Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 11 (Arts) History (Themes in World History) Chapter 14: Displacing Indigenous People. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.
In this chapter, we delve into the complex and fascinating histories of the native peoples of North America and Australia from the 17th to 20th centuries. The European colonization of North America marked the beginning of an intriguing and transformative period in world history. Millions of individuals, driven by dreams of fortune and opportunity, left the Old World behind and embarked on a journey to the Americas, forever altering the lives of the indigenous populations. Similarly, in the 19th century, settlers ventured across the Indian Ocean to the newly discovered lands of Australia and New Zealand, leading to the displacement of native peoples and the establishment of European colonies. These colonies eventually gained independence and grew into thriving nations with diverse populations, as both European and Asian immigrants settled in these lands. Although the native inhabitants now constitute a minority, their influence is still evident in the names of towns, rivers, and landmarks that echo their cultural heritage. As historians and anthropologists continue to uncover the stories of these native peoples, we gain a deeper understanding of the complex interplay between the past and the present, and the lasting legacies of colonization on indigenous communities.
Textual questions and answers
Very short answer type questions
1. Why were the Americas called “The New World”?
Answer: The Americas were called “The New World” because they were newly discovered by Europeans who had previously been unaware of their existence.
2. From what word was the name “Canada” derived?
Answer: The name “Canada” was derived from the word “Kanata”, which means village. It was first used by Jacques Cartier in AD 1535.
3. How many colonies of North America revolted against the British Government of England?
Answer: 13 colonies of North America revolted against the British Government of England.
4. When did the English, the French and the Dutch start extending their trading activities in America?
Answer: The English, the French, and the Dutch started extending their trading activities in America after the seventeenth century.
5. The word America was derived from the name of which adventurer?
Answer: The word “America” was derived from the name of Amerigo Vespucci who discovered this region.
6. What is the extent of the North America?
Answer: The continent of North America extends from the Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Cancer, from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. West of the chain of the Rocky Mountains is the desert of Arizona and Nevada. Still further west there are the Sierra Nevada Mountains, to the east are the Great Plains, the Great Lakes, the valley of the river Mississippi and the Ohio and the Appalachian Mountains and to the south is Mexico.
7. Where did the Europeans traders first settle in North America?
Answer: The European traders and adventurers first settled on the northeast coast of North America in the seventeenth century. They came to trade in fish and furs and found the native peoples to be friendly and welcoming.
8. What articles were exchanged by the Europeans with the natives?
Answer: The Europeans exchanged blankets, iron vessels, guns, and alcohol with the natives in exchange for their clay pots and unique handicrafts. The natives also made the Europeans addicts to tobacco.
9. With what object the first Europeans establish colonies in the North America?
Answer: The first Europeans who came to America were traders. Those who came later, came to settle in the “New World”. From the 17th century, the Protestant Christians were being persecuted in the predominantly Catholic Christian countries of Europe. Many of the Protestant Christians left Europe and migrated to America to begin a new life. As long as the vacant land was available, there was no problem. When no vacant land was available in the coastal areas, the Europeans moved further inland near native villages. They cleared the forests with iron tools to lay out agricultural farms.
10. Who were called “Native Americans” and “Red Indians”?
Answer: Native Americans were the indigenous people of the Americas and Red Indians were the brown complexioned people whose land Columbus mistook for India.
18. Where was Captain Cook killed?
Answer: Captain Cook was killed in Hawaii.
Short answer type questions
1. Write the early history of North America. When did man first appear in the North America?
Answer: Migrations from Asia preceded European migration by many centuries. During the last Ice Age 10,000 years ago, they moved further south. The oldest artifact discovered in America-an arrow point-is 11,000 years old. The population of North America began to increase about 5,000 years ago when the climate became more stable. The inhabitants of the continent lived in bands in the villages situated along river valleys. They grew maize and vegetables. They ate fish and meat and often went on long journeys in search of meat, chiefly that of bisons and the wild buffaloes found roaming in the grasslands. Hunting of these wild animals became easier in the 17th century, when the natives started to ride horses.
The first man to set foot on the continent of North America came across Bering Straits in search of game some 30,000 years ago.
2. How did the American colonies achieve independence from the rule of England?
Answer: The settlers in the US fought for independence from British rule and won independence, and the United States of America came into existence. The USA was against the monarchies and aristocracies of the old world. The constitution of the U.S., which came into force in AD 1787, included the individual’s right to property, which the state could not deny to its citizens.
3. What was the attitude of the French towards the aboriginals of North America?
Answer: The Whites who occupied the land of the tribals, justified it by saying that the natives did not use the land to the maximum, they, therefore, did not deserve to occupy the land. They condemned them as lazy people.
4. How did the British deprive the natives of their lands in North America?
Answer: The British occupied Canada in 1763 after a war with France. The French settlers demanded dominion status like other British colonies. The British were obliged to accept the demand of Canadians by establishing Canada as a Confederation of autonomous states. The European settlers induced or forced the natives to sell them their lands after signing treaties. The natives were paid very low prices for their lands.
5. How did the British establish their settlements in the North America?
Answer: The British established their settlements in North America by clearing forests with iron tools to lay out agricultural farms. As long as vacant land was available, there was no problem. When no vacant land was available in the coastal areas, the Europeans moved further inland near native villages. They acquired large territories by purchase, war, and without asking for the consent of the natives living in these areas. The western frontier of the USA was shifting, and as it moved, the natives were also compelled to move back.
8. Other than the use of the English, what other features of the English economic and social life do you notice in nineteenth-century USA?
Answer: USA’s industrial revolution was influenced by the English economic and social life, particularly in terms of the displacement of small peasants and the growth of industrial towns and factories. Additionally, the individual’s right to property, which was included in the U.S. constitution, was also influenced by English ideas of property rights.
Long answer type questions
1. How did the Europeans exploit the natives of the North America?
Answer: The Europeans exploited the natives of North America in various ways. Initially, the European traders and adventurers found the native peoples friendly and welcoming. They came to trade in fish and furs, and the natives willingly helped them in their search for these things. The French adventurers who went further south found that the natives met regularly at one place to exchange handicrafts unique to a tribe or food articles not available in other regions. The Europeans gave blankets and iron vessels to the natives in exchange for their clay pots. They also gave guns to the natives which served as useful supplement for bows and arrows to hunt animals. They gave alcohol to the natives about which they had not known anything earlier, and the natives became addicted to it. The Europeans exploited this addiction to dictate terms for trade. The natives, on their part, made the Europeans addicts to tobacco. The Europeans sometimes gave the natives huge quantities of goods in exchange for their goods while sometimes it was very little. The natives were much annoyed by the greed of the Europeans. In their impatience to obtain furs, the Europeans had slaughtered hundreds of beavers, which saddened and feared the natives that the animals would take revenge on them for the destruction of these animals. The Europeans cut down forests to cultivate land to grow corns, and the natives grew crops only for their own needs, not for making a profit. The Europeans viewed this as the natives being “uncivilised”. The Europeans moved further inland near native villages when no vacant land was available in the coastal areas. They cleared the forests with iron tools to lay out agricultural farms. The natives were displaced from their lands, and the western frontier of the USA was shifting. As it moved, the natives were also compelled to move back.
2. Describe the history of imperialistic expansion of North America.
Answer: The European traders and adventurers reached the northeast coast of North America in the seventeenth century. They came to trade in fish and furs, and the natives willingly helped them in their search for these things. The French adventurers who went further south along the Mississippi river found that the natives met regularly at one place to exchange handicrafts unique to a tribe or food articles not available in other regions. The Europeans gave blankets and iron vessels to the natives in exchange for their clay pots. They also gave guns to the natives which served as a useful supplement for bows and arrows to hunt animals. They gave alcohol to the natives about which they had not known anything earlier, and the natives became addicted to it. It suited the Europeans because it enabled them to dictate terms for trade. The natives, on their part, made the Europeans addicts to tobacco. The first Europeans who came to America were traders. Those who came later came to settle in the “New World”. From the 17th century, the Protestant Christians were being persecuted in the predominantly Catholic Christian countries of Europe. Many of the Protestant Christians left Europe and migrated to America to begin a new life. As long as the vacant land was available, there was no problem. When no vacant land was available in the coastal areas, the Europeans moved further inland near native villages. They cleared the forests with iron tools to lay out agricultural farms. The Europeans cut down forests to cultivate land to grow corns. Jefferson, the US military general, wanted to make it a country populated by the Europeans with small farms. The natives grew crops only for their own needs, not for making a profit. They thought it wrong to “own the land”. Jefferson viewed that this made the natives “uncivilised”. It was at the end of the 18th century that the countries now known as Canada and the USA came into existence. At that time, they occupied only a very small territory of North America. During the next hundred years, they extended their control over more territory to reach the present size. The USA acquired large territories by purchase. They bought land in the south from France (the Louisiana Purchase) and from Russia, the Alaska. They acquired much of the territory from Mexico by war. No one cared to ask the consent of the natives living in these areas. The western frontier of the USA was shifting one. As it moved, the natives were also compelled to move back.
5. What was the policy of the Government of Australia towards the emigrants?
Answer: From AD 1851-1961, vast sheep farms and mining stations were set up in Australia for economic development. Growth of vineyards and wheat farming were established with hard labour. Till AD 1974, the policy of the government was to keep non-white people out as it did not want people from South Asia and south-east Asia to settle here. From the 1970’s, there was an eagerness to understand natives as communities with different cultures, unique ways of understanding, nature and climate. It was realised that these communities had vast bodies of stories, textile and painting and carving skills, which should be understood and recorded and respected. The University departments have been instituted to study the native cultures. The articles of native art have been added to the art galleries. Museums have been enlarged to incorporate things showing and explaining native culture. The ‘white Australia’ policy ended in 1974, and Asian immigrants were allowed to settle in Australia.
Passage based questions
Read the following passage and answers the questions.
The northern states of the U.S.A., where the economy did not depend on plantations (and therefore on slavery) argued for ending slavery which they condemned as an inhuman practice. In 1861-65, there was a war between the states that wanted to retain slavery and those supporting its abolition. The latter won. Slavery was abolished, though it was only in the twentieth century that the African Americans were able to win the battle for civil liberties, and the segregation between ‘Whites’ and ‘non-whites in schools and public transport was ended.
1. What was the attitude of the northern states towards slavery?
Answer: The attitude of the northern states towards slavery was that they condemned it as an inhuman practice and argued for its abolition.
2. What was the cause of the war between the northern and southern states in 1861-65?
Answer: The cause of the war between the northern and southern states in 1861-65 was the conflict over the issue of slavery, with the northern states wanting to abolish slavery and the southern states wanting to retain it.
3. When did the African Americans win the battle of civil liberties?
Answer: The African Americans won the battle for civil liberties in the twentieth century.
Objective type questions
1._____ views made the native ‘uncivilised’.
Answer: (a) Jefferson’s
2. When did Britain grant self-government to Australian colonies?
Answer: (a) 1850
3. The word America was derived from the _____.
Answer: (a) Name of Amerigo Vespucci
Extra/additional questions and answers
1. When did the process of colonization of North America by Europeans begin?
Answer: The process of colonization of North America by Europeans began early in the 17th century.
2. What two countries in the South Pacific did a smaller number of immigrants settle in during the 19th century?
Answer: During the 19th century, a smaller number of immigrants settled in Australia and New Zealand.
3. What happened to the native people as new settlers arrived?
Answer: As new settlers arrived, many native people were pushed out of their original homes and into other areas.
4. What were European settlements in these countries called?
Answer: European settlements in these countries were called “colonies.”
5. Give examples of towns and rivers in the USA, Canada, and Australia that have names derived from native names.
- USA: Ohio, Mississippi, Seattle
- Canada: Saskatchewan
- Australia: Wollongong, Parramatta
134. What were the two important decisions taken by the Australian and New Zealand governments in response to agitations around the issues of native land rights and forcibly separated children?
- To recognize that the natives had strong historic bonds with the land, which was “sacred” to them and should be respected.
- To offer a public apology for the injustice done to the children in an attempt to keep white and colored people apart, while acknowledging that past acts could not be undone.
135. What did Australian Prime Minister Kevin Michael Rudd do in February 2008?
Answer: In February 2008, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Michael Rudd apologized to the Aboriginal people of Australia for the atrocities committed on them in the past, speaking in Parliament. He admitted the wrongdoings of past governments and promised that all people, whether aboriginals or others, would be given equal opportunities to make progress in the future.
1. In which century did the colonization of North America by Europeans begin?
A. 15th century B. 16th century C. 17th century D. 18th century
Answer: C. 17th century
2. Which ocean did immigrants cross to reach Australia and New Zealand in the 19th century?
A. Atlantic Ocean B. Pacific Ocean C. Indian Ocean D. Arctic Ocean
Answer: C. Indian Ocean
3. What was the term used to describe European settlements in countries like North America and Australia?
A. Territories B. Provinces C. Colonies D. Districts
Answer: C. Colonies
4. Which river in the USA has a name derived from native names?
A. Colorado B. Hudson C. Mississippi D. Missouri
Answer: C. Mississippi
5. Which of the following countries did not establish colonies in the Americas, Africa, and Asia after the 17th century?
A. France B. Holland C. England D. Spain
Answer: D. Spain
6. Which European power colonized Ireland?
A. France B. Holland C. England D. Portugal
Answer: C. England
180. Which term refers to the brown complexioned people whose land Columbus mistook for India?
A. Aboriginals B. Native Americans C. American Indian D. Red Indians
Answer: D. Red Indians
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