural resources.
16. What is humus?
Answer: Humus is the organic material formed by the decomposition of dead animals and plant matter.
17. Where in India are alluvial soils found?
Answer: The majority of India’s soils are alluvial. They are primarily found in the Northern Plains’ river valleys and are extremely fertile. These soils can also be found in Gujarat and Rajasthan in strips. They also cover the eastern coastal plains, particularly the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri river deltas.
18. What is soil erosion?
Answer: During periods of heavy rainfall, the volume of run-off can be extremely high. Topsoil is washed away by surface run-off if it is not adequately protected by plant cover. This is referred to as soil erosion.
19. What is gully erosion?
Answer: When heavy rain falls on uneven terrain, run-off scoops out narrow and deep grooves. These grooves or gullies grow in size and spread over a large area over time. This is referred to as gully erosion, and it results in the formation of ravines or badlands.
20. What is strip farming?
Answer: Large fields are divided into strips in this type of farming. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops, either at right angles to the prevailing wind or following the natural contour of the terrain.
37. Irrigation has a negative impact? How does irrigation affect the social landscape?
Answer: It has a negative impact on the quantity and quality of soil and water. Many farmers have shifted to water-intensive and commercial crops as a result of irrigation facilities. Despite low rainfall, Punjab, for example, has become a major producer of rice.
The impact on the social landscape is that this transformation has widened the gap between the rich and the poor. The rich and powerful, who can afford higher inputs, have become even richer, while the poor have been unable to benefit due to a lack of capital.
38. What are International Resources?
Answer: International institutions own some resources. Without the permission of international institutions, no individual country may use oceanic resources beyond 200 kilometres of exclusive economic zone, which belongs to the open ocean. For example, India can mine manganese nodules from the Indian Ocean’s bed if they are discovered beyond the exclusive economic zone because it has obtained the right to do so from an international institution.